Method to control ice braking torque and device to this end (versions)

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises heating the support bearing liner work surface layer and differs from known designs in that, to allow time and power savings, electric current is, first, passed through electric heaters built in under layer of every liner. Then liner electric heater power supply is cut off and, at the time, starting torque is applied. Invention comprises formula to determine time τ (s) of passing electric current through liner electric heater. Proposed device comprises metal layer of electric heater structure that is isolated all around by inorganic dielectric material laid under metal surface layer of every lines. Note that pair of faces of consecutively arranged liners are interconnected by common layer of electric heater metal. Note also that one of the liners comprises pin- or tape-type outer electric contact electrically connected with electric heater structure beginning, while the other liner has its electric heater end connected via inner pin terminal with liner metal base. At the same time, to use electric heater with different power in support plain bearing liner, every liner is furnished with inner pin and outer pin or tape terminals connected with liner electric heater beginning and end, respectively. Note that, to allow electric independence of electric heater of liner metal base, the liner is furnished with two pin or tape terminals electrically connected with electric heater structure beginning and end, respectively. Note also that work surface layer of such liner if provided with outer electrically insulated terminals connected with said layer. Invention covers a device design version.

EFFECT: higher time and power savings in starting cold engine.

6 cl, 12 dwg

 

The invention is a basic element in group technology thermolability vehicles, mobile units and stationary units, refers to the engines, in particular to a reciprocating internal combustion engines, and can be used to ensure their prompt start at any low temperature operating conditions.

A known method of controlling the starting of braking torque to ensure the start of a piston internal combustion engine under low temperature conditions is a common heating with circulation through the engine offline heated liquid media. However, current technical limitations on the temperature of the heating liquid media (oil and / or antifreeze) and the amount of circulation of fluids through the engine lead to high energy (from 5 kW to 35 kW) and time (from 1 to 3 hours) pre-preparation of the engine, and in conditions of increased conventional low-temperature engine cooling, for example in the field of Arctic conditions with wind speeds over 10 m/s and the ambient temperature is below minus 30-35°C, this method is generally incapable [EN 2211942 C2, 09.10.2003; EN 2153098 C1, 07.20.2000].

The most effective device to implement the method of the General circulation of the heated car engine assetcategory antifreeze heater, for example serial "HYDRONIC" German firm "EBERSPACHER", which has small dimensions, but expensive and very sensitive to external mechanical influences and dynamic loads. All other types of liquid heaters to implement the method of the General circulation of the heated engine are not competitive on weight and size characteristics relative to the above model and significantly inferior to her technical and operational capabilities [EN 2003137321 AND, 06.10.2005; www.eber.com; www.klima.ru].

There is also known a method of controlling starting of braking torque by local pre-heated lid support (indigenous) bearings of the crankshaft due to the circulation through the covers Autonomous heated liquid medium [A.S. No. 981641, MCL3. F02N 17/00, 15.12.82, bull. No. 46]. However, this method can quickly heat up only the working surface layer in the bottom of the liner bearings, whereas for heating the working surface of the layer at the top of the liner should be warm and the corresponding neck of the crankshaft, which, in essence, means to heat the entire engine crankshaft and, of course, leads to increased time and energy costs. In the specified method is not provided pre-heating of the working surface layer inserts the reference p is lipnikov camshaft of the engine, that almost makes it ineffective to control the internal friction of the engine, and application is problematic, for example, when a powerful diesel engine is cooled below minus 45°C.

In the device, which implements the specified method of controlling a braking torque of the engine, uses a typical design liquid heater, and control of friction in journal bearings is based on empirical experience, as it remains unknown time of onset of the readiness of each of the support bearings of the crankshaft to the application of the starting torque for maximum mobility piston system at the time of starting the engine.

In a reciprocating internal combustion engine all the torques relate to the crankshaft. At the time of start of the engine to the flywheel mounted on the crankshaft of the engine, torque is applied (driving) torque MBPfrom the electric starter or other launching device, and to the crank and Cam shafts - inhibiting static moment Marticleopposing their rotation.

The result of the actions of these two moments is the result of starting the dynamic moment MDean

MDean=MBP-Marticle.

The higher the value of MDeanthe higher starting speed is Alov, i.e. the mobility of the piston system, and hence the probability of starting the engine under low temperature conditions.

At low temperature start a frozen engine 70÷85% of the value of Marticleis the friction in the bearing bearings crankshaft and camshafts. Engine oil in an internal combustion engine saturated micron droplets containing aqueous solutions of acids. In the process engine cooling to low temperatures, there is crystallization (freezing), first water and then acid.

