Method and device for connection of materials

FIELD: instrument making.

SUBSTANCE: main and auxiliary materials are added at speeds of transition process flows or stabilised condition depending on value of control signal. Actual speeds of flows monitor command speeds of flow. Device provides for dynamic control over instant and integral error for specified range of control.

EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities.

16 cl, 10 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to a method and control system for the joining of materials.

The level of technology

In engineering there are many ways to connect liquid materials. Typically, the materials will be connected upstream from the mixing tank. Such materials are then added together in a mixing tank and mixed until then, until a homogeneous mixture is achieved. Further technological operations downstream from the connections pane can include adding more material(s), adding or removing energy such as thermal energy, etc.

Additionally or alternatively, such materials can be mixed in the dynamic mixing tank with mechanical mixing and (or) alternative forms of mixing, such as ultrasonic vibration. United materials or the mixture can then be transported downstream and become an intermediate product for further processing. Alternatively, these materials may be added to the container for final sale or use.

Previous methods and systems have several disadvantages. If you are using such a mixing tank, it may require considerable energy to DOS is ignoti desired mixing. If it is desired to change the composition or even non-core materials, this change usually entails cleaning all tanks and associated systems. Cleaning of the entire system can be time consuming and take a lot of time. Then add new materials, and the process begins again. Can be a considerable loss of time and materials.

Transients from a lack of production or low production speed to full speed production are inevitable when changes occur between different products and the like, it is Normally desirable that such a transition was completed, and the steady-state mode of operation was resumed as soon as possible. The reason is that usually requires the achievement of a steady-state speed of production, as only acceptable in practice. Further, the product is not on the specification, for the duration of the transient process can be lost. If the products were taken with a slower transition process, in this case, likely to be a greater precision in the products produced during the transition process, and fewer product may be damaged when a slower transition process. Thus, in the technique is compromise.

Often the speed with which the system responds to transient% the piss, limited equipment. For example, a flow meter, which is designed to ensure that the actual flow rate at a particular point in time may not follow (or not to indicate a change in flow rate as fast as we would like for the rate of change of the transition process. For example, valves that control the flow and, ultimately, the speed of adding material may not respond as quickly as would be desirable. Further, different sizes of valves, various management tools used in conjunction with valves, and even the valves from different manufacturers can react with various speeds, once adopted control signal. Moreover, the same valve can respond with different speed on different parts of the cycle open/closed.

In this regard, there is a need for a device and method of using such device, which allows you to quickly change the composition of the mixture, just to follow transients to minimize lost materials and quickly to ensure the homogeneity of the mixture. Unless otherwise stated, all times reported here are expressed in seconds, ratio and percents are based on weight. Optionally, the invention can use ratio and percent, based on weight.

The essence of the image is possible

The invention provides a device for joining two or more materials in a predetermined ratio. The joined materials may have different flow rate, which, in addition, can change, while maintaining a given ratio of materials within sufficient hard error range on the basis of either instantaneous error at a given point in time, any cumulative errors in a particular time period.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 is a conventional view of an exemplary system according to the present invention, shown partially in section, and providing eight non-core materials.

Figure 2 represents the instantaneous vertical section, an exemplary system according to the present invention, conventional pumps to supply non-core materials to the field of connection and ring clamp around them.

Figure 3 is a graph showing a curve of performance of an illustrative system according to the prior art for control signal having a stepped entrance.

Figure 4 is a graph showing a curve of the transient response of an exemplary system according to the present invention for a step input in comparison with the idealized theoretical response of the prior art for the same step input.

Figure 5 is sonographic curves of the transient response of the system for 0.2 second linearly increasing input, showing the control signal and some process variables for one primary and two non-core materials.

6 is an enlarged graph of the curve of the transient response of one of the non-core materials 5.

Fig.7 is a graph showing the instantaneous error of the system in figure 4.

Fig is a graph showing the cumulative error of the system in figure 4.

Fig.9 is a conventional diagram of the system control flow rate with feedback according to the prior art.

Figure 10 is a conventional diagram of the system control motor position feedback, applicable with the present invention, showing the optional components by the dotted line.

Detailed description of the invention

Figure 1-2 the invention provides a device 10 and the process for connection, homogenizing or mixing two or more materials. Connection refers to the addition of materials with little or no mixing to achieve homogeneity. Mixing and homogenization are interchangeable connection with the further achievement of a relatively greater degree of uniformity after that.

The resulting combination of materials may be placed in a container (not shown). The container may be inserted into the device is 10 and removed from it. The device 10 contains hardware device 10 to add at least one primary or first material in the container and to add at least one minor or second until the N-th material in the container. The device 10 for adding the base material(s) and non-core material(s) provides for some or all of these materials joint joining region 12 of the connection. Region 12 connections is an area or point where the main material(s) and at least one and probably every non-core material(s) initially are in contact with each other and can be mixed. Mixing the base material(s) and non-core material(s) may occur in the area of 12 compounds downstream from it or there.

