Aircraft with low noise at take-off and landing
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft with low noise at take-off and landing. Proposed aircraft comprises airframe, two wings arranged on both sides of airframe ant carrying engines, and tail unit. Vertical tale consists of at least two fins to make with airframe rear end a channel on airframe top. Airframe top accommodates at least one engine to make airflows created by it come into said channel and to engine rear noise is shut off by said channel in lateral and bottom directions. Sweep forward wings have their butt joints arranged behind airframe, nearby engine air intake, to shut off front noise in lateral and bottom directions by wings.
EFFECT: aircraft reduced noise.
The technical field,
The present invention relates to an aircraft with low noise levels, particularly during take-offs and landings.
From patent US 3 017 936 known aircraft, containing the fuselage, two wings on the sides relative to the fuselage and not bearing engines, vertical tail, consisting of at least two fins and forming together with the rear part above the fuselage channel located on the back of the fuselage, and at least one gas turbine engine, located on the back of the fuselage, so that the gas flow generated by the gas turbine engine, fell into the canal.
Thus, due to the design of the rear tail unit in the form of a channel and the location of gas turbine engines at the entrance of the channel can significantly reduce back the noise (i.e. the noise is directed back and created by the rotating parts of gas turbine engines, and the noise generated by the combustion chamber), because the rear noise is absorbed by the channel and is removed along it upwards away from the fuselage, that is, away from the passengers in the rear cabin of the aircraft, and especially from residents living near airports. Rear noise generated by gas turbine engines, overlaps the I so the " tail of the fuselage, forming an acoustic screen.
As to reduce the front-to-noise (i.e. the noise is directed forward and created fan gas turbine engines), the patent US 3 017 936 is provided, on the one hand, a significant lengthening of the forward gondola gas turbine engines and, on the other hand, a movable plates between the wings of the aircraft and gas turbine engines. Thus, the wings are used in combination with movable flaps for the education of the screen, silencing front noise.
It should be noted that this design is very complex and that, furthermore, it can only be used for aircraft short length, as gondolas gas turbine engines must not be extended beyond measure, so as not to degrade the aerodynamic properties of the aircraft and the characteristics of gas turbine engines.
Summary of the invention
The technical task of the present invention is to remedy these disadvantages and provide a simple and effective reduction of the noise level of the front even on aircraft of great length, particularly during take-offs and landings.
The task according to the present invention is solved by the creation of the aircraft, containing fusel is W, two wings, located in the lateral direction relative to that of the fuselage and not bearing engines, vertical tail, consisting of at least two fins and forming together with the rear part above the fuselage channel located on the back of the fuselage, and at least one gas turbine engine, located on the back of the fuselage so that the gas flow generated by the gas turbine engine, fell into the canal and back to the gas turbine engine noise overlap in the lateral direction and the lower direction of the specified channel of the specified aircraft is characterized by the fact that
the wings have reverse sweep, and
butt connectors mentioned wings are made near the air intake of the gas turbine engine to the front the noise produced by the motor overlap in the lateral direction and the lower direction of the said wings.
The present invention is based on the fact that, as the wings have reverse sweep, it is possible (while maintaining satisfactory flight characteristics from the point of view of the position of the center of aerodynamic forces relative to the center of gravity of the aircraft) sufficiently to move back to the wing along the fuselage, so they blocked the front noise of a gas turbine engine in the lei.
In addition, it should be noted that due to the reverse sweep wing aircraft has excellent cruising flight characteristics, in particular, through the use of technology laminarinase stream.
Brief description of drawings
Further the present invention explained in the description of the preferred variants of the embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:
Fig. 1 depicts a General view of the back and top of the aircraft according to the invention;
Fig. 2 is a top view of an aircraft according to the invention.
Description of the preferred embodiment variants of the invention
The aircraft 1 in accordance with the present invention (Fig. 1 and 2) contains two wings 2 and 3, located on the sides symmetrically with respect to the fuselage 4 with the longitudinal axis L-L.
Tail vertical tail plane 1 contains two keel 5 and 6, forming together with the rear part 7 of the fuselage 4 with the horizontal tail plane, channel 8 located on the back of the plane. Channel 8 is made open at the top, but closed bottom (mentioned back in part 7) and sides (fins 5 and 6).
Two gas turbine engine 9 and 10 is installed on the back of the fuselage 4 and are arranged so that gas flows generated by the aforementioned gas turbine engines is, got into the channel 8. Thus, the channel serves as an acoustic screen that lowers the rear of noise generated by gas turbine engines 9 and 10, in a downward direction and in the lateral direction.
In addition, the wings 2 and 3 have reverse sweep (i.e. their free ends 11, 12 are located closer to the front than their butt connectors 13, 14 on the fuselage 4), and butt connectors 13, 14 occupy a rear position relative to the fuselage 4, which are located near the air inlets 15, 16 gas turbine engines 9, 10. Under these conditions, the front noise created by gas turbine engines 9, 10, overlap in the lateral direction and the lower direction of the wings 2, 3.
