Mould containing alloy and procedures for their fabrication and implementation

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: mould contains particles of at least one alloy. Also particles of alloy correspond to titanium dioxide and binding material connecting particles of alloy in the mould. Notably, binding material contains organic polymer. Binding material changes its form and releases particles of alloy at heating the mould to specified temperature above 260°C. The mould includes approximately at least 18 % of organic polymer weight. The said moulds completely and uniformly are distributed in melt, which facilitates maintaining carbon contents in melt below allowed maximum, preferably below 0.04 wt % due to contents of from 18 wt % of organic polymer in the moulds, for example copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate or polyethylene of low density. Uniform distribution of alloying additives is achieved, for example by usage of moulds of dimension similar to dimension of other source materials added to melt.

EFFECT: uniform distribution of alloying additives.

44 cl, 5 dwg

 

DESCRIPTION

Prior art

The technical field

This invention relates to products containing the ligature, and to specific methods of making and using such products. More specifically, this invention relates to molded articles comprising a ligature, which is used for the introduction of alloying elements in the molten metal, and to specific methods of manufacture and use of such molded products.

Description of the prior art,

In the manufacture of stainless steel, titanium and other alloys raw materials, often including the scrap is heated at a high temperature to obtain a melt having the desired basic chemical composition. In many cases, one or more ligatures add to source raw materials or to the melt to regulate appropriately the basic chemical composition of the melt before solidification with the formation of the ingot, billet, powder or any other forms. As is known in the art, the ligature is an alloy enriched in one or more desirable alloying additives and introduced into the molten metal to increase the percentage of the desired component in the melt. ASM Metals Handbook, Desk Edition (ASM Intern. 1998), p. 38.

Since ale is ntny composition ligatures known, theoretically it is easy to determine the number of ligatures should be added to achieve the desired chemical composition of the melt. However, if the number of added ligatures will be fully and evenly distributed in the melt. For example, if the actual amount of added ligatures, which melts and evenly combined with the melt, less added her number, the basic chemical composition of the melt may not correspond to the desired chemical composition. Accordingly, attempts are being made to develop forms of ligatures, which will easily melt and without difficulty evenly to connect with molten metal.

One example of a specific area in which there is some complexity is the introduction of certain alloying elements in the melt titanium. For example, it is difficult to fuse titanium with oxygen. Usually as a raw material, enriched in titanium, in the manufacture of molten titanium alloys using titanium sponge or swage. The usual way to increase the oxygen content in the melt titanium alloy includes pressing of titanium sponge with powdered alloys based on titanium dioxide (TiO2). Once the ligature on the basis of titanium dioxide is dissolved, it is about EDINENIE with the melt, this increases the oxygen content in the molten material and increases the oxygen content in the solid material formed from the melt. A method comprising molding the sponge and powder of titanium dioxide, has several drawbacks. For example, costly, using and extrusion materials. In addition, the preparation of molded sponge with powder of titanium dioxide requires a considerable expenditure of time before melting and solidification/casting.

Known alternative way to add oxygen to the melt titanium is the simple mixing of a quantity of loose ligatures on the basis of powder of titanium dioxide from a source of raw materials in the form of titanium sponge and/or crimping in the melting vessel prior to heating of these materials. In this method, powder of titanium dioxide in a relatively small amount covers the surface of the sponge and/or crimping. If powder of titanium dioxide is added in relatively large quantities, it won't completely stick to the source material and will be separated from these materials. This "free" powder of titanium dioxide tends to remove air flows. A considerable part of the unconsolidated powder of titanium dioxide collected in the melting tank can unevenly distribution is determined in the melt. Accordingly, a possible consequence of using this conventional method of adding titanium dioxide to regulate the chemical composition of the melt titanium alloy is unstable and unpredictable loss of titanium dioxide. The end result may be the product of a titanium alloy, which does not have the expected chemical composition.

Under the above circumstances, manufacturers of titanium alloys commonly used method of alloying with the addition of unconsolidated powder of titanium dioxide in the cases of titanium alloys with the addition of a small amount of oxygen. However, even in such cases, the final oxygen levels is to some extent unpredictable. If desired a higher oxygen levels than those that can be easily achieved by adding unconsolidated powder of titanium dioxide, that are often used method of pressing of titanium sponge/powder titanium dioxide having the above-mentioned disadvantages consisting in increased process time and increased costs.

The above mentioned shortcomings of conventional methods of adding oxygen as an alloying agent to the molten titanium would be eliminated by the provision of improved methods of doping. More generally, you must provide a street is chenny method for the manufacture of various alloying additives for a wide range of molten metals.

The invention

To provide the above advantages in accordance with one feature of the present invention proposed a molded product for introduction of alloying elements in the molten metal. This molded product includes particles ligatures at least one type of binder material binding the particles of ligatures in a molded product. Binder material changes and releases particles ligatures by heating the molded product to a predetermined temperature. Preferably, the desired temperature is a temperature above 500°F.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, a method of manufacturing is used for alloying of molten metal. This method involves the preparation of essentially homogeneous mixture containing particles of ligatures and a binder material. The product form at least part of such a mixture. Product includes particles ligatures associated in this molded product of the binder material. Binder material changes the shape and releases particles ligatures by heating the product to a predetermined temperature. Preferably, the preset temperature is above 500°F.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, a method for manufacturing alloy. This method includes the preparation of the melt, containing the specified number of ligatures. The ligature is added to the melt, or the source materials for the melt in the form of particles ligatures, mutually connected by at least one molded article binder material, decaying at a given temperature, which is above 500°F and releases particles ligatures. According to certain non-limiting variant of the method the stage of preparation of the melt includes the provision of mainly homogeneous mixture that contains many of these molded products and other components of the melt, and heating at least part of this homogeneous mixture to a temperature above the set temperature.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, a method for regulating the composition of the molten metal. This method is included in the melt a given amount of material containing a ligature, which is in the form of at least one molded articles containing particles ligatures, mutually connected at least one organic polymer. Ligature contains at least one component of titanium, titanium compounds, Nickel, Nickel compounds, molybdenum compounds, molybdenum, palladium, palladium compounds, aluminum, aluminum compounds, vanadium compounds vanadium, olo is a, compounds of tin, chromium, chromium compounds, iron, iron oxide and iron compounds.

The specialist will properly assess the above, as well as other details and advantages in consideration of the following detailed description of a particular non-limiting of embodiments of the methods and products of this invention. The specialist can also understand certain additional advantages and details when making or using the above methods, products and parts.

Brief description of drawings

Features and advantages of the described methods and products are explained with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Figure 1(a)-1(f) are non-limiting examples of various forms of molded products that can be manufactured in accordance with this invention.

Figure 2 is a photograph of a conventional Assembly in the form of ingots of materials from titanium scrap, used for the formation of a melt of titanium alloy.

Figure 3 is a photograph of a product in the form of granules comprising titanium dioxide and a binder based on a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, which can be used in certain non-limiting embodiments of the method in accordance with this invention.

Figure 4 is a photograph of the extruded cilindri is a mini molded, comprising titanium dioxide and a binder on the basis of low density polyethylene (LDPE), which is made in accordance with this invention.

Figure 5 is a schematic view of the cross-section of a variant of implementation of the extruded cylindrical molded product in accordance with this invention.

The specific description is not limiting of embodiments

Excluding examples of implementation or where otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of components, processing conditions, etc. that are used in this description and the claims, should be understood as a value that can be modified in all instances by the term "about". In line with this, if not stated otherwise, any numerical parameters set forth in the following description and appended claims, are approximate and may vary depending on the desired properties that are required for molded articles according to this invention. At least, not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents in respect of the scope of the claims, each numerical parameter should be construed based on the number of reported significant digits and using conventional methods of rounding.

Despite the fact that the intervals of the numeric testing the response and the parameters, sets forth the General scope of this invention are approximations, the numerical values set forth in any concrete examples of this specification, specify as accurately as possible. Any numerical values, however, inherently contain certain errors, such as, for example, operator errors and/or failures of equipment, indispensable way resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective experimental measurements. In addition, it should be understood that any interval of numerical values specified here include interval limits and all related subintervals. For example, the interval from 1 to 10" is intended to include all subintervals between (and including) the specified minimum value is 1 and the maximum value of 10, i.e. having a minimum value equal to or greater than 1, and the maximum value is equal to or less than 10.