Region 12 compounds may contain one or more inlet ports 14A, which can be named as the inlet opening 14A of the base material, to supply one or more basic materials, and at least one inlet opening 14I, each of which can be named as the inlet port 14I non-core material, to supply one or more non-primary materials. Region 12 compounds may further contain at least one common outlet 16 to release the main mother of the La(s) and non-core material(s) from the area 12 of the connection and, not necessarily, directly in the container or, optionally, in the container after further processing. It is clear that after the materials leave the area 12 connection through a common outlet 16 may be filled in a single container or can simultaneously be filled with containers of equal or unequal volumes and flow velocities in them.

The device 10 for supplying the non-core material(s) may contain one inlet pipe 14I or more inlet pipes 14I inserted into the device 10 for supplying the non-core material(s) directly in the region of 12 connections. Each non-core material may be selected inlet pipe 14I, or, alternatively, many non-core materials may be introduced through a single inlet pipe 14I. Of course, if desirable, the same non-core material may be added through more than one inlet pipe 14I, in various combinations of similar or different materials, quantities, flow rates, flow rates, concentrations, temperatures, etc.

The inlet port 14I, for each non-primary materials ends on the inlet flow 18. The inlet air flow 18 may be located in a common plane, as shown. The inlet air flow 18 determines the start of the areas 12 of the connection, as noted above. The inlet air flow 18 is the point where neo is the main material leaves the corresponding inlet hole 14I, and is in the range of 12 connections. The inlet air flow 18 may be placed next to the built-in mixer to mix materials occurred almost immediately in the field 12 of the connection.

Although the illustrated device 10 having eight inlet pipe 14I, each equally spaced from each other, the specialist will understand that this invention is not limited. More or less the intake pipe 14I may be provided and spaced evenly or unevenly distributed on the periphery, radially and / or in the longitudinal direction. In addition, the intake pipe 14I may have equal or unequal cross-sectional area, shape, length, and flow rate through them. Non-core materials can be fed to the intake pipe 14I from one or more public sources or from different sources.

If desirable, the volume of the intake pipe 14I for non-primary materials may be relatively small compared to the total volume of the entire device 10. This relative value provides the advantage that the system can occur less hysteresis due to the small volume of the intake pipe 14I between the pump 20 and the region 12 of the connection.

The device 10 can contain many water-pipes for non-primary materials. Each supply line may pass from the source of at least one of the base material or at mariodragon non-core material to the corresponding inlet flow 18 inside the area 12 of the connection.

The inlet air flow 18 may be located at the distal end of the intake pipe 14I. The volume of each of the inlet pipeline, therefore, is determined by the distance from the corresponding source of the material to the appropriate flow within region 12 of the connection. At least one source for adding at least one basic material implies that the first volume passes from this source material to a common plane, where is the inlet air flow 18. Each filing to add each of these non-core materials implies will calculate our special. Podobyeda are combined to get the second volume. The first volume and the second volume are summed to get the total amount. The second volume may contain less than 20 percent, less than 10%, less than 5 percent or less than 3 percent of the total.

The first material may be introduced into the region 12 connection with the first speed. The second to N-th material can build up in the region 12 of the connection with the second speed, third speed, up to N-th speed for N non-core materials. The second N-I speed can be picked up almost the same as the first speed, or may differ from it and from each other. One or more non-core materials can in General to match or be matched in speed is Otok during sign-in area 12 connection with a speed of at least one of the base material(s) with the same cross section area 12 of the connection. In one embodiment of the invention, any or all of the second to N-th speed non-core materials can be within ±50 percent and may even be more accurately matched within ±25 percent, and can even be more accurately aligned with ± 5 percent from the first speed of the base material(s). This arrangement allows non-core materials to enter into the flow as a continuous stream, without leakage, and consequently perform better mixing. The rate of flow of non-core material in the total flux is determined by the combination of the exhaust nozzle (if any) and the outlet 20 of the pump that gives this non-core material. In the simplest case, the first speed can be chosen identical to any or all of the second to N-th speed. If desired, the device 10 and method comprising the present invention can use a variety of regions 12 of the connection. Many areas 12 connections can be placed in series, parallel or a combination of both. Many areas 12 of the connection may be the same or different for any or all of the basic materials non-primary materials, ratios of flow rates, control signals, etc. are Some of the many areas 12 connection can be used to pre-mix non-core material, the core material or any combination thereof, to be mixing in areas 12 connections to other materials in future.

The container may be the final receiver to a mixture of essential and non-essential materials after they are mixed together and left the area 12 of the connection. The container can be eventually loaded and sold to the consumer or may be used for transportation and storage of the mixture of basic materials and non-core material as an intermediate material.

The container can be moved to and from the device 10 with his own energy, as occurs with the container truck tank can be moved directly by the device 10 or an external driving force. In the simplest case, all non-core material is added to the same base material in the same paragraph, by which is determined the start 12 of the connection. The end region 12 of the connection is defined as the total discharge outlet 16. In the simplest case, the total discharge outlet 16 may be under atmospheric pressure, as air-filled container; in a vacuum, as vakuumirovaniya container or even in a sealed container. The mixture or other combination of materials may be maintained above atmospheric pressure from region 12 connection to the point stokab container.

