Supersonic aircraft (versions)

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to long-range executive aircraft. Proposed aircraft comprises airframe, sweptback wing, vertical tail unit, running gear and power plant made up of engines, air intakes and nozzles. Airframe front has flatted nose cone smoothly aligned with cockpit and passenger cabin with circular sections. Wing root front edge is rounded and smoothly aligned with airframe. Wing root rear edge has a break. Vertical rudder integrated with horizontal tail unit is arranged on tip of vertical tail extension. Wing features crosswise V angle. Supersonic air intakes are arranged above wing top surface on both sides of airframe, while, ahead of air intakes, both wing and airframe are a bit contracted. Ahead of air intakes, there are perforated sections for intake of boundary layer. Supersonic air intakes comprise mechanism of controlled air cross flows from boundary layer discharge channel into channel feeding air into engine. Supersonic nozzle critical section is arranged above airframe top surface between two vertical tail fins. Flat nozzle has rotary top flap. Airframe tail section changes into flat surface to smoothly terminate in elevation rudder. Tail elevation rudder comprises mechanism of down-displacement in take-off-landing conditions. Reverse rotary panel is arranged ahead of elevation rudder above airframe top surface. Channels for reverse lower jets are arranged below said panel.

EFFECT: minimised effects on ecology at high cruising speeds.

14 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates primarily to administrative (business) aircraft long range, designed to make business travel leaders, municipal governments, large enterprises, businessmen, etc. and for urgent delivery of small packages to save time in all cases in comparison with other vehicles.

All existing administrative aircraft are subsonic flight speeds. When flying at a distance of 6000...7500 km far subsonic aircraft of type Falcon, Challenger, Gulfstream and others spend almost 10 hours. To reduce the physiological and psychological loads acting on the passengers in such a long flight, this aircraft (LA) equipped with comfortable Lounges, the dimensions of which allow movement through the cabin.

Considering that all a business trip at a distance of 6000...7500 km with the necessary facilities for leisure time takes 2...3 days, seems to be a very actual possibility of making a one-day business trips, when, being out of the house in the morning, afternoon meetings at the place of arrival and in the evening to return home. This mode of travel will facilitate passenger physiological tolerance of the flight, not on the sutured the rhythm of life and will not require waste of time to adapt to the local time at the destination and return. The solution to this problem is possible when creating a supersonic business aircraft with a cruising speed of 1900...2100 km/h.

Known supersonic administrative aircraft C-21, developed by OKB them. Sukhoi in cooperation with the American company "Gulf stream" (see "Moscow international aerospace salon", Moscow, Izd-vo "Afros", IPTC "Logo", 1995). As stated in the source, C-21 has a takeoff weight of about 52 tons and is designed to carry 8 to 10 passengers at a range of up to 7400 km the Aircraft has aerodynamic layout that contains the fuselage, substantially speaking in front of the wing with a double sweep of the leading edge, telephonethe canards, single vertical tail and three engine nacelle engines, two of which are located under the wing, and the third in the rear fuselage. The maximum dimensions of the passenger compartment of the aircraft C-21 in the cross section are height - 1.86 m, width - 1.6 m However, the high level sonic boom (more than 45 PA) does not allow you to fly over land at supersonic speed. In this regard, the use of S-21 as a supersonic aircraft is limited to flights across the ocean. In addition, operating costs for the C-21 is more than two times higher than costs for subsonic counterparts due to it being the but of greater value (40... $ 50 million instead of 18...25 million) and approximately three times greater fuel consumption.

Known supersonic business aircraft Aerion" (see U.S. patent No. 5897076, April 27, 1999), developed by the company RENO (USA), containing laminaribioside wing relatively small aspect ratio low sweep angle. However, this wing provides no reduction of the sonic boom and, in addition, does not provide for passenger aircraft inventory stability at high angles of attack that are possible with estimated gusts of wind.