Any patent, publication or other disclosure material, in whole or in part, which says that they are combined here by reference, merged here only to the extent that the incorporated material does not conflict with existing definitions, statements, or other disclosure material set forth in this disclosure of the invention. Essentially Yves within the necessary disclosure of this invention, as set forth herein, supersedes any conflicting material incorporated by reference. Any material or part thereof, which says that it is included by reference, but which conflicts with existing definitions, statements, or other disclosure material set forth in this disclosure of the invention should be considered only to the extent that there are no discrepancies between the data included material and existing material disclosure of an invention.

Specific non-limiting embodiments of in accordance with this invention is directed to molded articles containing a number of ligatures in the form of particles connected in a molded product of the binder material. As indicated, the term "molded article" refers to the product, which is manufactured by a process involving the application of mechanical effort. Non-limiting examples of such methods include casting, extrusion and extrusion. In certain embodiments of the implementation of the molded articles in accordance with this invention can be added to the raw materials used to prepare the molten metal. In certain other embodiments, the implementation of the molded product can be added to the molten material is ialu in the form of available melt metal. Certain embodiments of molded articles according to this invention can be used in any of these ways. As indicated, the expression "melt" refers to the molten metal and, optionally, metal and non-metallic alloying elements, which then utverjdayut with the formation of the alloy. Without intent to limit the application of the developments described here for the preparation of any specific possible alloys alloys that can be produced using components of the molten metal, which includes one or more molded products in accordance with this invention include titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, aluminum alloys and stainless steel. Whereas this invention, the average specialists in the art can easily determine other alloys that can be produced from melts of metals obtained from components comprising one or more molded articles according to this invention.

Molded product of the present invention include at least one desirable alloying additive in the concentration and/or quantity, quantifiable, and one or more molded products can be added to raw materials to form a melt of metal, is do to the molten metal, in order to adjust the composition of the melt and to obtain the solidified product or material formed from such a melt with the desired chemical composition. As described molded product containing a binder material having the properties described above, embodiments of molded products can be made by providing the best shape, density and/or size. For example, a molded product can be manufactured so that they have a normal size and shape selected so that the data items will be evenly mixed with the other materials from which to form a melt, and will not be unacceptable tendency to separate from the mixture formed or to segregation within it.

As indicated above, embodiments of molded articles according to this invention include a number of ligatures in the form of particles. Particles ligatures can have any size and shape, which is suitable as an alloying agent for a specific melt the metal of interest. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of, for example, the ligature in the form of particles will be in the form of a powder formed of discrete particles ligatures with size in the range of, for example, from submicron size to about 20 mm

In one of the typical non-limiting embodiments of the molded articles in accordance with this invention, the ligature is a powder palladium sponge with a particle size diameter in the range from about 1 μm to about 20 mm, Preferably a diameter of such particles of alloys of palladium does not exceed about 5 mm and more preferably does not exceed about 0.1 mm Molded articles in accordance with this invention, including alloys of palladium in the form of particles with specified dimensions are used, for example, in molten titanium alloys. Since the melting point of palladium is relatively low compared with titanium, palladium metal quickly melted in the melt titanium, and does not create any problems associated with the fact that alloys of palladium will remain unmelted. Other metal alloys having a melting temperature near or above the melting temperature of the dominant metal of the melt, preferably are particles with a relatively small size to facilitate the complete melting. Particularly preferred particle size such other alloys to ensure complete melting is the size of about 1 μm or less.

In another non-limiting embodiment, the molded articles in accordance with this invention, the ligature is a titanium dioxide in the form of particles or the like of the oxide compound, and then with the learn the particles preferably are less than about 100 microns in diameter, more preferably less than 1 micron in diameter. Such molded articles can be used, for example, in molten titanium alloys to add oxygen to the molten material and the resulting solid alloy. The relatively small size of the particles of titanium dioxide in such molded products better ensures complete dissolution in the melt. Incomplete dissolution leads to a low degree of alloying and, more importantly, to the formation of undesirable defective particles (inclusions) in the final cured product.

Other possible sizes and shapes of ligatures in the form of particles include ligatures in the form of a fraction. As used here, the term "fraction" refers to particles that are essentially spherical and have a diameter in the range from about 0.5 mm up to about 5 mm. Some other possible forms of ligatures in the form of particles that are applicable in the moulded articles according to this invention can have a size of "crimping", which refers to a wide range of materials in the form of scrap, including crumpled and twisted sheets, fasteners, pieces from Stripping at various production processes to the manufacture of intermediate products, defective products and any original materials in this range of sizes, all of which have a maximum size on one the mu any direction in the range from about 1 mm up to about 100 mm. Accordingly, there may be partial overlap in size between what is considered "fraction"and what is considered "swage". The above sizes and shapes of particles ligatures should not be construed as limitations of the disclosed material here, and the ligature in the form of particles may have any particle size, regardless, is it less than or more than these specific dimensions, which provides the ligature in molded products satisfactorily dissolved in the melt and unite with the formation of the final alloy. Accordingly, the reference of the ligature in the form of particles" or "particles" ligature does not imply any particle size or range of sizes of particles or any specific form. Instead, the reference to the expression "particle", "particle" or the like, merely indicates that a large number of pieces of the specific ligature mutually connected in a molded product of the binder material. In addition, as is evident when considering the present invention, forms, ligatures, applicable in these molded products are not limited to the specific forms shown. Other possible forms of ligatures, which can be used in molded products according to this invention, will be apparent to the average specialist in the Anna techniques when taking into consideration the present invention, and all such forms of ligatures covered by the attached claims.

Chemical compositions of one or more ligatures, which can be included in the molded product in accordance with this invention, can be any desired and suitable chemical compositions of the alloys. For example, as described below, in one non-limiting options for the implementation of molded articles in accordance with this invention, the ligature is a titanium dioxide in the form of particles, which is a ligature used previously, for example, to add oxygen into the molten titanium alloys. Undoubtedly, medium, specialists in the art will be able to select one or more specific chemical compositions of alloys on the basis of the desired effect of alloying in conjunction with the particular molten metal to be cooking. So there is no need in bringing an exhaustive description of possible materials ligatures in the form of particles that are applicable for the formation of melts specific alloys. A partial list of examples of ligatures that are applicable in the form of particles, which can be used in molded products described in this invention, includes: ligatures on the basis of palladium used in the manufacture of, for example, titanium alloys according to ASTM B 348, such as alloys Titus is on the following classes according to ASTM: 7 (Ti-0,15Pd), 11 (Ti-0,15Pd), 16 (Ti-0,05Pd), 17 (Ti - 0,15Pd), 18 (Ti-3Al-2,5V-0,05Pd), 20 (Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr-0,05Pd), 24 (Ti-6Al-4V-0,05Pd) and 25 (Ti-6Al-4V-0,5Ni-0,05Pd); ligatures on the basis of palladium compounds; alloys on the basis of Nickel and molybdenum (used in the manufacture of, for example, titanium grade 12 according to ASTM (Ti-0,3Mo-0,8Ni); alloys based on aluminum and aluminum compounds; alloys based on vanadium and vanadium compounds; alloys based on tin and tin compounds; alloys based on chromium and compounds of chromium; and alloys based on iron, iron oxide (used in the manufacture of, for example, titanium CP, including classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 according to ASTM), and other compounds of iron.

Binder materials which can be used in molded products according to this invention, can be any suitable single material or combination of materials that will easily be mixed with one or more ligatures in the form of particles and thus to bind the particles with the formation of the desired molded product. The particular binder material or materials should be of such nature that they will collapse under appropriate conditions; this means that when the operating conditions of the melting equipment, one or more binder materials to form volatile components, which can either be absorbed by the molten material, or be derived from melting equipment Vacu the me system. Considering the fact that this invention is directed to the alloying of the molten metal, the selected binder material or materials must decompose and release the bound particles ligatures, when the molded product is exposed to high temperatures. Preferably such a high temperature above 500°F.

As an example, during the preparation of molten titanium alloys using conventional equipment for electron beam melting high operating temperatures (about 1670°C for titanium) and very low pressure (about 1×10-3mm Hg) sufficient to provide the evaporation of many binders that are anticipated for use in embodiments of implementation of the molded products in accordance with this invention. When exposed to these conditions, these binder materials melt and then vaporize or evaporate directly from the solid state, forming gaseous components, which can be dissolved in molten titanium. When a binder is decomposed thus, the bound particles ligatures are exempt and can be easily absorbed by the melt.

Binder materials must also meet certain requirements. The following describes only a limited number of examples of possible binders, sleduet to understand the average specialists in the art will easily be able to find additional suitable binder materials. Such additional binders, although not shown specifically, included in the scope of this invention and covered by the attached claims.