Crystallization of water on metal surfaces is accompanied by the formation of tree-like ice crystals, which connect through a layer of oil in the gap surface of the shaft neck with reversed it working surfaces of the layers of liners bearing [Oleg GG, Revie RU Corrosion and its control. Introduction to corrosion science and technology. L.: Chemistry, 1989; Kuznetsov A.M. Adsorption of water on metal surfaces // Soros educational journal, Vol.6, 2000, No. 5; Hydrogen bond / Under. edit Ndzalama. M.: Nauka, 1989; Maeno N. The science of ice. M.: Mir, 1988].

The total adhesive strength of these icy relations to the support bearings of the engine can reach 100÷150 MPa or more and depends on many factors: concentration and composition of acids in aqueous solution droplets tempera is URS crystallization, the degree of saturation of oil in the gap solid metal microparticles wear and the density of their distribution, gap, etc.

In practice, the freezing of the engine is manifested in the inability of the starter or starter to move the crankshaft: Marticlesignificantly more MBPor the flywheel when the engine starts to rotate, but the battery is discharged (or not enough power starter), and without providing the required mobility of the piston system for engine start - Marticleapproximately equal to or slightly less MBP.

The optimal condition to ensure the successful start of the engine is: Marticlemuch less MBPthat ensures minimum friction and, consequently, minimal wear of the friction surfaces in the bearings of the engine.

During cooling of the liner in the sliding bearing in the metal working (friction) surface forms a substantially continuous layer of condensed water solution, in which freezing (crystallising) displaces water molecules acids in the oil layer (crystallization treatment) and creates a crystalline solid layer of loose tree ice thickness from several to ten microns.

If at the time of application of the starting torque of the PTO the NTA this crystalline layer of ice on the desktop surface layer liners anchor bearings to turn into liquid water layer, the coefficient of friction through a layer of water will make 0,001÷0,002 that ensures the achievement of the maximum inrush dynamic torque of the engine.

Thus, to control the starting of braking torque necessary to the formation of a layer of water occurred at the same time on the desktop surface layer in all liners all the support bearings in the engine and coincided in time with the application of the starting torque to the flywheel of the engine.

The aim of the invention is the reduction of time and energy costs to start a frozen engine.

The objective in the proposed control method of starting the braking torque of the internal combustion engine is achieved by the fact that the first electric current is passed through the heaters, which are built under the working surface of each liner, then turn off the power supply to the heaters, liners and simultaneously with turning off the power supply making the starting torque, and the time τ (C) passing electrical current through the heater liner is determined by the formula:

,

where: kRR- coefficient of external losses;

kp- coefficient of overheating;

Qt- desired quantity of heat (j);

I - electric current is electronegativites (A);

R - electric resistance heater (Ω),

however, in order to automate the starting of the process flow of electric current through the heaters liners are carried out with time and current bimetal relays or electronic timer, which provides the required time specified electric current through the heaters, liners, and then the management application of the starting torque, and to control the pre-heating of the working surface layer inserts their heaters connected to individual managed sources of electrical energy, and a working surface layer liners - to the measuring system, in which the measured parameters are used to control mode of the electric current passing through the electric heaters, liners, and to control the application of the starting torque.

The device for implementing the control method of starting the braking torque of the internal combustion engine characterized in that, in order to control friction in the bushings bearings slide under the metal working surface of each liner is fully insulated inorganic dielectric material of the metal layer is about the structure of the heater, the pair of end faces of consecutive inserts are connected together by a common layer of metal heaters, one liners are equipped with pins or tape to the external electrical contact pin that is electrically connected with the beginning of the structure of the heater, and the other end of the structure of the heater through pin internal electrical contact pin electrically connected to the metal base of the liner, at the same time, in order to apply in the bearing sliding bearing inserts with different electrical power of the heaters each liner equipped with the inner pin and the outer pin or tape the electrical contact pins are electrically connected respectively with the beginning and end of the structure of the heater liner, moreover, to ensure the electrical independence of the heater from the metallic base of the liner, the liner is equipped with two pins or tape to the external electrical terminal leads electrically connected respectively with the beginning and end of the structure of the heater, and a working surface layer of the liner supply external tape elektroizolyatsionnymi contact pins electrically connected to this layer.