Also known supersonic aircraft with a swept wing (see U.S. patent No. 4828204, 1989)containing the fuselage, the front section of which is in front of the wing center section is structurally integrated with the wing, the rear section of the fuselage is the trailing edge of the wing. The front section of the fuselage and part of the Central section are tilted inward side walls forming in the longitudinal direction of the surface of single curvature. The Central section has a bottom surface coupled to the bottom surface of the wing so that the fuselage is not playing anywhere below the wing. Two gondolas engines, installed on the lower surface of the wing on both sides of the fuselage, have air intakes located behind the leading edge of the wing. The plane contains two vertical fin, each of which is mounted near the respective end of the wing, you the e and below the plane of the chords. At each end of the wing there is an additional surface which can be rotated about a transverse axis, providing control of the aircraft in roll and pitch. Obviously, aerodynamic design optimized for supersonic cruising flight mode, in connection with which an airplane wing has a small elongation and area. To accommodate salon and a relatively large amount of fuel the aircraft fuselage is long. As a result of its wetted surface and hence its aerodynamic drag and weight of the structure increases. The trapezoidal cross-sectional shape of the fuselage is irrational from the point of view of design gauge pressure inside the fuselage, which also increases the weight of its design. This cross-sectional shape is also not optimal to ensure a high comfort for the passengers, because the maximum cabin width should be at the level of the elbows, and not on the floor level. Posted by wingspan engine nacelle engines partially unload the wing, however, require reinforcement design of a wing for the perception of concentrated loads. Exploded engine nacelle increase approximately 20% of the wave resistance and about 40% of the frictional resistance of the engine nacelles, which is associated with the shape of the nacelles (the area of the fuselage mid-section of the engine nacelle primer is 1.5 times the area of the entrance to the intake) and the growth of their wetted surface compared to the layout of the engines in a single integrated engine nacelle. In addition, the use of spaced nacelle complicates the task of ensuring the balancing of the aircraft when the failure of one engine.

Known supersonic aircraft (see US patents No. 6729577 B2, May 4, 2004, US No. 6824092 B1, Nov. 30, 2004 and US No. 6921045 B2, Jul. 26, 2005), containing an elongated fuselage, a wing of the large sweep angle transverse V and controls on the rear edge, a tail with an inverted V, supported on the rear part of the wing and keel, as well as gondolas engines located under the rear part of the wing. According to the publication, this version of the aircraft is optimized to achieve the lowest possible level of sonic booms. However, an elongated fuselage, the maximum diameter of which is forward relative to the front edge of the influx wing, requires strengthening structures to ensure the necessary rigidity and creates additional frictional resistance. As a result, estimates of the value of the aerodynamic quality on cruise mode does not exceed 6...6.5. The location of the air intakes under the wing is useful to increase the recovery factor of the total pressure, but the results of the authors of the experiment in a wind tunnel a strong perturbation of the flow from the air inlets in fact nullify all measures to reduce the sonic boom from the airframe

Known supersonic aircraft (see patent RU No. 2212360 C1, 21.03.2002)containing the fuselage, wing, located in the rear fuselage propulsion unit installed on it vertical fin, the canards and the chassis, and the wing is moved forward relative to the fuselage and made trapezoidal, at the junction of the fuselage with the wing on top of the fuselage is made oblique slice, transforming into a horizontal platform on which there are air inlet of the power plant, and the root console and part of the wing have either zero, and positive V-shape, respectively, or the root portion of the wing has a V-shape large than the wing. However, as with the previous option, elongated nose of the fuselage requires strengthening structures to ensure the necessary rigidity and creates additional frictional resistance, but also complicates the problem of implementing required from the aerodynamic point of view alignment. The top of the air intakes in the layout with GIP, apparently, impossible

because of the high probability of vortices. A similar problem for the specified layout is possible in respect of the vortices coming off the junction of the wing and fuselage as well as, in some modes, with the side edges of the oblique slice. In addition, the use of the wing on ojuitelinii V-shaped with angles of 20...30° leads to a noticeable increase lateral stability and the impossibility of balancing the roll when the glide angle.

In addition, all of the above options supersonic aircraft do not contain any technical solution that provides compliance with the noise in the airport area, created mainly supersonic jet engines.

Closest to the proposed invention is a supersonic aircraft (see patent RU 2100253 C1, 06.12.95 g)containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power plant consisting of two or more engines, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, characterized in that the fuselage smoothly mates with the wing and the upper part of the engine nacelle and is not acting for the nozzles of the engines, the engines are placed in a single nacelle, while the intakes are located under the wing and their front edges are at a distance of 0,6...0,8 length of the fuselage, counting from its nose, each half of the wing is made of three sections, and the relative magnitude of the root and intermediate sections of the wing in fractions of poluraspada wing in the breaking points are values of 0.2...0.35 and 0.6 to...0.75 respectively, the angles of sweepback of the leading edge 70°-82° for the root partition, 55°-65° for middle section and 35°-55° for the end of the section, the sweep of the rear edges of the end and intermediate sections are values ±10°, and the magnitude of the root chord the wing is the value of 0,8...1,0 length of the fuselage. However, the prototype has a level of sonic boom in cruising flight more than 18...20 PA, as well as other of the above options, has no technical solution that provides compliance with the noise in the airport area.