One of the classes of binders that can be used in molded products are organic polymers. Depending on the particular molten metal to be cooking, non-limiting examples of suitable binder materials based on organic polymers include a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), urea-formaldehyde polymer of formaldehyde and other compounds. In a General sense suitable binder materials include any organic hydrocarbon polymer, or a combination of organic hydrocarbon polymers which can be properly formed with the formation of self-sustaining profile and meet other requirements for binding materials specified hereinafter. Applicable organic hydrocarbon polymers include, for example, various thermotherapies and thermoplastic hydrocarbon polymers, are generally available and used is presented in the manufacture of plastics. The mixture thermoeconomics and thermoplastic hydrocarbon polymers can also be used as binders. Thermotherapies and thermoplastic materials or mixtures thereof must be able to combine the ligature in the form of particles and must also meet certain other requirements described. Preferably termotehnica or thermoplastic binder material or mixture that is used for the manufacture of molded articles according to this invention, have a high capacity for molding and extrusion, as well as a sufficiently low surface tension and low viscosity for the formation of a coating layer on the particles ligatures. The polymers having a high capacity for wetting and the formation of a coating layer, preferred because of better covered particles ligatures provide higher is the percentage of particles combined in a molded product. Incompletely coated particles ligatures can lead to excessive wear of the molding equipment and insufficient structural integrity of the final molded products. Must also have the ability to complete and uniform mixing thermoautotrophica and/or thermoplastic binder material with particles of ligatures. Any used termotehnica swazey the second material preferably should also have a high capacity for hardening and curing, to produce molded products of satisfactory strength to maintain integrity during handling.

Organic polymer or other binder material can be used in any form suitable for mixing with a ligature in the form of particles. LDPE and HDPE, for example, as well as numerous other organic polymers that are available in the form of solid granules, which can be easily mixed in a ligature in the form of particles. Preferably used concrete binder or combination of binders receive in forms that can be easily, completely and evenly mixed with the ligature in the form of particles, so that such binder material to effectively combine particles ligatures during processing of the mixture.

Many organic polymers, which by definition include a significant amount of carbon is well suited for use as binders for molding in accordance with the present invention, including, for example, molded products are applicable for the preparation of melts of alloys based on titanium. May be allowed adding some carbon to the melt titanium, and it is, up to a certain level of concentration, will be advantageous way to increase the strength of the resulting titanium is about alloy. You can easily determine the elemental composition of the binder material used in the concrete molded product made in accordance with this invention, and thereby to determine whether you can be admitted this binder material and its elemental composition, or, it may be advantageous under certain levels you add, its decomposition and absorption by the melt.

In addition to the corresponding decomposition at the temperature of the melt binder materials applicable in various molded articles according to this invention preferably do not emit gases when loaded into the delivery system and transportation in the area close to the bath of liquid metal, or, in other circumstances, before loading in the area close to the bath of liquid metal. In the specific case in which raw materials for the formation of melt melt equipment for electron beam melting, a molded product according to this invention must decompose and allocate gas (evaporate) when exposed to the electron beam to dissolve in the melt, however, the product preferably does not emit gases into the vacuum environment of the electron beam equipment when the ambient temperature (such as 10-120°F).

Another necessary characteristic of the organic polymer or other binder material it is, that he should not prematurely lose structural integrity or to decompose and thereby relieve particles ligatures necessary early time at which components ligatures molded products are properly absorbed by the melt. Organic polymer or other binder material preferably provides the manufacture of molded articles, which is sufficiently stable in circulation, shock and other efforts, so that the molded product is not falling to an unacceptable degree during handling and does not form fine particles or other relatively small pieces that could be lost or easily delaminate in a mixture of raw materials melt.

In addition, the chemical composition of the organic polymer or other binder material may not be enabled elements in concentrations that cannot be admitted in a particular molten metal and the resulting foundry alloy. For example, in the preparation of certain alloys based on titanium binder material should not have unacceptable levels of silicon, chlorine, magnesium, boron, fluorine, or other items that would be undesirable in the melt and the resulting foundry alloy. Undoubtedly, medium, specialists in the art can easily predelamirodnoy specific binder or combination of binders through testing, knowledge of the composition of the binder material and the desired resultant alloy, awareness of the incompatibility of certain elements in a desirable alloy and other media.

As indicated, the binder materials based on organic polymer necessarily have a significant amount of carbon. The concentration of carbon should be taken into account when choosing a suitable binder, although it should also be taken into account and the concentration of the binder in the molded products. In the manufacture of titanium alloys and using binders based organic polymer, preferably the maximum concentration of carbon in the binder is, for example, about 50 wt.%. Depending on the concentration of the binder in the molded products of the concentration of carbon binder material is more than 50 wt.% can result in the addition of excess carbon to the melt of titanium alloy, since most of the technical specifications for titanium alloys limit the carbon content is not more than 0.04 wt.%. Adding molded products made in accordance with this invention and including a ligature in the form of particles of titanium dioxide and certain binder materials based on organic polymer with high carbon content, can increase the content of the carbon in the melt to an acceptable maximum without adding a significant amount of oxygen in the melt.

Nitrogen is another element that may be present in the binder material, applicable in the moulded articles according to this invention. Adding nitrogen can improve the properties of some alloys. For example, nitrogen increases the strength of titanium is approximately 2.5 times more effectively than oxygen per mass. Accordingly, for example, it is possible to manufacture molded articles in accordance with this invention, includes one or more nitrogen-containing binder materials as a means of adding nitrogen as an alloying agent to the melt of titanium and increase the strength titanium alloy. One or more nitrogen-containing binders may include, for example, up to 50 wt.% nitrogen or more. The concentration of the oxygen-containing alloys in the form of particles in such a molded product can be reduced, since the nitrogen-containing binder material also improves the strength of the resulting titanium alloy. This provides a specific degree of hardening of titanium alloy using a smaller amount of oxygen-containing ligatures than it would without nitrogen-containing binder material. Of course, it may also be desirable to add nitrogen to the molten alloy, other than titanium alloy, or for reasons other than hardening. To ensure reimels relatively small number of nitrogen-containing alloys. The use of nitrogen-containing binder in the molded products produced in accordance with this invention, directed to meet these needs.

Possible nitrogen-containing binder materials applicable to molded articles in accordance with this invention include urea-formaldehyde polymer, or other suitable nitrogen-containing organic hydrocarbon material which can be shaped to give the desired profile and connects the ligature in the form of particles, including nitrogen-containing thermotherapies and thermoplastic materials.

A suitable concentration range of the binder in the molded articles in accordance with this invention will depend on many factors, including those discussed above. The limiting factor for the minimum concentration of the binder material is the ability of a given concentration of the selected binder material to bind the ligature in the form of particles with the formation of molded articles having a desired shape, size and/or density at a suitable strength so that the molded articles can be accessed without unacceptable damage. Accordingly, along with the fact that the maximum concentration of binder material can be determined by chemical status the PTO, mechanical constraints may determine the minimum concentration of a binder material. For example, in the manufacture of molded articles of a particular type in accordance with this invention, includes a separate ligature on the basis of titanium dioxide in the form of particles and binder materials on the basis of LDPE was found that the use of less than about 18 wt.% LDPE causes the ligature in products not bound completely, and some of the ligature remains in the products in the form of unbound powder. In addition, the mixing of ligatures and a binder material in relatively low concentrations, can damage the standard equipment for mixing and molding of polymers. Nevertheless, sometimes from chemical considerations, such as reducing the carbon content of the molded products, it may be necessary to use a lower, although still acceptable in mechanical relation to the concentration of binder in the molded products.

Molded product according to this invention can be made of one or more ligatures in the form of particles and one or more suitable binders on the basis of the organic polymer in a variety of ways of forming products from polymeric materials used in industry for bulk molding plastic products p is escolania and casting and well-known medium-sized specialists in this field of technology. According to certain non-limiting variant of the method according to this invention, for example, one or more ligatures in the form of particles is mixed with one or more binders on the basis of the organic polymer for the formation of a largely homogeneous mixture. At least part of the homogeneous mixture is then treated with the formation of one-piece molded product with a desired shape, size and density. For combining and mixing the components to form a largely homogeneous mixture, may be used any suitable means. For example, a binder based on a thermoplastic polymer can be fully and evenly mixed with a ligature in the form of particles with simple mixers, high speed mixers, single-screw or twin-screw extruders, Buss mixers, extruders with the planetary rollers or high-speed mixers. Binder based thermoautotrophica polymer can be fully and evenly mixed with a ligature in the form of particles using, for example, a simple mixers, high speed mixers or high-speed mixers. Education is essentially a homogeneous mixture can be important to ensure that the binder could easily tie a ligature in the form of particles. If, for example, binding of the mother of the l is collected in the grooves during the operation of mixing a binder material and ligatures in the form of particles, then, when the binder softens or melts in the manufacture of molded products, it may not penetrate into the voids between all areas of the particles ligatures. This may cause the area or areas of the particles ligatures are connected loosely or not linked at all with the formation of the molded product, and this may result in the presence of a loose ligature in the form of particles or to produce molded parts with low mechanical strength, which may not be acceptable to withstand the stress of handling.