The container may have any suitable size, geometry, configuration, number, etc container Volume may be in the range of a few cubic centimeters to at least the size of the rail tanker. The container may be provided with fragile or pereplaniruemoy shut-off element, as is known in the art and made of any material suitable for the content of materials, the United according to the present invention.

The end region 12 of the connection can also be defined as a place in which virtually ensures uniformity and additional mixing of the materials is irrelevant. This place can be before releasing it into the container. Area length 12 connection is defined as the distance from the beginning of the field 12 connection to the above mentioned common inlet 16. The volume of area 12 of the connection is equal to the length multiplied by the cross-sectional area in this region there are 12 connections. Area length 12 connections may be relatively short compared to the intake pipe 14I, and other dimensions in the system.

Although the shown region 12 connection constant cross-section, it is clear that the invention is not limited to this. The invention may have a variable cross-section, type of tapering, divergent, barrel-shaped, in the form of a Venturi etc.

As the use here main material represents the largest single material in the final mixture and can refer to any material that constitutes more than 33 percent, and, in another embodiment of the invention, even more than 50 percent, and may even amount to more than 67 percent of the total composition. Here are assumed to be equal amounts for a variety of core and non-core materials. In contrast, non-core material is any material which may contain less than or equal to 50 percent, in another embodiment, invention 10 percent, in another embodiment of the invention is less than 5% and in another embodiment, the invention is less than 1 percent of the total composition. The invention also involves a lot of materials in equal and (or) a relatively equal ratio and (or) flow velocities.

The device 10 for supplying the core material may include pipe, pipe, open channel, or any other suitable device 10, through which can flow the materials. Although illustrated by a round pipe, the invention is not limited to this. Can be used any desired cross-section, constant or variable.

The device 10 and method described and claimed here, do not require dynamic mixing tank. As enforcement is implemented here mixing capacity refers to the tanks, Canam, vessels and reactors and includes mixing system with disposable loading and continuous, which is to use a mixer, nozzle jet mixing, recirculation loop, the escape of gas or the like stirring to combine them. It can be difficult to quickly and accurately follow and to achieve the desired intermediate flow rates using dynamic mixing tank. This is because can happen stratification of the flow stagnation zone and transit flow and interrupt when materials are joined in a dynamic mixing tank. There may be different ratios of flow rates that can interfere with obtaining the desired product composition. If desired composition of the product is not achieved, then the product is spoiled. In addition, often the time required to ensure mixing, taking into account the axial dispersion materials that require energy, can be difficult to achieve when adding many non-core materials.

The device 10 described and claimed herein may use the built-in mixer. As used here, a built-in mixer is called the mixing device, which does not cause macro-scale stratification of the flow stagnation zone and tra the attributes stream or prevents the flow of a continuous stream through a portion of the device 10, with a built-in mixer. One non-limiting type built-in mixer is a mixer or ultrasonic cavitation type. One such system is homogenizing system Sonolator, available from Sonic Corporation of Stratford, Connecticut. Other non-limiting type built-in mixer is a static mixer, known in the art and disclosed in U.S. patent No. 6.186.193, issued February 13, 2001 in the name of Phallen et al., and assigned U.S. patents No. 6.550.960, issued April 22, 2003 in the name of Catalfamo et al.; 6.740.281, issued may 25, 2004 in the name of Pinyayev et al.; 6.743.006, issued June 1, 2004 in the name Jaffer et al., and 6.793.192, issued September 21, 2004 in the name Verbrugge. Further, if desirable, static mixers or other built-in faucets can be located in or with one or more inlet pipes 14A or above area 12 of the connection. Additionally, pressure vessels can be used to provide a more constant flow of materials, connect the device 10 and method described and claimed here. Additionally or alternatively, can be used Zanker plate.

The main and (or) non-core material(s) can contain the fluid, usually a liquid, although assumed and gaseous core and non-core materials. Liquid cover suspensions, emulsions, suspensions, water and Navotny the materials, friendly materials, mixtures of materials, etc, all having the liquid state.

Additionally, at least one of the base material(s) and one or more of the non-core material(s) may contain solid type of granulated substances or in the form of particles. Granular materials or materials in the form of particles may be added by any known method, including but not limited to, those disclosed in assigned U.S. patent No. 6.712.496, issued March 30, 2004 in the name of Kressin et al.

Although the invention is described below in non-limiting exemplary terms of the pumps 20 and servo motors, the invention is not limited to this and may use any momentum or similar means for feeding core and non-core materials. Used here, the driving force is any force that is used to provide energy, which, in turn, is used to submit documents to the region 12 of the connection, and may include, without limitation, electric motors, gravity feed, manual feed, hydraulic feed, pneumatic supply, etc.