The agreement is but the proposed method a device for its implementation is the bearing sleeve with built-in heater and is a multilayer monolithic solid-state structure. The rate of heat transfer in a solid is determined by the coefficient of thermal diffusivity α

α=λ/c·ρ (m2/s)

where λ is thermal conductivity of the material of the layer (W/m·deg);

c is the heat capacity of the material layer (j/kg·deg);

ρ is the density of the material of the layer (kg/m3).

As initial conditions for the further calculation is made:

- within the area of each layer there is no temperature gradient;

- operating temperature range materials of the layers of the solid-state structures do not change their physical and technical characteristics;

- interlayer thermal losses in the multilayer structure are absent.

Calculation of thermal regime of a layer of a heater in the insert start with a formula to calculate specific dynamic heat capacity W of each layer in a multilayer structure including a layer of heater required to heat the material layer 1°C for 1 second:

,

where δ is the thickness of layer (m);

S - area of layer (m2);

t0- end temperature (°C);

t1- initial temperature (°C).

Virtually all of the layers in the multilayer structure are consumers of heat WSPand must have the specific dynamic heat capacity smaller than that of the heater layer, which is layer-and is the source of heat W C. Based on this conditions determine the proportionality coefficient kwias the ratio of the specific dynamic heat capacity of each layer-consumer WSPthe layer-source heat WC, i.e. the layer of heater

kwi=WSP/WC.

Summing values kwidetermine the coefficient of overheating kpreflecting the fraction of the absorbed layers consumers of heat in the heat transfer process, which should compensate for the layer a heat source to provide the required heat flux density. The formula for calculating the kphas the following form:

,

where n is the number of layers consumers in the structure.

To determine the initial amount of heat, which is given by the layer heat source, i.e. the layer of the heater, it is expected that the working surface of the surface layer of the liner is a layer of crystalline water, with a thickness from several to ten microns, and it is required to transfer into the liquid phase. To calculate the required amount of heat Qtfor heating the working surface layer of the liner will use the known formula:

Qt=m·c(t0-t1) (J)

where m=ρ·S·δ is the mass of the working surface layer of the liner;

t0- the final temperature of the working surface layer (°C);

t1 - the initial temperature of the working surface layer (C).

The final formula for calculation of the time τ in seconds required to melt a thin layer of ice on the desktop surface layer of the liner by passing an electric current through the built-in liner heater is:

,

where kRR- coefficient of external losses;

I - electric current flowing through the heater (A);

R - electrical resistance heater layer in the liner (Om).

The introduction of the kRRin this formula due to the necessity of taking into account external heat losses through the side and end surfaces of the multilayer structure, which, depending on the dimensional characteristics of the liner and conditions of its placement in the bearing does not exceed 5-7% of the total heat costs during operational heating of the working surface of the layer.

Structural-electrical schematic inserts with integrated between the working surface and the metal base of the liner layer of the heater are presented for the six design options for liners, and figure 1 presents the structural-electrical circuit Assembly liners bearing with one external output from the heaters (options 1 and 2), figure 2 - structural-e is actionsa diagram of one liner with one output from a heater (options 3 and 4), and figure 3 is a structural circuit diagram of the liner with two external pins from the heater and two taps on a working surface layer (options 5 and 6). In structural-electric schemes inserts their structural elements have the following notation:

1 - base liner;

2 - working the surface layer;

3 - layer electric heater;

4 - pin output of the heater;

5 - pin removal from the working surface of the layer.

4 shows the circuit diagram of the enable Assembly of the liners in the bearings, which allows the moment of closing of the switch contacts by direct counting of time in seconds to perform the engine start, for example, by the ignition key in the car in the switching position of the starter at the moment of disconnection of this circuit from the power source. This circuit can operate from a vehicle battery, or other source of electric current. For this variant implementation of the proposed method graph or table that shows the duration of reference in accordance with the ambient temperature (at initial start-up) or the engine block, measured before the start.

Figure 5 presents the block diagram of automatic control in which the energization and deenergization of the electric current is via the electric heater in each liner is carried out through an external electrical contact pin through time and current bimetal relays or electronic timer with solenoid relay 7. This scheme allows the transmission of current through the heaters liners within a specified period of time, turn off the heaters from electric power source and the date of termination of the supply of electric current through the heaters automatically turn on the starter solenoid relay 6 or clutch mechanism starting the auxiliary engine. Presents the block diagram of the automatic control can be run, for example, from the ignition key 8.

Figure 6 presents the block diagram of the control pad braking moment, which involves liners with two external electrical contact pins from the heater, or a single contact withdrawal from the working surface layer. The main problem to be solved by using this flowchart, is a precision software simultaneous formation of the water layer on the working surface layers of all liners all bearings of the engine.