For the manufacture of molded articles from a mixture of ligatures and a binder material may be used any suitable process or technology. For example, in the case where the binder material is an organic polymer that is added to the mixture in the form of a solid granular material, the mixture ligature in the form of particles and a binder or its part can be heated to a softening or melting point of the organic polymer, and then the heated mixture is mechanically formed by known methods of molding, giving it the desired shape at the desired density. Alternatively, the heating and molding the whole mixture or part thereof may be performed simultaneously. Upon cooling the bonding material in the molded product to a certain temperature the binder hardens and supports in the bound form a ligature in the form of particles. Possible ways of the physical formation of the whole mixture or her part with the formation of the desired products include casting at the melting temperature of the binder material or higher, pressing, extrusion, injection molding, granulation and extrusion in the form of a film. More specific non-limiting examples of possible forming methods include mixing powdered or granulated binder material based on an organic polymer with a ligature in the form of particles and then heating the mixture while it is extruded in the form of a molded product. Alternatively, mix a powder binder(s) material(s) and alloy(s), the mixture is heated with simultaneous extrusion and the extrudate is then again passed through the extrusion equipment for additional mixing of the components of the mixture, and then double-extruded mixture is molded by injection molding, receiving molded articles.

Molded product according to this invention can have any shape and size, which are suitable for adding to the melt of the metal or the mixture of raw materials (i.e. components of the melt) before melting of these materials for the formation of the ingot or other alloy types. For example, a molded product may have a shape selected from the shapes in the form of granules, bar, rod, billets, spark is certain form, star-shaped, branching forms, polyhedron, parabola, cone, cylinder, sphere, ellipsoid, curved C-shaped form with the radial protrusions of the sheet and a rectangular shape. Preferably, the selected shape is such that the molded articles will be freely coupled with raw materials by mixing them and will not separate or delaminate. In a typical case of manufacturing molten titanium alloy, for example, the selected form preferably provides a comparative immobility in relation to the other components after mixing with titanium sponge and/or titanium swage and any other raw materials that can be added to form a melt of metal. Department of molded products from other raw materials melt at any time during the handling of such materials is undesirable. Molded profiles, including several branches, ledges and/or studs and moulded profiles with multiple curvatures or angles may be more desirable because the pieces are formed from a mixture of ligature/binder, usually can not easily pass through raw material melt or to migrate to the upper part of the raw materials. Several forms of molded products which can be considered desirable is, shown in figure 1(a) (curved C-shape); 1(b) (form radial projections); 1(c) (sheet); 1(d) (rods); 1(e) (rectangular shape); and 1(f) (forms in the shape of a bar).

The desired size of the individual molded parts will depend, at least to some extent on the intended use of these products. For example, the size of the original raw materials to be included in the melt, may have some influence on the desired size of the molded products may be useful molded articles about the same size as the original raw material melt, a more reliable guarantee that the components of the melt will be stirred evenly, and molded products do not show the undesirable tendency to separate from the mixture when handling it. Although the molded product can be of any suitable size, in some non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the molded articles in accordance with this invention provided in the form of particles (as opposed to molded products in the form of, for example, long billets and bars)used to prepare the molten titanium alloy and having a diameter less than about 100 mm, more preferably no more than about 3 mm and even more preferably no more than about 1 mm, In another not ogran the powers embodiment, a molded product is provided in the form of a sheet, such products are applicable, for example, molten titanium alloy component, comprising discs of pressed titanium scrap. In this case, the sheets may be, for example, a width of from about 10 to about 1000 mm and a thickness of from about 0.5 to about 10 mm

In connection with the addition of oxygen into the molten titanium, it was observed that, in General, titanium dioxide and a binder on the basis of organic polymer, such as EVA (copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate), LDPE and HDPE can be used for the manufacture of molded articles in accordance with this invention, which has a density close to the density of titanium. This similarity densities may be useful to prevent segregation molded in homogeneous mixtures molded and titanium raw materials, such as titanium sponge, and swage. The original titanium scrap and sponge usually come in range of sizes from the size of the powder to polyhedra about 1500 mm in diameter. Accordingly, molded articles can be made of titanium dioxide and a binder material in accordance with this invention similar size to prevent subsequent segregation molded into a homogeneous mixture is molded and titanium raw materials.

Iron is also normal l is gyousei additive to titanium and some other alloys, such as aluminum alloys. Since both iron and oxygen is usually added to titanium alloy and some other alloys, it seems, the iron oxides may be useful ligatures. The iron oxides are also quite cheap. The merging of oxide of iron and titanium, however, spontaneous way to cause a vigorous exothermic reaction in the form of a thermite reaction (thermite reaction is used in some incendiary explosives). The advantage of manufacturing molded products in accordance with this invention, including the ligature on the basis of iron oxide in the form of particles and a binder, covering particles of iron oxide and connecting them one with the other, is that it can prevent the flow of thermite reaction. Accordingly, custom molded products, comprising a binder material, in accordance with this invention can be used to add ligatures on the basis of iron oxide to titanium in a safe manner when alloying with titanium.

In some methods of cooking melts titanium alloy prepare a large Assembly in the form of ingots of raw material based on titanium scrap, which with a certain step is served in a hot oven. Figure 2 is a photograph of one of these "bars", which preobladayushchie materials in the form of scrap is scrap titanium gears, welded together at various points to form ingots. Such ingots of raw material in the form of scrap can be, for example, approximately 30 inches x 30 inches in cross section and approximately 240 inches in length. These discs are hard to add powder alloys of titanium oxide. For example, placing or filling of powder titanium dioxide directly on the porous discs leads to the fact that the powder is poured from such material and contaminates the preparation area.

In accordance with one non-limiting feature of the present invention can be made long rods or other elongated molded articles containing one or more ligatures in the form of particles and binder material. Such products can be manufactured in such a way as to include the known weight of one or more ligatures in the form of particles per unit length. Such elongated molded articles of a certain length can be included in ingots from titanium scrap, such as the blank shown in figure 2, during their manufacture, so that the disc may include the desired concentration of the alloying materials in relation to the content of titanium in the disc, and an elongated geometry of this product helps in the proper distribution of alloying elements along the length of the disc. In cases, to the GDS requires a relatively high concentration of alloying elements, single-disc may include several segments elongated molded products. In addition, elongated molded product can be produced in several variants, differing in mass ligature on a unit length in order to provide a more precise way of adding alloying elements, depending on the particular alloy to be melted. It is clear that such elongated articles on the basis of ligatures/binder is not limited to use in the manufacture of titanium alloys and can be adapted for use in the manufacture of other alloys and other suitable applications.

In another embodiment, elongated molded products based alloys in the form of particles/binder in accordance with this invention can be made in the form of sheet size (length × width)corresponding to the size of the entire surface of the prepared raw materials or parts. For example, in relation to the billets of titanium raw materials with dimensions 30 × 30 × 240 inches mentioned above and shown in figure 2, a molded product comprising the ligature on the basis of titanium dioxide in the form of particles, can be produced in the form of a sheet with a size of about 30 × 240 × 1/8 inch and placed on the mating surface of size 30 × 240 inch ingots of titanium scrap. One of the of roimushestvo implementation of this option is what a molded product in the form of a sheet increases the mechanical strength of the disc and thereby increases its resistance to damage during handling. Regardless, combine with raw material from scrap elongated molded product in the form of rods or sheets, these molded articles shall be placed on the disc or on the inside of it, so as titanium dioxide and a polymer or other components of the binder material in a molded product melted mostly evenly with the gradual melting of the ingots, for example, by electron-beam guns. In this case, the alloying agent in the molded product will be distributed evenly and in the desired concentration with molten stream, formed by the melting of the ingots. As in the previous example, molded products made in the form of relatively thin sheets can be used for manufacturing other, not titanium, alloys.