The objective of the invention is to develop technical solutions for supersonic business jet (SDS) with aerodynamic configuration, providing a reduction in weight of the aircraft, achieving high performance in cruise flight when the implementation of the norms on noise around airports, providing levels of sonic boom, valid for the flight over land without restrictions (less than 15 PA).

The technical result is to reduce the sonic boom and noise while maintaining a relatively small area of the wetted surface of the aircraft, the low level of impedance plane and the relative weight of the aircraft structure.

The technical result is achieved in that in a supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power plant consisting of two or more engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, the nose of the fuselage is made with a radius of 0.1...5 mm in the vertical plane and a radius of 300...1500 mm in the horizontal plane, when the eat its lower surface inclined relative to the horizontal plane at an angle of 25...35°, and the top - 10...15°, and smoothly integrated with the rest of the front part of the fuselage, with close to a circular cross-sectional shape, with the increase of the radius of the front fuselage, the corresponding optimal allocation to achieve the minimum sonic boom, made about the middle of the length of the passenger compartment.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that in a supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power plant consisting of two or more engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, the root section of the wing is made from curved on plan projection of the front edge and angle transverse V, is equal to 3...9°, and in the place where it mates with the fuselage has a sweep angle of 80...86°, the profile of the leading edge of the root section of the wing is made with a radius of 5...40 mm, and a console part of the wing is made with an angle transverse V = 2...8°.

The rear edge of the root section of the wing is made with a break, and the break on the scale exceeds the scope of the nozzle and stands for the vertical tail on the value 0.1...0.3 poluraspada nozzle, the angle of sweep of the edges connecting the rear end point of the cross section of the wing root and the break point with the hat is...-80 -70°, and at the end of advocating for the vertical tail along the span of the wing is made handlebar height.

The rudder combined with horizontal tail surfaces, and the span of the horizontal tail does not exceed the span of the wing root by more than 15%.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that in a supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power plant consisting of two or more engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, supersonic air intakes of engines placed on the top surface of the wing root on the sides of the fuselage, and the distance from the edge of the air intake to the edge of the wing root is a value not less than 1/3 of the span of the wing root, and front air intakes wing and the fuselage is made with the preload, which is at a distance of 0.15...0.5 characteristic transverse size of the air intake go on the plane with a tilt angle of 0...±3° with respect to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

On planes before intakes and in them is fulfilled the perforated areas on the inner side which is adjacent the discharge duct boundary layer on the upper surface of the fuselage and wing.

Supersonic vozduhonagrevateljam mechanism controlled bypass air from the channel drain boundary layer in the channel of the duct to the engine.

Supersonic air intakes are made in the form of a circular segment with an angle of 100...130°, and cheeks intake executed in parallel planes on the wing and the fuselage in front of the intakes.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that in a supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power plant consisting of two or more engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, lower the tail part of the fuselage is integrated with the nacelle engines, smoothly into the flat in the transverse direction of the surface, and its width is equal to or exceeds the width of the nozzles of the engines, and ends with the handlebar height.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that in a supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power plant consisting of two or more engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, the critical section of a supersonic nozzle is located above the upper surface of the fuselage, and the distance from the critical section to the end of the fuselage is the value of at least 3...6·DEQwhere DEQ- diameter of the circle, equal area of the critical section, and the sides of the nozzle is war of the vertical tail with camber angle 2...30°.

The critical section of the nozzle has a rectangular cross-section, and the ratio of height and width of the critical section is set to 3...10, is made with a swivel top sash long 0.5...1.5 height critical section of the nozzle with rotation angles of -5...20°.

Tail rudder contains an offset mechanism it on subsonic modes down to a distance of 0.1...0.5 height of the nozzle.

Console vertical fin is made with a constant or variable gap size in the cross section of 0.1...0.5 height of the nozzle and with a height corresponding to the height of the side boundaries of the gas jet from the nozzle of the engine.

Before the wheel height on the upper surface of the fuselage is a swivel panel reverse, under which are the channels for the lower jets reverse and closing them on the flight modes without reverse of the leaf, and the channels directed at an angle 0...20° in the lateral direction.