In the simplest case, the implementation of the control algorithm of the proposed method 6 the next.

Control circuit 10 includes a control circuit individual sources of electric current 9, which provides a supply of specified duration and duty cycle of voltage pulses of current through the heaters of all liners. With the volume control parameter provides a measure of the dielectric losses in the gap between the journal shaft and a work surface in all inserts. Depending on the deviation of the rate of change in dielectric loss from normal (rated) speed of melting of ice (relative dielectric permittivity of ice, for example, at minus 18°C is not more than 3.2, and the relative permittivity of water at 0°C - 88), i.e. in case of exceeding or lagging behind the speed of the process diagram of the control parameters sets the corresponding current source mode respectively decreasing or increasing the current through the heaters, which is a corresponding change in the duration and/or duty cycle of voltage pulses of electric current. In the case of receiving a predetermined threshold value of the dielectric loss of all liners diagram of the control parameters disables all current sources and includes starter solenoid relay 11 of the engine or the clutch mechanism of the starter.

According to the formula of the invention to implement the relevant variants of the proposed method is applied and the corresponding design solutions device for implementation.

The device according to paragraph 4, of the claims is intended to implement the method according to claim 1 and 2, which is provided for the purposes of operational control friction to apply the same type of liners in the bearings as an Assembly vladikas built-in electric heaters. Options 1 and 2 such assemblies liners are presented respectively 7 and 8.

In the presented 7 and 8 structural schemes Assembly shell bearings both constructive variants used the following notation:

12 is a semi-cylindrical base liner;

13 is a dielectric material;

14 - layer structure heaters;

15 - work the surface layer;

16 - junction layer of a dielectric material with a base liner;

17 - internal electrical pin contact pin of the electrical heater;

18 is an external electric contact sheet the output of the heater;

19 - hole for macropolicy;

20 is an external electrical pin contact pin of the electrical heater;

21 - the tip of the output.

Offer constructive solutions assemblies liners have a serial electrical connection of electric heaters, liners due elektroizolyacionnogo metal layer 14, which in turn provides permanent mechanical connection of the inserts.

From the point of view of the electric load of the electric heaters in the Assembly of the liners have equality flowing electric current, as connected in series, and the "earth" in this connection is the basis of one of the liners in the Assembly. The difference of the structure, the active Assembly options liners is in variant 1 (7) external electrical terminals of the electric heater 18 is implemented as a sheet structure, as in option 2 (Fig) external electrical contact pin of the electrical heater 20 is made in the form of a pin.

Application device according to claim 4 in the form of an Assembly of the liners is most effective in the bearings of the camshaft of the engine, especially when the camshaft of the engine is enclosed between the monolithic upper and lower lids, playing a role similar shell bearings. The main condition for the effectiveness of the Assembly of the liners is the operational identity of the starting temperatures of the upper and lower pad bearings.

In the device according to item 5 for the implementation of the method according to claim 1 and 2 should be used as a slide bearing kit of two separate inserts, each of which has an internal electrical contact pin output connecting structure which is embedded in the liner heater with metal base ("land"), as well as its own external electrical contact with the output of the heater. The difference in the construction of liners is that under option 3, presented on Fig.9, the liner is made with an external electric sheet Comte who tym output of the heater 18, as for option 4, presented in Figure 10, with the outer electrical contact pin output of the electric heater 20.

This design allows an early account of the difference in initial operating conditions of the bearings in the bearing and to create patterns of their heaters on the required electric power for the simultaneous achievement on the working surface layers of the upper and lower liner minimum values of coefficient of friction in the bearings.

Control pad friction device according to claim 4 and 5 can be carried out both in manual and in automatic mode, start the engine, and the initial temperature of all bearings, are equipped with liners with built-in heaters (options 1-4), in this case should be the same, that is, as a rule, characteristic of the crankshaft and camshafts frozen motor average power.

The implementation of the method according to claim 1 and 2, using the device according to claim 4 and / or 5 is recommended on almost all types of automotive gasoline, diesel and gas engines with capacity from 50 to 250 kW at temperatures down to minus 60÷65°C and below, the switching on and off a DC electric current through the heaters liners in the presence of multiple current sources to which should be synchronous.