Due to the above-described construction, the aircraft 1 is relatively quiet, particularly during take-offs and landings as the rear noise and foreground noise turbine engines 9, 10 respectively overlap a tail 5, 6, 7 and the wings 2, 3. In addition, cruising flight characteristics of the aircraft are excellent due to the backward sweep of the wings.
Aircraft containing the fuselage (4), two wings (2, 3)located in the lateral direction relative to the fuselage (4) and the non-structural engines, vertical tail, consisting of at least two fins (5, 6) and forming together with the rear part (7) fuse is aja (4) channel (8), located on the back of the fuselage, at least one gas turbine engine (9, 10)located on the back of the fuselage (4) so that the gas flow generated by the gas turbine engine (9, 10), fell into the channel (8), and back to the noise of a gas turbine engine (9, 10) overlap in the lateral direction and the lower direction of the said channel, characterized in that the wings (2, 3) have a reverse sweep (φ), with butt connectors (13, 14) of the wings (2, 3) are located at the rear in relation to the specified fuselage (4), so that are located near the air intake (15, 16) gas turbine engine (9, 10)to the front the noise produced by the motor overlap in the lateral direction and the lower direction of the said wings (2, 3).
FIELD: air transport.
SUBSTANCE: airplane includes nose, front, central, rear and tail sections and fast-speed arrow wing with jet engines. Fast-speed arrow wing is characterised by change of maximum relative profile thickness, geometric twist angle, angle of lateral V wing under wing semispan and middle surface curvature both along semispan and profile chord. Fuel system includes reservoir of the airplane central section and reservoirs in outer wings near the central section at middle part and at the periphery. The central section is equipped with expandable walls. Fuel system provides initial use of fuel from central section reservoir, then from fuel tanks of outer wings located near central section and then from tanks at the periphery of outer wings, and after all the others - from the middle part of the wing by fuel transfer between tanks.
EFFECT: improvement of aerodynamic characteristics for planes with different weight and hull length.
22 cl, 54 dwg
FIELD: air transport.
SUBSTANCE: aircraft is made in proportion L/C=1/1, where L - hull length with diametre df≥4.18 m, C - wing span, which is formed with supercritical sections and made with the following parametres: aspect ratio λ≥1.5, sweep in line 1/4 chord χ≥26.5°, setting angle α0=3°, local transverse wing V angle ψ=5.37°, taper aspect η=3.928 and mean aerodynamic chord ba=3.479 m.
EFFECT: decreasing fuel consumption.
5 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft wing tip features sweepback of leading edge with wing lower surface formed by smooth continuation of wing lower surface generatrix. Leading edge of wing tip end is made straight and sharp with sweepback of 70° to 85° at the point of intersection of nonlinear leading edge of wing tip with continuation of the line of maximum wing thickness. Profiles chords parallel to wing symmetry plane form lower surface. Transition from wing with profile blunt nose to sharp one of wing tip rear end, over lower surface, is made smooth. Upper surface of wing tip is formed by continuation of wing upper surface to smoothly terminate at sharp leading edge.
EFFECT: improved aerodynamic properties.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed straight high-speed wing is made at aspect ratio λ=9-11 and taper ratio η=3.5-4.2. Wing is formed as integral spatial system on base of straight wing having zero sweep by rear spar and leading-edge wing extension with integral base profile; profiles from root one to tip one have maximum negative concavity f=0.015-0.02 in tail sections of profile at position in span changing from X=0.5 for root profile to X=0.9 for tip profile. Wing thickness ratio ranges from 0.165 to 0.13. Profile twist angles φi change from +1.5 to -1.5 degrees according to linear law; angles of inclination of upper surface at trailing edge is δ£6-7 degrees.
EFFECT: enhanced lift and speed qualities; reduction of mass; increase of wing net volume.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wing is formed as integral spatial system on base of rear spar at zero sweep and integral base profile which is modified in span in such way that root profile is mounted at angle of plus 1.0-1.5 degrees ensuring maximum of magnitudes Mk* and Mzo at moderate magnitudes Cymax and tip profile is mounted at angle of minus 1.5-2 degrees ensuring maximum magnitude Cymax. Profiles have maximum negative concavity f=0.15-0.2 in tail sections of profile whose position changes in span from X=0.6 for root profile to X=0.9 for tip profile. Wing thickness ratio changes from 0.16 to 0.13.