Here are a few examples illustrating some features are not limiting of embodiments of some molded within the scope of this invention. It should be understood that the following examples are intended only to illustrate some embodiments of the molded part and are not intended d is I restrict in any way the scope of this invention. It should also be understood that the full scope of the invention covered by the description, to a greater extent determined by the claims appended to this description.

Example 1

To estimate option exercise of the molded products made in accordance with this invention were conducted his research. Melting and casting raw materials were prepared three "plates". The first plate test (plate No. 1) was cast from a melt of 800 g of scraps of sheet titanium grade 2 ASTM mostly have a size of 2 × 2 × 1/8 inch. The second plate test (plate No. 2) was prepared by melting a mixture of 800 g of the same scraps of sheet titanium and 1 g of powder of titanium dioxide in the rutile DuPont Ti-PURE®R-700 with an average particle size of about of 0.26 μm. The third plate test (plate No. 3) was prepared from a melt formed from 800 g of the same scraps of sheet titanium, to which was added 1 g of granules formed from a powder of titanium dioxide that is associated with the granules of the polymer binder based on a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA). Pellets of titanium dioxide/binders EVA presented on Figure 3, which were obtained from the manufacturer of the polymers were essentially spherical with a size of from about 2 to about 10 mm in diameter and on what do to about 70 wt.% titanium dioxide in the form of particles and about 30 wt.% EVA as a binder, connecting particles of titanium dioxide.

Granular material based on titanium dioxide/EVA used in this example, are available for purchase as a white pigment additive used in industry for injection molding of plastics. As known to the applicant, this material is not promoted, not announced to the market and not offered as material for alloying of molten metals. Accordingly, I believe that such material produced for the purpose of alloying of molten metals, is not offered on the market and sale. Different types of granules comprising titanium dioxide and polymer binder, designed to add a white pigment in products made of plastic, available from several major manufacturers of plastics. Some of these granules with white pigment meet the requirements of a binding material, specified herein, and can be used as molded products on the basis of ligatures/binder as described here ways alloying of molten metal. However, the content of titanium dioxide commercially available granules of the polymer with titanium dioxide below the optimal level (usually about 70 wt.% titanium dioxide). In molded products made or used in accordance with this izaberete the receiving and containing a binder material based on an organic polymer, preferably, a higher content of titanium dioxide or other ligatures, because it reduces the concentration of carbon in the molded products. Commercially available pellets on the basis of titanium dioxide/organic polymeric binder have a diameter of approximately 5 mm, which allows them well be mixed, for example, from the source of raw materials for molten metal having approximately the same dimensions. Typical titanium raw materials, however, have a diameter of about 50 mm, so that it is preferable to mould commercially available granules on the basis of titanium dioxide/organic polymer with a diameter of 5 mm to form a larger size for better mixing with the titanium raw material size of 50 mm With manufacturers of commercially available pigment granules on the basis of titanium dioxide/organic polymer can be consulted in terms of their potential to obtain pellets of custom sizes and preferred characteristics for use as molded articles containing the ligature, in the disclosed here are methods of doping.

For preparation of plates was used a conventional melting apparatus for titanium materials. As is known in the art, the melting apparatus is essentially a large welding machine arc CBA is key tungsten inert gas (TIG), in which the weld zone is inert environment. In the area of the weld support gauge pressure gaseous argon and prevent contamination by oxygen and nitrogen from air. The melting apparatus used in this example, capable of melting wafers in the range of from 10 g to 2 kg of an Arc form with the materials to be melted, to form a bath of molten metal. This bath of molten metal then utverjdayut in the plate, which then turned and melted several times to ensure homogeneity across the wafer. Plates are removed through the airlock after cooling.

These materials were controlled during melting wafers # 2 and # 3 to determine how well the titanium dioxide dissolves in these samples. Plate No. 3 also monitored to assess the allocation of unacceptable quantities of hydrogen gas during the decomposition of the binder. A copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) has units of chemical formula CH2CHOOCCH3with a molecular mass of 86. Such organic polymeric material contains about 56 wt.% carbon, 26 wt.% oxygen and 7 wt.% of hydrogen. During its decomposition at high temperatures used to melt the raw materials, the liberated oxygen is dissolved in the melt, while relatively small the amount of released hydrogen is mainly excreted in the atmosphere above the melt. The carbon released during the decomposition of the binder dissolves in the melt and legeret titanium, increasing its strength.

To prevent dissolution of excess carbon in the melt during the alloying of titanium with the use of the molded product on the basis of titanium dioxide/organic polymer in accordance with this invention, preferred is the choice of such a molded product that includes enough oxygen for the desired alloying of titanium without the simultaneous introduction into the melt of carbon in too high concentrations. Accordingly, although this example was used a ligature on the basis of titanium dioxide/binder of an organic polymer comprising 30 wt.% EVA, can also be used an alternative binder materials, if it allows the permissible limit of adding carbon in the alloy. Such alternative materials may include, for example, a wax, a binder based polymer with a lower molecular weight and/or middleware-based organic polymer with a lower carbon content compared to EVA.

During melting of materials for the manufacture of plate No. 3 was not observed floating on the surface of the melt granules of titanium dioxide/binder or powder of titanium dioxide included in the granules. This observation is in is about the degree of proof the particles of titanium dioxide included in the pellets were fully absorbed in the melt. Organic polymer granules, as was observed, was black and melted during the melting, when the binder is decomposed. The amount of hydrogen gas that is allocated by the decomposition of the binder, were not considered as creating the problem. During cooking plate No. 2 similarly it has been observed that the powder particles of titanium dioxide in the original materials were not floated to the surface of the melt. Of course, the amount of material melted for forming each plate was limited, however, believe that the problems with incomplete consolidation of the powder of titanium dioxide with a melt similar to those that take place in the case of the volume of molten material to a larger value.

In table 1 below presents the measured concentration of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in three plates for testing, and the estimated concentrations of these elements for plates # 2 and # 3. The estimated concentrations were calculated based on the known concentrations of carbon and oxygen in the binder on the basis of EVA and a known concentration of oxygen in the powder of titanium dioxide.

Table 1
Material Carbon
(wt.%)
Oxygen
(wt.%)
Nitrogen
(wt.%)
Plate No. 1(standard Ti)0,0160,1510,008
The actual chemical composition
Plate No. 2
(Ti + powder TiO2)
0,0160,1920,006
The calculated chemical composition
Plate No. 2
0,0160,2010,008
The actual chemical composition
Plate No. 3
(Ti + powder TiO2)
0,0300,1920,006
The calculated chemical composition
Plate No. 3
0,0370,1960,008

In this example, there were used commercially available granules on the basis of 70 wt.% titanium dioxide/EVA, shown in Figure 3. Accordingly, the invention as intended method also includes a method of use as alloying additives in metal melts commercially available Mat is rials, with the composition and structure of the molded products in accordance with this invention. As stated above, I believe that such granulated materials not available on the market and not available for sale as of alloying elements to molten metals, however, are sold, instead, as a pigment additive for plastics production. It is also understood that embodiments of the granules, including granules on the basis of the alloying dioxide in the form of particles/EVA in this example, can be made or obtained otherwise. Such options for implementation may include, for example, different ligatures and/or different binder materials can have different shapes and/or sizes and can be made in a variety of ways. These granules can be produced using, for example, methods of extrusion or injection molding. Other features will be clearly visible to the average specialists in the art upon consideration of the present invention.

Molded products made in the form of granules, in accordance with this invention can be used in a number of ways. For example, the granules can be evenly mixed with the source material to melt before the introduction of the mixture into the furnace. Another possible method involves feeding pellets directly into the furnace simultaneously with the source si is levami materials melt just before the introduction of the combined materials in the furnace for melting. Preferably, the granules have a similar size and/or density of individual pieces of the supplied raw material, to which is added the data granules to improve the mixing of the granules with the original raw material.

Example 2

Molded products in the framework of this invention were produced using a powder of titanium dioxide DuPont Ti-PURE®with a small size distribution of particles with an average particle diameter of 0.26 μm. As a binding material was used LDPE. The content of titanium dioxide was 82 wt.%, that, as it was suggested, provides a fairly good possibility of successful extrusion of a mixture of titanium dioxide/binder with the formation of molded products. In addition, relatively low, 18 wt.%, the binder content was considered favorably in relation to limit the concentration of carbon in the molded products. Powders of titanium dioxide and LDPE mixed evenly in a rotating cylinder for about 4 hours. During mixing, the materials were heated to a temperature above the melting temperature of LDPE to liquid LDPE covers the oxide particles.