At least one primary material(s) and / or at least one non-core material(s) can be fed from the hopper, tank, reservoir, pump 20, such as a piston pump 20, or other feed or source to pipes is another feeder, known in the art and provide the desired accuracy for dispensing such materials. Main material(s) and (or) non-core material(s) may be submitted by a pump 20, a screw feeder, or any other appropriate means.

The device 10 to provide basic and (or) non-core materials can contain multiple piston pump 20. Each pump 20 can operate the connected motor such as an AC motor or a servo motor. Each servo can be allocated to one of the pump 20 or more can give effect to many of the pumps 20. This arrangement eliminates the need for valves, flow control, flow meters and attached feedback circuits to control the flow, which are used in existing technology.

As used here, the valve flow control is the valve quantitative control to allow, as a result, to place a certain amount or flow rate of the material, and is used to modulate the actual flow rate. Valve flow control does not include a two-position valve that allows the process according to the present invention, better to start or stop.

Figure 9 illustrates explaining Ontur feedback flow control according to the prior art. The feedback loop flow control compares the setpoint flow rate or the control signal corresponding to a given flow rate, the measured flow rate. Performs a subtraction to determine the error. Error, in turn, is used to regulate or adjust the speed control of the drive. High-speed operation of the actuator is connected with the motor functionally connected to the pump 20, which measures the actual flow rate. This system has the disadvantage that the reaction system can be dictated and constrained by the accuracy and response time of the flowmeter.

Figure 10 shows a non-limiting exemplary control circuit of the motor according to the present invention. Such a control loop engine may contain or may not contain at least one circuit of direct communication and / or feedback circuit, since the control system does not have a zero gain in the position control or speed control, if you are not using the appropriate contours of the direct connection.

If desired, the circuit of the motor control can contain embedded control loops. The innermost of these paths may be a feedback loop torque control, which is shown as a single block scaling as torque is omenta, and current. The command torque is input to the control unit torque. The control unit torque converts the command torque equivalent current command, which is input to the current controller for the engine. The current controller, in turn, provides a current feedback signal for current control. However, you may have torque management that recognizes the mathematical relationship between torque and current, which can be determined using the scaling device. Loop torque control can be covered by a feedback circuit to control speed, which, in turn, may be covered by a feedback circuit to control the position. The feedback circuit to control the speed of the feedback loop controlling the position and / or path of the direct connection to the speed and / or acceleration are optional features for the present invention. The path of direct communication speed and acceleration can use the appropriate gain Kvffand Kaffas shown.

The derived position of the engine on the time can be taken to get the speed of the engine, or Vice versa, feedback can be integrated over time to obtain the position is of vegetale. The control loop motor position can use the control signal to the provisions of the engine and to compare this setpoint or control signal with the feedback position of the engine, to calculate the error in determining the position. The speed setpoint can be deduced from the error in determining the position using the position controller.

The speed setpoint can be compared with the actual speed of the motor in order to determine the error in speed. This error in speed can be used to adjust the actual speed of the engine, using known methods. The motor speed can then be correlated with the output of the pump 20, as is known in the technique.

Optional setpoint position can have its time derivative to obtain the rate of direct communication. Speed direct connection can be summed up by the adder speed setpoint and used in combination with the output of the control loop to generate the control signal of the speed loop. Speed direct connection can also be used without taking into account the control signal of the position loop to generate the control signal of the speed loop. Optional speed direct connection can have its derivative taken to obtain the acceleration of the direct connection. Similarly, the acceleration of p is the pit may be used in combination with or without the controller output of the speed loop, to determine the profile of the acceleration of the engine, which is proportional to the control torque signal issued on the engine.

Setpoint core and non-core materials can be generated as the proportion or percentage of the main setpoint or control signal. The main setpoint can be defined in terms of the volume of the total flow, flow rates and / or rate of change of flow rates.

Although the preceding discussion is directed to the circuit controlling the motor based on the position of the engine, the expert will understand that the invention is not limited to this. The circuit of the motor control can be based on the motor position, motor speed, the acceleration of the motor, the current in the motor, the voltage on the engine, torque, etc. of Such a system and method of control can be used to identify the main setpoint via the torque / current, position, speed and / or acceleration, provided that there is a direct relationship between the flux and torque/current/position/speed/acceleration, as is the case in the present invention. Setting primary and non-primary materials can be entered for individual driving force systems command position and / or speed and / or the setpoint torque.

Setpoint or control signal of progenealogists can be sent to one or more servo motors. According to the present invention, all the basic materials and non-core materials may be introduced simultaneously through such motors, each of which can be attached to one or more pumps 20. Instead of or in addition to the combination of the pump 20/servo motor specialist can use the VFD to vary the voltage supplied to driven by an AC motor pump 20. Alternative or additionally, the output of pump 20 may be modified using various other means known in the art. For example, to change the output of pump 20 for a given engine, it is possible to use a mechanical change speed / variable-speed drive, multi-speed transmission / gearbox and (or) hydraulic drive with variable speed.