Thus, this result is achieved by different groups of signs: use pribludinoy the forward fuselage, a wing of the complex form in terms of the location of the air intakes on the wing with advanced braking of the flow surface of the wing and fuselage, managed bypass air from the AC is Ala drain boundary layer in the channel of the duct to the engine, the tail portion is integrated with the nacelle fuselage and nozzle with a certain value of the parameters. The greatest effect is achieved by the simultaneous use of these features and their rational mutual arrangement.

The claimed technical solution is illustrated graphic materials, in which figure 1 shows the planned projection plane, figure 2 - General view of a supersonic aircraft from the front hemisphere, figure 3 shows a diagram of preload wing (fuselage) in front of the air inlet and the bypass circuit boundary layer, figure 4 shows the layout of the tail nozzle, figure 5 - schematic cross-section of the nozzle.

The plane made by aerodynamic configuration "Bushwacka with TH" with an estimated degree of longitudinal static instability at subsonic and stability at supersonic speeds (see figure 1) and contains the fuselage 1, the swept wing 2 with mechanization, combined with two or more engines and integrated with the tail part of the fuselage nacelle 3 air inlet 4 and the nozzle 5, the vertical tail 6, aerodynamic controls, chassis and system management.

The front part of the fuselage 1 includes a flattened nose cone 7, as well as the cockpit and the passenger compartment 8, which is to provide comfort and minimum weight design you Olney with close to a circular shape sections.

To minimize the level of sonic booms from the fuselage suitable peak increase of excess pressure in the head race with subsequent gradual build-up of pressure. This nose portion in contrast, for example, from the aircraft for U.S. patent No. 6921045 B2 creates less resistance, because the flat surface compared with the conical creates the same high pressure at smaller angles of inclination and, in addition, makes a positive contribution to the lift force and creates favorable to reduce losses glide on the balance in supersonic flight, the aerodynamic pitching moment on. Additionally, this form reduces the length of the fore part of the fuselage increases the directional stability (by reducing the size, and therefore weight, and resistance of the vertical fin). Smooth increase of the diameter of the fuselage, the corresponding optimal allocation to achieve the minimum sonic boom, about the middle of the length of the passenger compartment 8, reduces the length of the forward fuselage, and creates less resistance.

The root section of the wing is made from curved on plan projection of the front edge 9 and an angle transverse V, is equal to 3...9°, and in the place where it mates with the fuselage 1 has a sweep angle 78...84°, and the cantilever portion of the wing 10 the imp is replaced with an angle transverse V, equal 2...8°. Large angle sweep the root section of the wing in place of articulation with the fuselage provides minimal disturbance of the flow, which is favourable to reduce the sonic boom and wave resistance. Fade perturbations from the wing does not require reduction of the diameter of the fuselage from the point of junction with the wing to achieve the optimal allocation to minimize the sonic boom and, accordingly, allows to increase the volume and reduce the length and weight of the fuselage, and also prevents the appearance of vortices in the place of articulation. The moderate angle transverse V practically no effect on the characteristics of stability and controllability, but beneficial to reduce the sonic boom. The rounding of the leading edge 9 increases the volume of the wing and the value of the maximum angle of attack, which reduces the demands on the efficiency and speed of transfer controls to compensate the effects of wind gusts, and also increases the aerodynamic performance at subsonic speeds by implementing pagsasalaysay force. According to literature information with subsonic leading edge of the ascending wave drag at supersonic flow does not occur.

The presence of the rear influx of a large sweep favorably as at supersonic SC is rastah flight, because it works in the field of positive interference with the wing consoles, and at high angles of attack when exposed to impulse at low subsonic speeds, since its top surface at the edge 11 is formed a longitudinal vortex, preventing separation of the flow from the upper surface of the fuselage and, consequently, delay the emergence of "spoons" in the characteristic longitudinal moment, as well as increasing the aerodynamic efficiency of the rudder 12.

Association rudder 12 with horizontal tail surfaces 13 increases the aerodynamic efficiency, and the location of the CS is almost in the track behind the rear influx root portion of the wing provides the console in the slopes close to 1, which increases the effectiveness of the horizontal tail, especially to create a dive the moment when the deviation of mechanization on the rear edge of the outer wings 10.

The top position of the air inlet 4 prevents an adverse influence on the magnitude of the sonic boom and prevents foreign objects when moving on the runway, as well as hot jets of gas at the reverse. The location of the air intakes near the vertical plane of symmetry behind the influx on the distance to the front edge of the wing root 9 not less than 1/3 of the span of the wing root excludes VI the ray from the front of influx for entry into the intakes. The deterioration of the characteristics of the air intakes at supersonic speeds due to acceleration of the flow on the wing upper surface is compensated preliminary preload surface 14 of the wing and fuselage with subsequent smooth transition with a negative curvature in the plane 15 with an angle of 0...±3° relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, which is retarding and aligns the flow before entering the intakes.