Then the heated mixture of titanium dioxide and LDPE were extrudible. Extrusion can be carried out using any suitable extrusion device, such as od is onecopy or twin screw extruder. The heated mixture was extrudible in the form of elongated cylindrical profiles of different length with a diameter of 3 mm or 9 mm Figure 4 is a photograph of a specific core cylindrical extrudates with a diameter of 3 mm made in accordance with this example. Such extrudates can be used in different ways. For example, to add to the original raw materials prepared in the form of crimping, extruded rods must have a considerable length, for example be up to about 100 mm in diameter and up to about 10 m in length. Long extruded material may be cut into pieces of smaller length, for example between about 10 and about 100 mm, and mixed with raw materials. To add to the original raw materials in the form of blanks such as the blank shown in figure 2, the extruded rods must be cut to a length of between about 300 and about 4,000 mm and added to the melt by combining these segments from the source of raw materials in the form of ingots. Although the molded products are shown in Figure 4, have a simple cylindrical shape, it should be understood that the extruded product can be of any size and cross-sectional profile that can be achieved using extrusion-sized extrusion equipment and the data forming heads, suitable for the production of molded products described herein mixtures ligature/binder. Non-limiting examples of forms with alternative cross-section for extrudates include a rectangular shape, a cruciform shape, and other shapes, including those with multiple branches. In addition, while figure 4 presents elongated cylindrical shape, it should be understood that such forms can be cut to shorter lengths or even into small pieces using the proper equipment. Of course, although in this example, for the manufacture of molded shapes were used extrusion equipment can be used and other equipment for molding, such as, for example, punching press machine for injection molding and granulators, and that the final molded product can be manufactured in any suitable form.

Figure 5 is a schematic view of the cross-section of one of the extruded cylindrical molded products manufactured in this example. Molded product 100 includes a circular perimeter 110 surrounding the continuous matrix phase 112 binder material of LDPE and discrete phase particles 114 of titanium dioxide, distributed within the matrix phase. The binder phase 112 connects the particles 114 of titanium dioxide, but Razlog what is and releases particles 114 when exposed to high temperatures, overheating, used to form molten metal. The predominance of the particles 114 of titanium dioxide in the matrix phase is proportional to the concentration of ligatures per unit length of the molded product 100.

Rod molded articles in accordance with this example can be used in various ways, including the following non-limiting examples.

Rod molded product according to this example can be cut into short segments, which can be added to the scrap or other raw material melt in a variety of ways. For example, as described above, the received segments can be substantially evenly mixed with the raw material before applying the combined materials into the furnace. Alternatively, the segments can be served, for example, through a hopper for ligatures to automatically add to the scrap specified in controlled proportions, or the segments can be filed directly into the furnace simultaneously with the supply of the raw material before the combined materials are introduced into the furnace and begin to melt. The length of the segments is preferably chosen in such a way as to ensure the uniformity of the mixture and to prevent separation during handling of the joint materials or pushing. For example, extrudates size of 3 mm or 9 mm of titanium dioxide in the form of h is CI and LDPE as a binder in accordance with this example can be cut into shorter sections, which can be added to the titanium sponge and/or swage and mixed in a mixer with a double cone or other suitable mixing equipment. If the pieces of titanium sponge and/or crimping have a size of, for example, from about 2 to 4 inches, the rod molded product with a diameter of 9 mm can be cut into pieces about 4 inches. Or, if the pieces of titanium sponge and/or crimping have a size of, for example, from about 0.1 inch to 2 inches, the rod molded product having a diameter of 3 mm or 9 mm can be cut into pieces by a length of approximately 0.5 inch. Such non-limiting combinations seem to promote uniform mixing and also prevent separation in the future.

Rod molded articles in accordance with this example can also be cut to a length of several feet and added to the discs, made of massive elements of titanium scrap, such as the blank shown in figure 2. Such segments can be placed along the entire length of the blank or only the necessary sections or areas. For example, extrudates size of 3 mm or 9 mm of titanium dioxide in the form of particles and LDPE as a binder in accordance with this example can be cut to length from 5 to 20 feet and are included in the blank, formed from massive the x elements of titanium scrap and used in the preparation of titanium alloys.

As noted above described here, specific examples of the molded articles should not be construed as limiting the scope of protection defined by the following claims. For example, a molded product can be manufactured in many other forms, not mentioned here specifically.

Although in the above description, the inevitable way presents only a limited number of embodiments of the present invention, the average specialists in the art will undoubtedly take into account that such experts in the art can be made various changes in the components, compositions, parts, materials and process parameters in these examples, which are here described and illustrated to explain the nature of the invention and that all such modifications are within the essence and scope of the invention defined here and in the accompanying claims. Specialists in the art will also take into account that in variants of the implementation described above can be made without deviating from the basic idea of the invention. Therefore, it is clear that this invention is not considered limited private options for implementation, and assumes coverage of all modifications that are within sown the STI and scope of the present invention, as defined by the claims.

1. The moldings for the introduction of alloying elements in the molten metal containing
particles of at least one ligature, while particles ligature is titanium dioxide, and
binder connecting particles ligatures in a molded product, while the binder material contains an organic polymer, and a binder material changes its shape and free of particles ligatures by heating the molded product to a predetermined temperature higher than 260°C, while a molded product includes at least about 18% by weight of organic polymer.

2. Molded product according to claim 1, in which this molded article has at least one specified parameter from the given density, a given shape and a given size.

3. Molded product according to claim 1, in which this molded product has a form selected from the group consisting of granules, bar, rod, bars, curved shape, a star shape, branching forms, polyhedron, a parabolic shape, cone, cylinder, sphere, ellipsoid in shape, with multiple tabs, forms, including multiple curved surfaces, forms, including multiple angles, shapes with radial tabs, sheet and rectangular forms.

4. Molded ed is Leah according to claim 1, in which the molded product has a diameter of no more than about 100 mm

5. Molded product according to claim 1, in which the molded product contains titanium dioxide and has a diameter of not more than about 3 mm.

6. Molded product according to claim 1, in which the molded product contains titanium dioxide and has a diameter of no more than about 1 mm.

7. Molded product according to claim 1, in which the binder material is at least one organic polymer selected from the group consisting of thermoplastic polymers, thermoeconomics polymers, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, polyethylene, low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene, urea-formaldehyde polymer and formaldehyde compounds.

8. Molded product according to claim 1, in which the binder contains at least about 18% to about 60% by weight of organic polymer.

9. Molded product according to claim 1, in which the molded product has a known carbon content.

10. A method of manufacturing a molded product for alloying of molten metal containing
training mainly homogeneous mixture containing particles of titanium dioxide and binder, this binder contains at least one organic polymer, and
the molding of at least part of this mixture, when the fact this product contains at least 18% by weight of organic polymer.

11. The method according to claim 10, in which the heating of the mixture at least once before and/or simultaneously with the molding of at least part of the mixture.

12. The method according to claim 10, in which the organic polymer is termooinamica polymer, and in which the molded product contains the curing of the polymer.

13. The method according to claim 10, in which the specified product is selected from the group consisting of granules, bar, rod, bars, curved shape, a star shape, branching forms, polyhedron, a parabolic shape, cone, cylinder, sphere, ellipsoid in shape, with multiple tabs, forms, including multiple curved surfaces, forms, including multiple angles, shapes with radial tabs, sheet and rectangular forms.

14. The method according to claim 10, in which the molded product has at least one specified parameter from the given density, a given shape and a given size.

15. The method according to claim 10, in which the molded product has a diameter of no more than about 100 mm

16. The method according to claim 10, in which the molded product contains titanium dioxide and has a diameter of not more than about 3 mm.

17. The method according to claim 10, in which the molded product contains titanium dioxide and has a diameter of no more than about 1 mm.

18. The method according to claim 10, in which the organic polim the R is at least one material selected from the group consisting of thermoplastic polymers, thermoeconomics polymers, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, polyethylene, low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene, urea-formaldehyde polymer and formaldehyde compounds.

19. The method according to claim 10, in which a molded product includes at least about 18% to about 60% by weight of organic polymer.

20. The method according to claim 10, in which the molded product has a known concentration of carbon.

21. The method according to claim 10, in which the molding of at least part of the above-mentioned mixture contains at least one method selected from the group consisting of casting, molding, extrusion, injection molding, pelletizing and extrusion in the form of a film.