The implementation of the method according to claim 3 is only possible with the device according to claim 6. of the claims. The device with the proposed structure of the bearings in the bearing (11 and 12) includes two outer electrical contact of the output from the heater 18 or 20, because of the need to avoid electromagnetic interference and energy to the eddy current in the metallic structure of the engine. The achievement of independent measurements of the parameters characterizing the individual status of each insert in the slide bearing is provided with contact taps of the working surface of the layer 22, playing a role of median plates in the capacitor structure. The middle plate is divided inorganic dielectric medium of the capacitor from the organic dielectric environment. Since the relative dielectric constant inorganic dielectric environment is practically constant throughout the low-temperature range and does not exceed values of 2.2 and 2.4, and the relative dielectric constant of the organic dielectric environment depends entirely on structural-phase state of water molecules, highly accurate and efficient measurement of dielectric losses in the layer of ice/water on the working surface layer is not technical and metrological challenges

Constructive difference structures liners in variants 5 and 6, which are presented on 11 and 12 respectively, is that in version 5 liner comply with the contact taps of the working surface of the layer 22 and the outer electrical contact terminals of the heater 18 in the sheet performance, and option 6 external electrical contact terminals of the heater liner 20 is made in the male version.

Using the method according to claim 3 and device for its realization according to claim 6 of the formula of the invention provide rapid and energy-efficient start interconnected system of engines, as well as large motor units and units with an indeterminate value of the temperature regime between the bearings, and in the presence of temperature gradient inside bearings.

All variants of the device (s) according to claim 4, 5, and 6 are based on the same type of group technology and may vary as materials of the working surface layers and grounds, and the composition and structure of the insulating inorganic dielectric.

The application of this method and device for its implementation, for example, automotive internal combustion engines with a capacity of 100÷250 kW ensures that when they start from a frozen state when temperaturemap 60°C with a 10 second electric heating and electric power consumption from the battery 300÷350 watts maximum mobility piston engine system is achieved when the current starter is not more than 50÷70 A.

As examples of the calculations for the above-mentioned method pre-time and current loads on the electric heaters of various design and technological options liners, and industrial technology manufacturing assemblies and individual liners with built-in heater layer are KNOW-HOW and will be presented for review by an authorized expert of Rospatent in the presence of the author by guarantee not to disclose this KNOW-HOW.

1. The control method of starting the braking torque of the internal combustion engine, comprising heating the working surface layer liners anchor bearings before the application of the starting torque to the crankshaft of the engine, characterized in that the first electric current is passed through the heaters, which are built under the working surface of each liner, then turn off the power supply to the heaters, liners and simultaneously with turning off the power supply making the starting torque, and the time τ (C) passing electrical current through the heater liner is determined by the formula
;
where kRR- coefficient of external losses;
kp- coefficient of overheating;
Qt- desired quantity of heat (j);
I - electric current passing through electromagnetical (A);
R - electric resistance heater (Om).

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the flow of electrical current through the heaters liners are carried out with time and current bimetal relays or electronic timer, which provides the required time specified electric current through the heaters, liners, and then the management application of the starting torque.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the heaters liners attach to the individual, controllable source of electrical energy, and a working surface layer of these inserts to the measuring system, in which the measured parameters are used to control mode of the electric current passing through the electric heaters, liners, and to control the application of the starting torque.

4. The control device starting the braking torque of the internal combustion engine, containing at least two bearing support bearing slides, each of which has a metal base in the form of a semicylinder with a metal working surface, wherein the working surface of each liner is fully insulated inorganic dielectric material of the metal layer with the structure of the second heater, the pair of end faces of consecutive inserts are connected together by a common layer of metal heaters, one liners are equipped with pins or tape to the external electrical contact pin that is electrically connected with the beginning of the structure of the heater, and the other end of the structure of the heater through pin internal electrical contact pin electrically connected to the metal base of this insert.

5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that each insert equip the inner pin and the outer pin or tape the electrical contact pins, which are electrically connected respectively with the beginning and end of the structure of the heater liner.

6. The control device starting the braking torque of the internal combustion engine, containing at least two bearing support bearing slides, each of which has a metal base in the form of a semicylinder with a metal work surface, characterized in that the heaters liners connected to individual managed sources of electrical energy, and a working surface layer of these inserts to the measuring system, in which the measured parameters are used to control mode of the electric current passing through the electric heaters,liners, and to control the application of the starting torque, with each liner is equipped with two pins or tape to the external electrical terminal leads electrically connected respectively with the beginning and end of the structure of the heater, and a working surface layer of the liner supply external tape elektroizolyatsionnymi contact pins electrically connected to this layer.



 

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