A slowdown and, as a consequence, the pressure increase in front of the vents allow for venting of the boundary layer through the perforations 16 and its discharge through the discharge duct 17 to the upper surface of the fuselage 1 and wing 2, which virtually eliminates additional resistance, which causes the traditional plum wedge boundary layer.

Supersonic air intakes 4 contain the mechanism 18 is controlled by-pass air from the pipe edge drain layer 17 in the channel of the duct 19 from air intakes to the engine. The mechanism 18 is controlled bypass can be performed as in the form of managed sash, and the sash opening or closing automatically, depending on the pressure drop in the drain channel 17 and the duct 19. This solution is due to the fact that the need for supersonic flight area of the throat of the air intake is insufficient is La pass the required quantity of air and a small supersonic speeds. Meanwhile, the negative impact from the fence boundary layer on the flow characteristics before entering the engine by decreasing the number M of flight decreases, and at subsonic flight speeds even becomes favorable.

The opening angle of the cheeks 20 and inlet 4, is equal to 100...130° on the front view, seamlessly mate the wing and fuselage and minimizes negative tilt angles required to tighten the wing and fuselage 14 and then switch to a plane 15 with the near-zero angle to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. The shell 21 of the circular segment mates with the nacelle of the engine 3 with a minimum angles and, consequently, the wave resistance.

The lower tail portion of the fuselage 1, integrated with the nacelle of the engine 3, smoothly into the flat in the transverse direction of the surface 22, and its width is equal to or exceeds the width of the nozzles of the engines 5, and ends with a rudder 23 located between fins vertical fin 6. This solution ensures high efficiency of longitudinal control, minimizing the wave resistance and the creation of favorable kairouseki moment at supersonic speeds.

The critical section 24 supersonic nozzle 5 is located above the upper surface of the fuselage 1, and the distance from the critical section is about the end of the fuselage is the value of at least 3...6·D EQwhere DEQ- the diameter of a circle equal in area to a critical section, and the sides of the nozzle 5 is war the vertical tail 6 camber angle 2...30°. According to estimates of such shape and location of the critical section of the nozzle provide noise reduction jet 6...10 dBA.

The critical section 24 of the nozzle 5 has a rectangular cross-section, and the ratio of height and width of the critical section is set to 3...10, is made with a swivel top sash 25 length 0.5...1.5 height critical section of the nozzle with the angles of rotation about the transverse axis -3...16°. These parameters critical section in rational integration supersonic nozzle 5 with the nacelle 3, and the rotary upper sash 25 is designed to reduce the loss of thrust nozzle 5 at transonic and supersonic regimes.

Tail rudder 23 contains an offset mechanism on his

landing modes down to a distance of 0.1...0.5 height of the nozzle. The offset down rudder ensures the ejection of external air through the gap 26 between the tail part of the fuselage 1 and the tail wheel 23 to reduce noise on takeoff and landing modes due to the mixing of the jet with the external flow and the reduction of its speed at the gathering with the upper surface of the steering wheel.

The organization of a permanent or adjustable slit 30 with the size of the cross with the treatment 0.1...0.5 height of the nozzle between the side boundary of the jet and the console vertical fin 6 provides ejection through the crack outside air to reduce noise on takeoff and landing modes due to the mixing of the jet with the external flow and reducing her speed off the side of the keel (the magnitude of the noise of the jet, as is well known, is proportional to the jet velocity in the 8-th degree).

Before the rudder 23 on the upper surface of the fuselage 1 is a swivel panel reverse 27, under which are the channels 28 for the lower jets reverse and closing them on the flight modes without reverse fold 29. By turning the dial a jet engine depends on the panel and rotated one part forward and upward and the other part is forward and down in the channels. The choice of the rotation angle of the panel and corners profiling channels is provided by the required coefficient of reverse thrust, the desired value of the vertical component of the thrust reverser and the jet direction in the lateral direction to prevent aerodynamic "shaft" below the surface of the plane.

Other elements, components and systems are executed on the basis of known principles and design methods.

The result is compared with the prototype aircraft has lost in the wind and weight characteristics, but provides a significant reduction of the sonic boom and noise on the ground.

The results of the studies and calculations show that the aircraft performed on the proposed schemes and the proposed technical solutions will have a high performance on aerodynamically resistance and the mass of its design and lower sonic boom and noise on the ground in the airport area.

1. Supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power unit, consisting of engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, characterized in that the nose of the fuselage is made with a radius of 0.1...5 mm in the vertical plane and a radius of 300...1500 mm in the horizontal plane, and its lower surface inclined relative to the horizontal plane at an angle of 25...35°, and the upper - -10...-15° and smoothly integrated with the rest of the front part of the fuselage, with close to a circular shape cross-section, with the increase of the radius of the front fuselage, the corresponding optimal allocation to achieve the minimum sonic boom, made about the middle of the length of the passenger compartment.

2. Supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power unit, consisting of engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, wherein the root section of the wing is made from curved on plan projection of the front edge and angle transverse V, is equal to 3...9°, and in the place where it mates with the fuselage has a sweep angle of 80...86°, the profile front is th edge of the root section of the wing is made with a radius of 5...40 mm, and the console portion of the wing is made with an angle transverse V = 2...8°.

3. Supersonic aircraft according to claim 2, characterized in that the rear edge of the root section of the wing is made with a break, and the break on the scale exceeds the scope of the nozzle and stands for the vertical tail on the value 0.1...0.3 poluraspada nozzle, the angle of sweep of the edges connecting the rear end point of the cross section of the wing root and the salient point is the value...-80 -70°, and at the end of advocating for the vertical tail wing is made handlebar height.

4. Supersonic aircraft according to claim 3, characterized in that the rudder on the back of the influx of the wing combined with horizontal tail surfaces, and the span of the horizontal tail is not greater than the span of the wing root by more than 15%.

5. Supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power unit, consisting of engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, characterized in that the supersonic air intakes of engines placed on the top surface of the wing root on the sides of the fuselage, and the distance from the outer edge of the air intake to the front edge of the wing root is not less than 1/3 of the span of the root of Castilla, and before intakes wing and fuselage are made with pagetime that at a distance of 0.15...0.5 lateral dimension of the air intake in front of the front edge face on the plane with a tilt angle of 0...±3° with respect to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

6. Supersonic aircraft according to claim 5, characterized in that the planes of the front air intakes are made of a perforated areas on the inner side which is adjacent the discharge duct boundary layer on the upper surface of the fuselage and wing.

7. Supersonic aircraft according to claim 5, characterized in that the supersonic air intakes contain the mechanism of the controlled bypass air from the channel drain boundary layer in the channel of the duct to the engine.

8. Supersonic aircraft according to claim 5, characterized in that the supersonic air intakes are made in the form of a circular segment with an angle of 100...130°, and cheeks intake executed in parallel planes on the wing and the fuselage in front of the intakes.

9. Supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power unit, consisting of engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, characterized in that the lower rear fuselage, integrated with the nacelle is mi engine, smoothly into the flat in the transverse direction of the surface, and its width is equal to or exceeds the width of the nozzles of the engines, and ends with the handlebar height.

10. Supersonic aircraft according to claim 9, characterized in that the tail rudder contains an offset mechanism it on takeoff and landing modes down to a distance of 0.1...0.5 height of the nozzle.

11. Supersonic plane containing the fuselage, swept wing with mechanization, power unit, consisting of engines, supersonic inlets and nozzles, chassis, vertical tail, aerodynamic controls, control system, characterized in that the critical section of a supersonic nozzle is located above the upper surface of the fuselage, and the distance from the critical section to the end of the fuselage is a value not less than (3...6)·DEQ.where DEQ.- the diameter of a circle equal in area to a critical section, and the sides of the nozzle is war of the vertical tail with camber angle 2...30°.

12. Supersonic aircraft according to claim 11, wherein the critical section of the nozzle has a rectangular cross-section, and the ratio of height and width of the critical section is set to 3...10, is made with a swivel top sash length 0,5...1,5 height of the critical section of the nozzle with the angles of rotation about the transverse axis -5...+0°.

13. Supersonic aircraft according to claim 11, characterized in that the console is vertical fin is made with a constant or variable gap size in the cross section of 0.1...0.5 height of the nozzle and with a height corresponding to the height of the side boundaries of the gas jet from the nozzle of the engine.

14. Supersonic aircraft according to claim 11, characterized in that before the wheel height on the upper surface of the fuselage is a swivel panel reverse, under which are the channels for the lower jets reverse and closing them on the flight modes without reverse of the leaf, and the channels directed at an angle 0...20° in the lateral direction.