22. A method of manufacturing doped alloy comprising preparing a largely homogeneous mixture containing raw material and a variety of molded products, with moulded products contain a specified number of ligatures selected from the group consisting of titanium, titanium compounds, Nickel, Nickel compounds, molybdenum compounds, molybdenum, palladium, palladium compounds, aluminum, aluminum compounds, vanadium compounds vanadium, tin, tin compounds, chromium, chromium compounds, iron, iron oxide and iron compounds is their mixtures, this molded product contain particles ligatures associated with each other binder material, and a binder material decomposes at a predetermined temperature higher than 260°C, and releases particles ligatures, each molded product contains at least 18% by weight of the organic polymer, after training at least part of this homogeneous mixture is provided for heating at least part of this mixture at least to the temperature of release of particles ligatures in the molded product and the formation of the melt.

23. The method according to item 22, in which the cooking is mostly homogeneous mixture includes adding many molded products in a controlled way to the stream at least part of the raw materials before melting at least part of the mostly homogeneous mixture.

24. The method according to item 22, which specified the molded product has at least one specified parameter from the specified size, a given shape and a given density.

25. The method according to item 22, in which the organic polymer decomposes when heated to a predetermined temperature, and releases at least one component of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, which is absorbed by the melt.

26. The method according to item 22, wherein said alloy is a titanium alloy.

27. The method according to the .26, in which these materials contain at least one material of titanium crimping and titanium sponge.

28. The method according to item 22, which specified the molded product has a shape selected from the group consisting of granules, bar, rod, bars, curved shape, a star shape, branching forms, polyhedron, a parabolic shape, cone, cylinder, sphere, ellipsoid in shape, with multiple tabs, forms, including multiple curved surfaces, forms, including multiple angles, shapes with radial tabs, sheet and rectangular forms.

29. The method according to item 22, in which the molded products have a diameter of not more than about 100 mm

30. The method according to item 22, in which the molded products have a diameter of not more than about 3 mm.

31. The method according to item 22, in which the molded products have a diameter of not more than about 1 mm.

32. The method according to item 22, in which the organic polymer is at least one material selected from the group consisting of thermoplastic polymers, thermoeconomics polymers, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, polyethylene, low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene, urea-formaldehyde polymer and formaldehyde compounds.

33. The method according to item 22, which specified a molded product comprises at least 18% to 60% in mA is CE binder material based on an organic polymer.

34. The method according to item 22, which specified the molded product has a known concentration of carbon.

35. The method of regulating the composition of the molten metal, including input into the melt specified number of ligatures in the form of at least one molded articles containing particles ligatures, connected together by at least one organic polymer, while the molded product contains at least 18% by weight of the organic polymer, and the ligature comprises at least one material selected from the group consisting of titanium, titanium compounds, Nickel, Nickel compounds, molybdenum compounds, molybdenum, palladium, palladium compounds, aluminum, aluminum compounds, vanadium compounds vanadium, tin, tin compounds, chromium, chromium compounds, iron, iron oxide and iron compounds.

36. The method according to p, in which the input to the melt specified number of ligatures involves entering into the melt of many molded products.

37. The method according to p in which the specified molded product has at least one specified parameter from the specified size, a given shape and a given density.

38. The method according to p in which the specified molded product has a shape selected from the group consisting of granules, bar, rod, bars, curved shape, a star shape, rasvet is audace form, polyhedra, parabolic-shaped, cone, cylinder, sphere, ellipsoid in shape, with multiple tabs, forms, including multiple curved surfaces, forms, including multiple angles, shapes with radial tabs, sheet and rectangular forms.

39. The method according to p, in which the molded products have a diameter of not more than about 100 mm

40. The method according to p, in which the molded products have a diameter of not more than about 3 mm.

41. The method according to p, in which the molded products have a diameter of not more than about 1 mm.

42. The method according to p, in which the organic polymer is at least one material selected from the group consisting of thermoplastic polymers, thermoeconomics polymers, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, polyethylene, low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene, urea-formaldehyde polymer and formaldehyde compounds.

43. The method according to p in which the specified molded product comprises at least 18% to 60% by weight of binder based on the organic polymer.

44. The method according to p in which the specified molded product has a known concentration of carbon.



 

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20 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: slag forming mixture includes components containing aluminium oxide Al2O3 in wt % 30÷99. Also, components in its composition are chosen depending on percent contents of Al2O3 at the following ratio in wt %: 5÷35 of Al2O3 >90; 30÷70 AI2O3 from 55 to 90; the rest - Al2O3<55 and has the following fraction composition, wt %: >60 of fractions<1 mm, 10÷20 of fractions 1÷10 mm, the rest - of fractions from 10 to 30 mm. With introduction of pure aluminium into the composition of mixture composition of components does not exceed 5 mm. The briquette out of slag forming mixture contains binding at ratio in wt % 1÷4 and compressed particles including aluminium oxide in wt %: 30÷99 or aluminium oxide Al2O3 and aluminium in wt %: 30÷99 and 1÷20 correspondingly. Notably, components are chosen depending on contents of Al2O3 at the following ratios in wt %: 5÷35 Al2O3>90; 30÷70 Al2O3 from 55 to 90; the rest -Al2O3<55. Particles forming a briquette have the following fraction composition, wt %: >60 of fractions 0÷1 mm; 60>25 of fractions 1÷3 mm; the rest - of fractions 3÷5 mm. Volume of a briquette is 40÷70 cm3, its volume density is 7÷2.0 g/cm3, briquette humidity is within ranges of 1÷5%, while its volume is 40÷70 cm3.

EFFECT: ensuring quality of refined steel and prevention of contact zone of lining and slag from destruction.

12 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: slag forming mixture includes components containing aluminium oxide Al2O3 in wt % 30÷99. Also, components in its composition are chosen depending on percent contents of Al2O3 at the following ratio in wt %: 5÷35 of Al2O3 >90; 30÷70 AI2O3 from 55 to 90; the rest - Al2O3<55 and has the following fraction composition, wt %: >60 of fractions<1 mm, 10÷20 of fractions 1÷10 mm, the rest - of fractions from 10 to 30 mm. With introduction of pure aluminium into the composition of mixture composition of components does not exceed 5 mm. The briquette out of slag forming mixture contains binding at ratio in wt % 1÷4 and compressed particles including aluminium oxide in wt %: 30÷99 or aluminium oxide Al2O3 and aluminium in wt %: 30÷99 and 1÷20 correspondingly. Notably, components are chosen depending on contents of Al2O3 at the following ratios in wt %: 5÷35 Al2O3>90; 30÷70 Al2O3 from 55 to 90; the rest -Al2O3<55. Particles forming a briquette have the following fraction composition, wt %: >60 of fractions 0÷1 mm; 60>25 of fractions 1÷3 mm; the rest - of fractions 3÷5 mm. Volume of a briquette is 40÷70 cm3, its volume density is 7÷2.0 g/cm3, briquette humidity is within ranges of 1÷5%, while its volume is 40÷70 cm3.

EFFECT: ensuring quality of refined steel and prevention of contact zone of lining and slag from destruction.

12 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in forming metal shell mainly of U-shape and in introduction of refining material in powder form into metal shell. There is formed the metal shell for encapsulation of a core out of refining material. Also lengthwise edges of the shell adjoin each other and are welded thus ensuring pressure tightness to prevent penetration of undesirable oxygen or another gas or material inside the shell. The wire is rolled or drawn for decrease of its diametre and to increase ratio of density conditions of refined material in the core to density of theoretical equivalent of a hard core over 95 %. This prevents maintaining oxygen, air or other harmful materials in the shell, also thickness of the shell is over 0.6 mm.

EFFECT: improved method of metal refining due to increased thickness of shell capable to penetrate through solidified surface of slag without damages.

13 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in charging furnace with metal charge corresponding to metal scrap and liquid iron, in melting, in oxidation, in melting steel in batches, in tapping melt leaving slag and part of metal in furnace, in adding solid slag forming mixture, deoxidisers and alloying elements into ladle during tapping and in finishing steel at aggregate ladle-furnace. Metal scrap at amount of 15-35 % of charge weight, composite semi-finished product at amount of 10-40 % and lime at amount of 2.8-4.2 % of charge weight are charged upon melt tapping on slag and on part of metal left in the furnace. Liquid iron with contents of silicon not more, than 0.45 % and phosphorus not over 0.09 % at amount of 25-75 % of charge weight is poured upon metal scrap melting at specific consumption of electric power 130-380 kWT·h/t of summary weight of metal scrap and semi-finished composite product. Oxidation is performed with gaseous oxygen at consumption 80-120 m3/h per ton of metal charge. Lime is added into furnace by portions of 50-200 kg at amount 0.4-1.2% per weight of metal charge upon liquid iron supply; carbon containing dust is blasted at consumption 35-120 kg/min.