EFFECT: enhanced lift and speed qualities.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wing has skin and under-wing pylons. Skin is made from smoothly engageable parts at positive and negative curvature of median surface. At change from side section of wing to end section, profiles of sections are made at change of angle of geometric twist of sections, maximum thickness ratio of profiles, dihedral angle of wing and relative nose radius. Magnitude of dihedral angle of wing along its semispan has maximum between side section and plane of installation of engine. Under-wing pylon has inner side wall directed to fuselage and outer side wall which are flat in larger part of first half of pylon; they are located symmetrically relative to plane of installation of engine. Side walls of pylon are bent towards fuselage in its tail section. Maximum deflection of inner side wall from plane of installation of engine at change from lower sections of pylon to upper ones reduces and its position smoothly shifts in direction opposite to flight.
EFFECT: improved aerodynamic characteristics.
15 cl, 35 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed high-speed swept wing consists of center-wing section and outer-wing panel. Wing is formed as single spatial system on base of non-planar middle surface having S-shaped profile of center lines at negative concavity in tail sections at X>0.7-0.8 and positive concavity f=0.015-0.02 at X> 0-0.7. At change from side sections in span, negative concavity disappears gradually and positions of maximum positive concavity smoothly shift backward by chord from magnitude X=0.3 at side to magnitude X=0.5 in end sections. Aspect ratio of wing λ=9-11, taper ratio η=3.5-4.2 and leading-edge sweep angle is up to Xl.ed.=35o. Upper generatrices of profiles are so made that at rated conditions, maximum rarefaction does not exceed permissible limits Cmax.perm.. Thickness ratio of profiles is formed according to two laws: from leading edge up to X=0.3, at range of C=0-8% and from X=0.3 to the trailing edge at range C=0-17%; maximum thicknesses of profiles are found at X=0.56-0.66.
EFFECT: increased flying speed.
SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, engines, landing gear and control cabin. Aircraft is provided with trough-shaped wing, vertical fins with rudders, stabilizer and elevons. Wing is mounted on fuselage which has no tail section. Vertical fins with rudders are mounted underneath the wing. Stabilizer and elevons are mounted on trailing edge of wing.
EFFECT: reduced mass; reduced drag; improved aerodynamic properties.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; lifting surfaces of various flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed flying vehicle wing has additional aerodynamic surface in form of plate mounted on it. Plane is triangular in plan and its end edge is sharp and is parallel to wing axis of symmetry. Plate is located at distance from tip chord equal to 0.05-0.1 of wing span and its length is equal to 0.1-0.15 of wing chord at point of location of end edge of additional aerodynamic surface. Trailing edge of additional aerodynamic surface is rectilinear in form. Its upper surface is formed by extension of upper surface of wing and lower surface is smoothly conjugated with lower profile of wing tail section.
EFFECT: extended field of application; improved aerodynamic properties.
SUBSTANCE: proposed swept-forward wing has tips of the same sweep. Tips are turned backward in flow to sweep-back position at retained parameters of swept wing and parallelism of tip chord of wing plane of symmetry.
EFFECT: reduction of aeroelastic deformation and avoidance of divergence at high velocity heads on metal swept-forward wing.
SUBSTANCE: device contains hinges located on cover (1) and frame (5). On frame hinge (4) wedge stopper is made, and cover hinge (2) is made as hollow cylinder. The cylinder is linked with the cover by spherical joint (3), and spring-loaded stem (6) is located inside the cylinder. On the stem caster (7) is mounted using cylinder roller (8). The caster is interacting with wedge stopper. Wedge stopper has two surfaces one of which makes with axis of spring-loaded stem (6) the angle equal or less than friction angle when cover is closed.
EFFECT: simplification of construction design and enhancement of device reliability.
SUBSTANCE: systems for automatic control of highly maneuverable aircraft flight provide required characteristics of longitudinal stability and controllability when aircraft is piloted at limit angles of attack and accelerations. The system contains sensor unit 1, automata 2 for longitudinal control with limit modes restrictor ("АПУ"), drive 3, functional unit 4, setting unit 5 for limit values of attack angles (acceleration), first multiplier 6, first adder 7, setting unit 8 for unit signal of allowed attack angle (acceleration) in the range of its limit values.
EFFECT: decrease in attack angle overcontrol in system virtually to zero which fact makes possible to improve significantly characteristics of longitudinal stability and controllability when aircraft is piloted at limit angles of attack and accelerations.
SUBSTANCE: steering gear contains engine, reducer, including located in its body ball-screw gear in the form of actuator screw with actuator nut, and rack-and-pinion gear with actuator nut on toothed quadrant of steering wheel shaft. The steering gear is also provided with compensator of actuator screw deformations appearing in rack-and-pinion gear due to radial forces action when steering wheel is rotated. Deformation compensator is made as roller bearing installed on reducer body on the side opposite to toothed quadrant, and interacts with side surface of actuator nut when it travels along actuator screw.