 

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3 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed air guide flap features one its surface facing air duct and subjected to aid duct air pressure and its another surface is subjected to pressure of relative flow that flows around aircraft. Air guide flap incorporates actuator to automatically open and close it that interacts with adjuster controlling flap position. To maintain stress in air guide flap at low level, there is a device to determine force that defines that applied to actuator from the difference between pressure prevailing in air duct and that of relative flow that flows around aircraft. Aforesaid adjuster control air guide flap position so as to force applied to actuator at any moment is, in fact, zero.

EFFECT: expanded performances.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device is a metallic shield with regular openings, placed in front of engine turbine blades, forming a double-wall with the surface of the channel and held by spacers. Inside the shield and coaxially with it, there is a pair of identical single-thread wire cylindrical spirals with different winding directions. The median values of effective scattering area are reduced (on probability level of 0.5) in the sector of angles of location 0±60° relative the normal to the opening of the channel from 2 dB to 16 dB in the wavelength range from centimetres to decimetres.

EFFECT: reduced effective scattering area of the channel of aircraft engine.

24 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device incorporates protective elements, axially displaced and fitted in air intake casing. The latter comprises metal case, tightly fitted therein and having its chamber open into the casing. The said chamber represents, for example a hollow cylinder with end face collar bent inward and radially magnetised. The proposed device comprises also a cylindrical coil with aerodynamic-shape core arranged in the casing front part. Aforesaid coil is connected to generator of sine-wave and pulsed electric signals with controlled amplitude and frequency. Note here that protective elements represent small fragments/parts of ferromagnetic bodies, e.g. a ferromagnetic powder that fills the said case chamber.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of protection.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engines. The proposed jet propellant plant incorporates outer flaps and screw-like cellular round rotor made up of a set of bent trapezoidal interjointed tubular elements to add to extra propellant force for aerodynamic-body aircraft. The said plant comprises air intake front part (6), cylindrical central part (7) and rear tube (8). Front part (6) features an oval shape and is furnished, on its upper and lower sides, with guides (6.1) allowing the air passage. The plant comprises also a locking system (6.3) representing flat gates or a swinging pan (3). The lower part of front part (6) is partially closed, upward to the said guides, by sector (6.2).

EFFECT: fuel savings, lower level of contamination.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: aircraft industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to aircraft industry, and namely to supersonic aircraft air intake design. Air intake with variable geometry for supersonic aircraft consists of a spatial wedge, a shell with a curved front edge and converging deceleration surface, side walls, drain system of boundary layer in air intake throat through a slot or perforations and curved subsonic diffuser. Channel after air intake throat is made in the form of rectangular cross-section at the inlet, and passes into curved subsonic diffuser with circular cross-section at the outlet. On air intake shell consisting of converging deceleration surface and rotating panels being the continued part of the shell, there installed are hinges ensuring rotation of panels in vertical plane and tightness of air intake channel. According to the second version, channel after air intake throat is made in the form of rectangular cross-section at the inlet, and passes into divergent supersonic diffuser of conical shape with broadening along its axis inclined in relation to longitudinal X axis coinciding with incoming flow direction.

EFFECT: providing effective air flow deceleration in conformity with existing standards, and uniform distribution of flow parameters in diffuser outlet section.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: transportation, aviation.

SUBSTANCE: method of making an aircraft engine air intake from laminar composite material lies in making an inner cowling with a connecting metallic flange and an outer cowling. Inner cowling is assembled from a socket and diffuser, which are made by coiling on the die-bar of the composite material, and the socket is made by contact moulding by sequential piling on the working surface the form of the layers of materials. Dampers are installed on the critical zones for additional fortification of the elements of the air intake vent. Air intake vent contains an outer and inner cowlings, fastened and connected with their aerodynamic surfaces of the entry edge, the inner cowling on the opposite edge end is supplied with a connecting metallic flange and the outer cowling is formed from the back part of the loop with the descending zone.

EFFECT: increase in quality and reliability.

10 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: complex for reactive flight contains units of reactive lift-traction detonation engines rigidly connected with each other and fuselage and located in tandem in carrying plane. There is air intake with deflectors, main propulsive detonation jet and control blades, system for transportation and charging hydrocarbon fuel and electric conductive fluid, as well as electric discharge exciting system. Each lift-traction detonation engine is provided with inlet chamber for ambient air containing lattice with flap valves. Damping device is provided containing reflector made as body sharpened at one end and caved-in at the other end to reflect air-blasts. Combustion chamber with expanding nozzle is connected with operational channel containing for changing traction vector the hinged nozzle with located in it battery of outlet valves for compressed air. These valves are made as lattices with nozzles and flap automatic valves.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, speed and height of flight, manoeuvrability and lifting capacity.