This arrangement provides the advantage that the flow rate of some or all of the basic materials and non-core materials can linearly increase or decrease synchronously without the requirement of a common actuator or valve flow control, providing a more correct reproduction of the desired composition of the final mixture of all materials. Thus, if it is desirable to have a step change, linear change either up or down, or even start / stop water or more flow rates, this process can be adapted more quickly than under the existing techniques known to the inventors. Thus, the ratio of core and non-core products remain within a relatively tight tolerance of the desired composition without undue interruption or improper reduction of the flow velocity, acceptable for production.

As noted above, this arrangement provides the advantage that there is no need to have the control circuit directly controls the flow rate. Instead, the flow rate for core and non-core materials can be determined from knowledge of the characteristics of the pump 20 for a given fluid viscosity, type of pump 20, and the differential pressure at the entrance / exit. Based on the desired flow rate, can be used in the algorithm for adjustment of the pump 20 in order to achieve accurate exhaust flow rate, without requiring direct measurement of flow. Direct measurement of flow can introduce delays and errors during fast transient response, due to the limitations of the equipment, the hysteresis of the system, etc.

The pump 20 may be powered up to its desired speed depending on the performance of the pump 20, including any slip value of d is the motor or motor pump 20, to account for the cause of the operation of the pump 20 to less than 100 percent efficiency. If desired, the device 10 and method according to the present invention can control torque, position, velocity and / or acceleration of the motor shaft.

Thus, the device 10 and method according to the present invention may not have a feedback circuit flow to compensate for changes in flow rate or flow meter to control the adding and / or the speed of adding a separate core or non-core materials, for example, when they are added to the 12 connections. This management system provides a relatively high level play it is desirable, i.e. controlled response.

The device 10 and method claimed herein may be controlled by control signal, as is known in the art. The control signal can be considered as a dynamic setting, and is scheduled speed of adding materials for each material at a given point in time. The control signal can be sent from the computer, type of programmable logic controller (PLC) (PLC). The signal from the PLC can be sent to the drive system of the engine. The PLC and the drive system can be internal or external to the system.

If desirable, each d who " may have selected the drive controller. The control signal(s) sent(are) from your computer to the drive controller and then to the engine, which may be a servo motor. Of course, the specialist will understand that it can be used by another device 10 and a means for adding materials, and the control signal sent from the controller to the device 10 or a means of adding materials. After receiving the control signal, the servo motor is accelerated or decelerated to the specified speed for the attached pump 20 or other device 10, or the means of adding content. The speed of addition of the materials at the expense of this is controlled by control signal.

Two types of tracking error can be dealt with by the present invention. Tracking error is the difference between the value of the control signal and the processed parameter. The first is the instantaneous tracking error defined as the amount of material moved per unit of time. Instant error measures the difference between any of the process variable and control signal at a specific point in time.

The second tracking error can be considered as a cumulative error. The cumulative error is the sum of each of the instantaneous error for each material considered within a certain time interval, while smiryaetsya its value. Consider the time interval will depend on the duration of the transition process.

Figure 3 and 4 shows the tracking error is the difference between the control signal and the feedback process variable. Figure 3 private feedback process variable is the actual flow rate measured by the flow meter for the purposes of benchmarking. However, according to the present invention, the flow meter is not required to obtain combinations, complexes or mixtures of materials.

3 in particular shows the performance of one system according to the prior art. This system had a pipe with a nominal diameter of 5.1, see the Flow was controlled by a ball valve flow control, available from Fisher Controls division of Emerson, St. Louis, Missouri. The valve was controlled by controller Allen-Bradley ControLogix 1756-5550. This controller is transmitted signals to the control valve based on the measured flow rate. The flow rate was measured by mass flow meter Micro Motion CMFlOO ELITE transmitter RFT 9739, also available from Emerson. The system used water at a pressure of approximately 10 bar in response to a step input signal. Consideration of figure 3 shows that the system required approximately 40 seconds to reach steady state conditions.

Figure 4 shows the ideal is eroticheskii response to a step input signal when using the control valve. The control signal indicates a step input signal. The response is calculated according to the formula: g(t)=1-e-t/τusing a one-second time constant (τ). Even in such favorable theoretical conditions figure 4 shows that may need about four time constants and, therefore, four seconds in this example, to achieve steady state conditions.

Figure 4 also shows that for a step input signal conditions steady state according to the present invention can be achieved in less than 0.1 seconds. The system according to the present invention in figure 4 was used a control signal from the processor Allen Bradley ControlLogix 1756-L61, communicated via the card communication Sercos 1756-M16SE drive systems from Allen-Bradley Kinetix 6000 for non-core material. Non-core material, the dye solution was applied by pump Zenith C-9000, available from Colfax Pump Group from Monroe, North Carolina, and driven by a servo motor Allen Bradley MPF-B330P. The servo motor was selected Sercos drive Rack K6000. The servo motor and the pump 20 were connected through the drive Alpha SP Gear +, available from Alpha Gear of Alpha Gear Drives, Inc. from elk grove village, Illinois.