EFFECT: upgraded quality of steel, reduced duration of melting, and reduced consumption of lime, electric power and ferroalloys.

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in inclusion of working body in form of jet-vortex mixer into melt and in layer-by-layer arrangement of metered amount of reagents in container of working body. Reagents are arranged in the container in horizontal layers; layers are melted successively starting from external upper and lower ones and ending with an average layer and elements of the container. Reactive jets are formed by means of a reactive propellant in form of two reactors located outside the container. Also reagents are arranged layer-by layer. Magnesium serves as a source of power for reactive jets. The working body is secured on a vertical support reciprocating in a vertical direction; it has a stepped heat screen of reagent layers to ensure supply of heat to layers of reagents and guiding elements for reactive jets.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of reagents due to their improved recovery, upgraded quality of melt owing to more efficient mixing with additives.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in metal arc heating, in melt inert-gas flashing through porous bottom tuyeres and in treatment of metal with slag in furnace-ladle aggregate and in vacuumiser. Metal is arc-heated in the furnace-ladle aggregate to temperature 1585-1610°C and is flashed with combined nitrogen and argon through porous bottom tuyeres. When common amount of introduced nitrogen reaches 0.30 m3/t of liquid steel, flashing is switched to argon. Flashing with argon is carried out at rate 3-30 m3/h; further metal is deoxidised with silica-calcium at consumption rate of 110-150 g of calcium per ton of liquid steel and is vacuumised when steel is flashed in the ladle with nitrogen through porous bottom tuyeres at rate of consumption 4-36 m3/h during 8-65 min under vacuum and at pressure less, than 34 MPa. Steel is subjected to combined flashing with nitrogen at consumption rate 3-50 m3/h to concentration of nitrogen in steel not more, than 25 ppm and successive flushing with argon to temperature 1520-1545°C.

EFFECT: reduced prime cost of melted steel, upgraded physical-mechanical properties of steel due to reduced impurity with non-metallic inclusions, also reduced consumption of nitrated and calcium containing ferroalloys.

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in supply of metal scrap and liquid iron as metal charge into furnace, in melting, in oxidising, in melting steel in batches, in tapping melt and leaving part of metal in furnace, in adding solid slag forming mixture, deoxidisers and alloying agents into ladle during tapping and in heat finishing steel by temperature and chemical composition at ladle-furnace aggregate. Liquid iron with contents of silicon not more, than 0.45% and phosphorus not more, than 0.09% at amount of 25-75% of charge weight is poured on slag and part of metal left in the furnace. Metal scrap at amount of 15-35% of charge weight, composite semi-finished product at amount of 10-40% of charge weight and lime at amount of 3.0-4.3% of charge weight are charged into furnace. During melt and oxidising there are carried out blow with gaseous oxygen at consumption rate 6000-12000 m3/h, addition of lime at amount of 0.4-1.3% of charge weight in portions by 50-200 kg and injection of carbon containing powder at rate of 15-100 kg/min.

EFFECT: upgraded quality of steel, reduced consumption of lime and electric power.

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: procedure for melting rail steel consists in supply of metal scrap and liquid iron as metal charge into electric steel-melting furnace, in melting, in oxidising, in melting steel in batches, in tapping melt and leaving part of metal in furnace, in adding solid slag forming mixture, deoxidisers and alloying agents into ladle during tapping and in heat finishing steel by temperature and chemical composition at ladle-furnace aggregate. Liquid iron with contents of silicon not more, than 0.40% and phosphorus not more, than 0.09% at amount of 35-75% of charge weight is poured on slag and part of metal left in the furnace. Upon iron pouring there is charged metal scrap at amount of 25-65% and lime at amount of 3.0-4.2% of charge weight. During melt and oxidising there are carried out blow with gaseous oxygen at consumption rate 6000-15000 m3/h, addition of lime at amount of 0.4-1.3% of charge weight in portions by 50-200 kg and injection of carbon containing powder at rate of 15-65 kg/min. Concentration of FeO in slag is maintained within the interval 13-28%, while ratio CaO/FeO - within the range 2.6-4.5.

EFFECT: upgraded quality of steel, reduced consumption of lime and electric power.

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in supply of metal scrap and liquid iron as metal charge into furnace, in melting, in oxidising, in melting steel in batches, in tapping melt and leaving part of metal in furnace, in adding solid slag forming mixture, deoxidisers and alloying agents into ladle during tapping and in heat finishing steel at ladle-furnace aggregate. Metal scrap at amount of 25-65% of charge weight and lime at amount of 2.8-4.3% of charge weight are charged on slag and part of metal left in the furnace after tapping. Liquid iron containing silicon not more, than 0.45% and phosphorus not more, than 0.09 % at amount of 35-75% of charge weight is supplied upon scrap melting at specific consumption of electric power 130-380 kWT·h/t of metal scrap. Oxidation is performed with gaseous oxygen at consumption rate 80-150 m3/h per ton of metal charge. Upon supply of liquid iron, lime by portions 50-200 kg at amount 0.4-1.4 % of metal charge weight is added to the furnace. Carbon containing dust is blown in at rate 35-120 kg/min. Also there is maintained FeO=13-30% contents in furnace slag, while ratio of CaO/FeO is maintained within the range 2.5-4.6.

EFFECT: upgraded quality of steel, reduced duration of melting, and reduced consumption of lime, electric power and ferroalloys.

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of metallurgy. The device for treatment of liquid metal contains a rotor (9) and is intended for treatment processing treatment of molten metals in a reactor (20) or any analogous device. A gas and-or solid particles are fed into metal mainly through the shaft (8) of the rotor through made in it holes (18) from cavity (16) of the rotor. The shaft (8) passes upward through the base of the reactor (20) with a capability of rotation inside a pipe (3) of a stator. The pipe passes upward from the base of the reactor. The shaft of the rotor and the pipe (3) of the stator are passing through a hole (21) in the lower part of the rotor (9) into a cavity (16) of the rotor. The shaft (8) is fused with the rotor (9) by a fastening tool (13) inside the cavity (16). The pipe (3) of the stator is ended in the cavity (16). The technical result is an increase of service life of the shaft of the rotor, reduction of price of the device.

EFFECT: the invention allows to increase the service life if the shaft if the rotor, to reduce price of the device.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of metallurgy. The device for treatment of liquid metal contains a rotor (9) and is intended for treatment processing treatment of molten metals in a reactor (20) or any analogous device. A gas and-or solid particles are fed into metal mainly through the shaft (8) of the rotor through made in it holes (18) from cavity (16) of the rotor. The shaft (8) passes upward through the base of the reactor (20) with a capability of rotation inside a pipe (3) of a stator. The pipe passes upward from the base of the reactor. The shaft of the rotor and the pipe (3) of the stator are passing through a hole (21) in the lower part of the rotor (9) into a cavity (16) of the rotor. The shaft (8) is fused with the rotor (9) by a fastening tool (13) inside the cavity (16). The pipe (3) of the stator is ended in the cavity (16). The technical result is an increase of service life of the shaft of the rotor, reduction of price of the device.

EFFECT: the invention allows to increase the service life if the shaft if the rotor, to reduce price of the device.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy, in particular sintered agglomerates.

SUBSTANCE: invention is useful for production of sintered agglomerate containing iron and at least one additional element of group 5 or 6 of the Periodical Table used as alloy for metal melt. Said agglomerates are produced by reducing from oxides, contraction and sintering, and have density of 20-65 vol.%, preferably 30-45 vol.%. Method includes reducing of iron oxide and oxide of at least one element of group 5 or 6 in respective metals. Reduced metals are contracted by briquetting without any binder. Then produced products are sintered.

EFFECT: agglomerates with improved solubility in melts, inexpensive melt treatment, satisfactory stability in storage and transportation.

7 cl, 6 dwg, 7 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: iron metallurgy, in particular steel treatment.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes crushing of burning components and blending with reflux agent (e.g. synthetic calcium fluoride). Oxides of doping elements used as oxidizing components are premixed with melted reflux agent preliminary with lower melting point than the same of steel, at volume ratio preferably 1:1-1:5, respectively, cooled, crushed in form of failing, and introduced to mixture of burning components and reflux agent.

EFFECT: method with improved fire- and explosion safety.

4 cl, 2 ex

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