EFFECT: higher reliability and quicker response of steering gear.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: element of structure has aperture (4) in wall (3) of cavity where through moisture present in cavity can be drained into environment. A draining facility for pressurising aperture (4) in wall (3) of the cavity is provided in the aperture. The draining facility consists of hollow cylinder (6) connecting cavity of the element of the structure with environment; the element is equipped with external thread (7) having external diametre (G) and head (8) on one end with diametre (Ko). External diametre (G) of thread is less, than diametre (Ko) of the head.
EFFECT: reduced expenditures for compound parts and assembly equipment.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inner panel comprises cellular panel casing made of cellular formation containing several cellular structures that are arranged next to each other. Cellular body at the end of cross section is adhered to coating layer and is supported with the help of coating layer supported at the top and bottom from cellular formation, creating a flaky structure of cellular panel casing. On cross section of cellular body at both ends of cellular bodies there is a coating layer arranged from coal plastic. Coating layer is closed by means of foil, which is resistant to burn-through, or thin insulating layer of coal plastic comprises foil, which is resistant to burn-through. Insulating set is arranged on coating layer made of fiber composite supported at the bottom from cellular formation, or on insulating layer from coal plastic resistant to burn-through, outer surface of which faces outer lining. Insulating set comprises insulation and barrier layer, which are resistant to burn-through. Barrier layer passes along without interruption through insulation, which is not resistant to burn-through, straight to insulation circumference.
EFFECT: reduced distribution of flame from source of fire that acts from outer side of aircraft.
15 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aviation board equipment and is designed for installation on civil aircrafts. System for support to crew decisions in dangerous situations includes detectors of condition of motors, fuel system, hydraulic system, power supply system, system of steering control, system of landing gear extension and braking, life support system, deicing system, fire safety system, automatic control system, air signals system, air navigation system, board part of satellite navigation system, platform-free inertial navigation system, radio altimetre, instrument landing system, radio system of near navigation, meteonavigation radiolocating station, system of critical modes prevention, connected to multiplex channel of information exchange, which make it possible to analyse and send signals to control units of these systems for prevention of abnormal cases.
EFFECT: improved level of safety by expansion of technical resources.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to automatic flight control method of high-performance aircraft, which involves static longitudinal control automat with limit attack (overload) angle limiter. For forming the signal of allowable attack angle within its limit values, there additionally formed is limit attack angle signal on the basis of the signal corresponding to actual attack angle value and on the basis of the signal corresponding to the specified limit attack angle value. Amplification coefficient of the signal corresponding to actual attack angle value is decreased by means of functional block from 1 when actual attack angle value reaches the value corresponding to the first specified limit attack angle value to the value close to zero when actual attack angle value reaches the value corresponding to the second specified limit attack angle value. The received signal is restored by means of aperiodic link to limit values and supplied to computer input of longitudinal control automat with limit attack (overload) angle limiter.
EFFECT: decreasing overcontrol in the system for attack (overload) angle almost to zero, which allows sufficiently improving characteristics of longitudinal stability and controllability during aircraft operation at limit attack angles and overloads.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to aircraft industry, namely to protection device for aircraft door hinge. Aircraft hinge protection device is equipped with flexible covering (4) which can be tensed when the hinge is in closed position along the external hinge outline. Such construction provides closing of the openings between the first and the second elements (1, 2) of the hinge.
EFFECT: aerodynamic characteristics improvement.
11 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to cooling methods of elements of constructions, mainly super- and hypersonic aircrafts. Method involves injection of cooling gas through perforated inserts to the area where head end interacts with the flow slipping the flying machine. At that, cooling gas jets are swirled; for that purpose on walls of perforation holes there made are screw or spiral grooves. Diametre of holes is taken within 0.26-0.66 of thickness of perforated insert, and non-dimensional injection parametre B=pV/(α/Cp) - within 3-8. The above grooves made on walls of holes can be made in the form of standardised metric thread. Therefore, turbulent vortices are suppressed in high-gradient zones of cooling gas flow when it is mixed with slip flow.
EFFECT: increasing thermal protection efficiency by decreasing the required cooling gas consumption.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to air navigation equipment. Dirigible includes a frame with the covering forming a cavity, ballonets with lighter-than-air gas, which are attached to the frame, stabiliser, propeller, crew compartment, passenger compartment and mooring device. In lower part of cavity there horizontally located are at least two rotors rotating in opposite directions. Rotors can be installed across the axis and lie in one and the same plane. Also rotors can be installed along the axis or one above the other.
EFFECT: increase of flight stability.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: aviation; air transportation of air troops and air-borne troops.
SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, wing jet engines or turbo-jet engines mounted for turn relative to horizontal and/or vertical plane. Wing has variable area. Upper and lower surfaces of wing may be wound on/off individual drums. Tail-mounted engines may be provided which are set in horizontal plane at angle relative to aircraft longitudinal axis at similar signs.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics.
2 cl, 4 dwg