As shown in Fig.3-4, in the prior art low tracking error and a relatively constant ratio of materials was Tr the bottom to reach after a sudden change or a sharp linear change. The reason is that not all valves, actuators and tpout to react at the same time, synchronization time and in the same proportions during these rapid changes in conditions. However, in the present invention and in the absence of valves, particularly valves, flow control, dynamic reservoir connection, the corresponding hysteresis, etc. can be achieved most accurate response to the control signal.

One transition that can be considered is from the beginning of the stream or the beginning of a change in the speed command stream to the point at which the achieved steady-state operation. This transitional process is shown in figure 5-6. Figure 5-6 were issued by the system according to the present invention. This system had a horizontally disposed region 12 connections with a diameter of 5.1 cm with a constant cross-section. Region 12 compounds had eight inlet holes 14I, each with an inner diameter of 3 mm, located on a diameter of 1.5 cm, as shown in Fig.1-2, although this example uses only two input holes 14I.

Main material contained composition of liquid soap. The first and second non-primary materials contained two different dye solution. Primary material, the first non-core material and the second non-core material were installed in gelatinisation 98,75, 0.75 and 0.5 percent, respectively. The actual control signal is issued to control the servo motor can be adjusted in accordance with a known algorithm adjustments of the pump 20, taking into account the inefficiency and imperfection General pump 20.

The basic material was supplied by pump Waukesha UII-060, available from SPX Corp. from Delavan, Wisconsin, and driven with a servo motor Allen Bradley MPF-B540K. Each non-core material was supplied by pump Zenith C-9000, available from Colfax Pump Group from Monroe, North Carolina, and driven with a servo motor Allen Bradley MPF-B330P. Each motor had a dedicated drive Sercos Rack K6000 and was connected to the actuator Alpha SP Gear+, available from Alpha Gear of Alpha Gear Drives, Inc. from elk grove village, Illinois. The system was controlled by the processor Allen Bradley ControlLogix 1756-L61, communicated via the card communication Sercos 1756-16SE with the drive system Allen Bradley Ultra 3000 or Allen Bradley Kinetix 6000 for core and non-core materials, respectively.

Static mixer SMX fourteen items available from Sulzer, was located approximately one mm from the beginning of the area 12 of the connection. Static mixer SMX twelve items was located approximately 46 cm downstream from the first static mixer. Materials were considered sufficiently mixed after the second static will smusic the La.

As shown in figure 5-6, the present invention can be used to transition processes, with different increasing flow rate, different decreasing the flow rate or the steady-state mode of operation at different constant speeds. The curve illustrated in figure 5, can be divided into three General different segment. The first segment of this curve is linearly increasing, where the flow rate of each material increases from zero to a predetermined value for each material. The second part of this curve is the steady-state regime of the flow in which flow rate remains relatively constant and can be applied to production volumes. The third part of the curve shows the linear decrease of flow velocity of the steady-state mode to a lower speed stream. A lower flow rate can be in the simplest case of zero or it may be the flow rate, which is less than shown in other parts of the curve. In all three parts of these curves, the ratio of each material and the total amount of the mixture of all materials when filing remains almost constant.

In one embodiment of the invention the control signal for the transition process can go from no flow or zero signal thread to signal the La 100 percent of full scale flow in the individual transition process, although it can be used and the flow rate of the steady-state mode of operation is less than 100 percent. The transition process can be controlled so as to occur no more than 2 seconds, no more than one second, no more than half a second or less. During this transition process according to the present invention, each core or non-core material, that is, the first, second, third,..., nth material may remain within ±10 percent, 5 percent, 3 percent or 1 percent of the measured full-scale flow throughout the transition process. The percentage can be based on the instantaneous error, described below.

Of course, the specialist understands that the invention is not limited to transients with only three different flow velocities. The transition from one steady state flow can be to a greater or lesser flow rate of the steady-state mode. Multiple transitions either increasing or decreasing in any combination, structure, with equal or unequal intervals of time, linearly varying, etc. may be used if desired.

According to the present invention, at least one first material and at least one second material involved in General in constant ratios, i.e. relatively constant the initial flow is established in the field of 12 connections throughout the steady state of the working period. Similarly, nearly constant ratio is also maintained throughout the transition flow rate. Nearly constant ratio is maintained, and when the flow velocity increases, and when reduced, as long as the flow rate is greater than near zero, non-trivial values.

Although figure 5-6 illustrates the linear, first-order rate of change throughout the transition regions, the invention is not limited to this. The rate of change of the second order, third order, etc. can also be used, remains nearly constant ratio. It is only necessary that the pump 20 or other driving forces managed in a way that preserved in the overall constant of proportionality. Although a constant ratio may be easier to establish and easier to run and be programmed using the linear velocity changes, the specialist will understand that there are other ways to maintain a constant ratio throughout the transient.