2 cl, 26 dwg

Jet engine frame // 2385270

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocketry. Jet engine frame comprises support rings made from polymer composite-fibrous material and integrated with half-couplings arranged on support rings, and rods with swelled ends. Rods and support rings represent half-couplings embracing rod swells. Rods and their attachments to support rings are made from polymer composite-fibrous material and glued together.

EFFECT: reduced weight, higher reliability.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, namely, to hypersonic aircraft and engines. Proposed aircraft comprises airframe, conical nose, wings, empennage, fuel tanks, jet engine plant and fuel feed lines. Said engine plant is mounted at airframe tail and comprises turbopump unit with oxidiser and fuel impellers fitted on the shaft, turbine, starting turbine with coaxially mounted gas generator and two combustion chambers with extending nozzles.

EFFECT: increased speed and economic operation.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engines, particular by to engine suspensions. Engine suspension appliances allow transmitting forces between engine crankcase and airplane frame and comprise safety emergency device. The latter consists of safety yoke with two ears (31, 32) and long tab, or similar device arranged between aforesaid two ears. Aforesaid yoke or long tab is rigidly attached to engine crankcase element, while the other element is attached to safety emergency device. Note here that both aforesaid elements pass through safety pins (35), perpendicular to engine axis, while both ears (31, 32) and long tab are arranged parallel to aforesaid engine axis.

EFFECT: possibility to transmit front suspension traction force in case transmission gear fails.

8 cl, 3 dwg

Hypersonic aircraft // 2305056

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, wings, fuel tanks, cruise ramjet engines and booster engines working on liquid propellant components. Oxidizer and fuel tanks are mounted in fuselage. Heat-insulated oxidizer supply pipe line runs inside fuel tank which is connected with booster engines by means of fuel supply pipe lines. Ramjet engines are mounted on wings and are connected with fuel tank by means of fuel pipe lines. Booster engines may be turned and fixed in vertical plane. Cruise ramjet engines are provided with swivel flaps at outlet for pitch angle control.

EFFECT: increased flying speed; enhanced economical efficiency of flight.

4 cl, 3 dwg

The invention relates to the field of aeronautical engineering, in particular to devices for fastening the engine to the aircraft (L. A.), mostly single-engine aircraft

The invention relates to the field of aviation technology and can be used in the design of hypersonic aircraft for various purposes, such as passenger and aerospace planes

Light aircraft // 2114768
The invention relates to aeronautical engineering

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft with low noise at take-off and landing. Proposed aircraft comprises airframe, two wings arranged on both sides of airframe ant carrying engines, and tail unit. Vertical tale consists of at least two fins to make with airframe rear end a channel on airframe top. Airframe top accommodates at least one engine to make airflows created by it come into said channel and to engine rear noise is shut off by said channel in lateral and bottom directions. Sweep forward wings have their butt joints arranged behind airframe, nearby engine air intake, to shut off front noise in lateral and bottom directions by wings.

EFFECT: aircraft reduced noise.

2 dwg

FIELD: air transport.

SUBSTANCE: airplane includes nose, front, central, rear and tail sections and fast-speed arrow wing with jet engines. Fast-speed arrow wing is characterised by change of maximum relative profile thickness, geometric twist angle, angle of lateral V wing under wing semispan and middle surface curvature both along semispan and profile chord. Fuel system includes reservoir of the airplane central section and reservoirs in outer wings near the central section at middle part and at the periphery. The central section is equipped with expandable walls. Fuel system provides initial use of fuel from central section reservoir, then from fuel tanks of outer wings located near central section and then from tanks at the periphery of outer wings, and after all the others - from the middle part of the wing by fuel transfer between tanks.

EFFECT: improvement of aerodynamic characteristics for planes with different weight and hull length.

22 cl, 54 dwg

FIELD: air transport.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft is made in proportion L/C=1/1, where L - hull length with diametre df≥4.18 m, C - wing span, which is formed with supercritical sections and made with the following parametres: aspect ratio λ≥1.5, sweep in line 1/4 chord χ≥26.5°, setting angle α0=3°, local transverse wing V angle ψ=5.37°, taper aspect η=3.928 and mean aerodynamic chord ba=3.479 m.

EFFECT: decreasing fuel consumption.

5 dwg, 3 tbl

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