Returning to systems figure 3-4 and as shown in Table 1, which represents the data illustrated in figure 4, the instantaneous error according to the prior art is reduced throughout the period of the transition process. However, this error never n which reaches a relatively low value in the present invention within a 5-second time interval, as illustrated in Table 1. Table 1 also illustrates the cumulative error for both the prior art and systems of the present invention.

Table 1
Tracking errorThe time in seconds from the start of the speed control. signal.
The control signal is issued at T=1 sec
Instant error (value/s)0.1 sec0.25 seconds0.50 sec1 sec5 sec
Prior art0,9050,7790,6070,3690,009
The present invention0,0020,0020,0020,0020,002
Cumulative error (value)0.1 sec0.25 seconds0.50 sec1 sec5 sec
Prior art0,0890,2150,3860,6240,990
The present invention0,0060,0060,0060,0070,015

Fig.7 illustrates that the instantaneous error can be approximated by an exponential equation of the first order:

IE=A*M*exp(-t/τ),

where IE is the value of the instantaneous error per unit time, and

And is the change in setpoint, normalized to unity for the present invention,

M is the ratio of the amplitude, which causes the value of the amplitude of the normalized single setting value to any value from 0 to 1, or from 0.1 to 1, or from 0.2 to 1, or from 0.3 to 1, or from 0.4 to 1, or from 0.5 to 1, as required

t is the instantaneous time in seconds

τ is the time constant in seconds.

This approximatively particularly suitable for transient processes of the prior art, continuing up to 1 second to 2 seconds to 3 seconds to 4 seconds and even up to 5 seconds. Considered illustrative, non-limiting combinations of factor, time constant and the time interval are presented in table 2.

TABLE 2
Mτt(s)
0,51,00-0,5*τ
0,50,750-1,33*τ
0-1*τ
0-0,5*τ
0,50,50-3*τ
0-2*τ
0-1*τ
0,50,250-8*τ
0-4*τ
0-2*τ
0,251,00-1,5*τ
0-1*τ
0,250,750-2*τ
0-1*τ
0,250,50-3*τ
0-1,5*τ
0,250,250-4*τ
0-2*τ

7 further shows that the present invention can achieve an instant error, given by the following approximate inequalities, although you can use any of the combinations shown in table 2, or other.

IE<A*M*exp(-t/τ) for values of M=0.5, and τ=1, for certain time from t=0 to 0.5*τ or more specifically;

IE<A*M*exp(-t/τ) for values of M=0.5, and τ=0.5, it is determined at time t from 0 to 3.0*τ or more specifically;

IE<A*M*exp(-t/τ) for values of M=0,25, τ=1,0, defined for t from 0 to 1.5*τ.

Instant error may be integrated over a desired time interval, to obtain the cumulative error during this period according to the formula:

where CE is the cumulative error,

t1is the starting time and set to 0 for a degenerate case, and

t2is the end of the considered time interval.

Fig illustrates that Qom is latina error according to the prior art can be approximated by the equation:

CEk=0.5*(IEk-1+IEk)*ΔT)+CEk-1,

where CE is the value of the cumulative error

k is the index for a particular discrete time interval

ΔT is the discrete time interval in seconds, and

IE still is, as defined earlier.

However, the expert will understand that the instantaneous error approaches zero as time approaches steady state flow. Because of cumulative error depends on the instantaneous error, the cumulative error will not be significantly increased as the instantaneous error approaches zero. The specialist will understand that any combination of values, presented in Table 2, can be used with the present invention, so the invention is not limited to the above inequalities for instant error or related cumulative errors.

If desirable, the present invention can be used plunger pump. Plunger pump can provide greater versatility with some liquids that can be used in conjunction with the present invention, and, in addition, has a pulsed output, which provides recurring fluctuations in flow rate. If you prefer, you can program the servo motor, so that it had a negative overlay with real whodances, so that fluctuations are attenuated through the use of a system of Cams for the engine, as is known in the art. This provides the advantage that in the system below the piston pump does not need any muffler. The silencer can add hysteresis or other undesirable effects are avoided according to the present invention.

Presented and an alternative embodiment of the invention. In this embodiment of the invention a small portion, which may be a minor part of the production flow of products is put aside. The allotted portion of the product can have all the material the final product, if desired. Alternatively, a designated non-core part may pass one or more materials.

Allocated to non-core part of the production flow production can have at least one added material through the use of the device 10 and method disclosed here. Non-core material may be added to the allocated stream immediately upstream of the ultrasonic horn, a static mixer, etc. This part of the flow is then suitable for use as an intermediate or final product. This minor part of it, therefore, becomes complete, and then is discharged into a container for final use.

This arrangement provides the advantage that can be executed simultaneously in parallel the basic production and non-primary product.

For example, the main part of the product may include a first colorant, flavouring substance, an additive, etc. Less available or rarely used minor part of the production flow can be discharged and to have a second colorant, flavouring agent or other additive to be included in the final product. Alternatively, this arrangement provides the advantage that the main part of the product can be produced without a specific dye, fragrances, additives and the like, while the desired colorant, flavouring agent or other additive is included in the allocated stream of non-core product, or Vice versa. This arrangement provides the advantage that both products can be produced in any desired ratio without costly shutdown, cleaning, etc.

Of course, the specialist will understand that can be allocated to more than one newsnow the Oh production flow. Can be allocated to many minor streams, and each produces a relatively small quantity of the finished product with defined and other additives or without them. This arrangement provides flexibility in the manufacturing process to create a large or principal of the first amount of the mixture of materials and one or more relatively small, even very small, minor quantities of materials, all without disconnecting and re-purification device 10 and its associated systems.

All documents cited in the detailed description of the invention, in relevant part, incorporated here by reference; the citation of any document should not be construed as an admission that it is prior art against the present invention. In the case when any value or definition of the term in this written document conflicts with any meaning or definition of a term in a document incorporated by reference in determining the expected value or definition assigned to the term in this written document.

Although illustrated and described private embodiments of the present invention, for professionals it will be obvious that various other changes and modifications can be made without departing from the nature and volume of the and inventions. Therefore, it is intended to cover in the appended claims all such changes and modifications that are within the scope of this invention.

1. The connection method materials containing at least one primary material and at least one non-core material, and the aforementioned at least one primary material and at least one minor material combine to produce the result of material containing transactions, in which:
provide joint area;
serves at least one primary material in said joint area;
add at least one non-core material in the joint area in the immediate vicinity of the mentioned base material, which referred to the primary material and said at least one non-core material in contact with each other in a predetermined ratio and stored in said joint area; and
change the number mentioned at least one base material and the above-mentioned at least one non-core material, added in the above-mentioned joint area during a given time interval, with support through the feedback system engine management referred to a given ratio mentioned at the ore of the same base material and the above-mentioned at least one non-core material corresponding to the set point within the instantaneous error of ± about five percent of the maximum flow rate, moreover, the aforementioned predetermined time interval is less than one second.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the said instantaneous error is not more than ± about 3%.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the said first time interval is not more than about half a second.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the operation of adding at least one non-core material in the joint area consists of continuous operation of adding at least one non-core material.

5. Device for connecting at least two materials, in accordance with the method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, made with the implementation of the transition process, in which the connection speed of the above-mentioned materials is modified so that it becomes either more or less than the previous connection speed of the above-mentioned materials, which referred to the transition process produces instantaneous error and the cumulative error between the control signal corresponding to the set value of the flow velocity with the setpoint, and adjusts the time T=0, and the measured flow rate, in fact the instant the error is not more than:
IE<A·M·exp(-t/τ),
where IE is the instantaneous value of the error per unit time, and
A - value and the setpoint changes in the zero point, normalized to unity,
M - factor amplitude in the range from about 0.1 to about 0.5,
t is time in seconds, not greater than about 1.5·τ
τ is the time constant in the range from about 0.1 to about 1.0 C.

6. The device according to claim 5, wherein τ is 1, and T ranges from 0 to about 0.5·τ.

7. The device according to claim 5, wherein τ is 1, and T ranges from 0 to about 3·τ.

8. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that M is equal to 0.5, τ is equal to 1, and T ranges from 0 to about 2,0·τ.

9. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that M is equal to 0.5, τ is 0.5, and T ranges from 0 to about 2·τ.

10. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that M is equal to 0.25, τ is equal to 1, and T ranges from 0 to about 1.5·τ.

11. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that it further comprises a control system for connecting at least two fluid materials made with the implementation of the transition process, lasting no more than one second, while the speed of adding the above-mentioned materials during the transition process is modified so that it becomes either more or less than the speed of adding the above-mentioned materials before the beginning of the transition process, which referred to the transition process creates a cumulative error, the value of which is determined by formula is:
CEk=0,5·(IEk-1+IEk)·ΔT)+CEk-1,
where CE is the cumulative error,
k - index for discrete time interval in the range from zero to kfinal,
ΔT is the discrete time interval, and
IEk= [Manager corresponding to a given flow rate]k- [The actual value of the flow velocity]k,
moreover, the Actual value of the flow velocity is the resultant value of the flow velocity in the system; and continuous time t and discrete time are related by the formula:
t=k·ΔT,
where k is an index for discrete time interval ΔT, t and ΔT are measured in seconds;
for the transition process to the control signal corresponding to the value of the flow velocity normalized value equal to the unit referred to the cumulative error over the time interval from t=0 to t=Tfinal(for Tfinalup to about 5 or less), is determined by the formula:
CETfinal<0.50 in.

12. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the value mentioned cumulative error is determined by the formula:
CETfinal<0,37.

13. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the Tfinalup to about 4 C.

14. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the Tfinalup to about 3 C.

15. The device according to item 12, wherein the Tfinalup to about 4 C.

16. The mouth of austo indicated in paragraph 12, characterized in that Tfinalup to about 3 C.



 

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