Detector for system of hardware protection of sensitive electronic modules of data processing against external manipulations

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: in system of hardware protection for sensitive electronic modules of data processing against external manipulations has accordingly matched topology.

EFFECT: improves manufacturability.

12 cl, 8 dwg

 

Electronic modules for highly sensitive data processing and data protection, such as used, for example, in the tachograph trucks, must be protected by a hardware way from manipulation from outside, such as, for example, chemical or physical attack (e.g., mechanical, laser, fire, etc), so that the data cannot be manipulated.

Still there is a solution in which the protected electronic modules are Packed around with the help of the so-called film protection against drilling. This film protection against drilling ships, for example, the firm Gore in the form of a finished product or company Freudenberg in the form of a film with print of silver conductive paste. Film electrically connected inside the module. After the electronic component is a three-dimensional image Packed, he then poured into the casing of synthetic resin. When you try to open the packaging in locations in which there is a hacking, electric conductive tracks or resistive conductors on the film are forced to damaged or torn, in the electronic module and causes the stored data is immediately erased. Due to this, the data cannot be manipulated, and attack from the outside, thus, can be recognized by the relevant authorities.

This is known from the level of t is the transport method peculiar to two problems. First, the application of the film does not match any electronic method of installation. On the other hand, the film already during installation often damaged, which leads to a high percentage of marriage.

On this basis the object of the present invention is to provide a sensor for hardware protection for electronic modules that small cells overlaps the protected surface/the side and can be integrated in the electronic manufacturing procedure.

This problem is solved in accordance with the independent claims. Preferred embodiments of the reflected in the dependent claims.

In accordance with this structure of conductors and insulating gaps flat sensor form a fine structure in the form of a grid, in grid form with meanders and/or sectors, which are conductive structures, for example, in the form of geometric structures. The insulation gap between the two steps of conductive structures in the form of conductive tracks (cell width) corresponds to the regular structures HDI (high density interconnects). The same is true for the width of the steps of the conducting structure.

The overlap area of the flat sensor need not necessarily be two-dimensional or be a plane. Moreover, it is also possible, for example, cacheable the data, spherical or hemispherical perform surface. From the point of view the main purpose of the surface of the sensor it is any surface formed by one or more consecutive layers, so that the space under the surface, protected by the fact that the penetration through the surface surface is detected by the sensor.

A surface sensor is, in particular, many segments of the sensor, in which conductive patterns are located, for example, in the form of a snail.

In particular, the conductive patterns of the segments of the sensor attributable to each segment of the sensor placed in the form strikebrakerami geometric structures.

A preferred manner, the start and end points lie within their respective points of contact of conductive structures, respectively, in the center of the geometric shape.

The conductive structures strikebrakerami geometric shapes can be the preferred way to run as parallel forms of conductors of different potentials. Often enough, if the shape of the conductors is made is not exactly parallel, but only posted so that between them remains the insulating gap. Alternatively, this can also be provided exactly parallel the e direction. Also maybe a different execution intervals between conductive paths. One conductive path could be straight, and the other as the wave line.

The surface of the sensor, the mounting layer through which the contact segments of the sensor. The mounting layer is preferred to sleep on the side of the segments of the sensor, which can detect the access through a surface sensor.

Alternative or additionally, a surface sensor includes many conductive layers held in a different orientation to the surface in which the conductive structures are arranged one above the other and between which the insulating layers. A preferred manner, the conductive structures are in conductive layers in the form of meanders.

In the method of manufacturing a surface of the sensor conductive patterns are located on the surface in such a way that between forms of conductive structures are formed of insulating gaps, and the conductive structures with insulating intervals overlap the surface. Preferred embodiments of the method are defined similarly preferred options execution device, and Vice versa.

Describes the types of surface sensors may be particularly well integrated into the protection system of hardware among the STV. System hardware protection can be performed as follows.

According to the first possibility to perform system hardware protection in the form of a holder of scheme, which surrounds an internal space for components of the protected circuit has a surrounding the inner space of the conductive patterns of the sensor to detect unauthorized external manipulation scheme. The conductive patterns to detect access to the scheme, thus, directly integrated into the substrate of the schema.

When unauthorized access to the schema of the conductive structures are damaged, so that the contact closes or is terminated and access to the scheme, therefore, is detected.

A preferred way, the holder of the circuit is the circuit Board. This PCB is on and/or in its facing the internal space side, at least some of the components of the protected circuit. In addition, it may be on and/or in its opposite inner space side portion of the conducting structures surrounding the interior space.

A preferred way, the printed circuit Board is a multilayer circuit Board or a multilayer ceramic substrate with layers surrounding the inner space of the conductive structures and layers for mounting some of the components shall now protected schema.

Layers for mounting some of the components of the protected circuit is placed, in particular, and/or converted to the internal space side of the PCB.

So they could not be accessible from the outside of interlayer contacts of the protected circuit can be implemented in a printed circuit Board as hidden interlayer contacts.

Alternative or additionally, the structural layers formed in a printed circuit Board for mounting some of the components of the protected circuit, are formed as consistently increasing structural layers. Interlayer contacts in the printed circuit Board can be performed as hidden interlayer contacts and/or pinholes made by different technologies (plasma etching, photo methods, laser drilling).

A preferred way, the module system of hardware protection is another multilayer printed circuit Board and/or multilayer ceramic substrate, which is placed opposite to the first printed circuit Board, contains and/or in its opposite inner space side of another part of the conducting structures surrounding the inner space, and, in particular, on and/or in its facing the internal space side contains the other components of the protected schema.

The preferred manner, between the printing house and the other circuit Board is ka the Cam, positioning both the circuit Board at a distance from each other and thereby creates between itself and the PCB's internal space. The frame is made, in particular, the technology of multilayer printed circuit boards or multi-layer ceramic substrate, for example, the fact that the dielectric layers and electrically conductive layers are placed in layers one above the other.

The inner space can be an empty space, but not necessarily. For example, if the components in the inner space is filled, the internal space is filled with synthetic resin.

The holder of the circuit is, in particular, contacts for connection detection means for detecting damage to the conductive structures.

It is preferable that the entire holder of the scheme was performed at least in essence, the technology of multilayer printed circuits and/or multi-layer ceramic technology.

In the method of manufacturing a holder of scheme for a system of hardware protection that surrounds an internal space for components of the protected circuit, the holder of the scheme made surrounding the inner space of the conductive structures to detect accesses to the scheme. A preferred form of execution of the method is used to determine the preferred form of holder with the volumes and Vice versa.

According to the second variant implementation of the system hardware protection for the protected circuit includes a non-conductive planar substrate. Planar substrate is, however, not exactly, but has a protruding ago the Central region, which is preferably completely surrounded by protruding forward areas. In the substrate and/or posted by the conductive patterns to detect access to the protected circuit. When unauthorized access to the schema of the conductive structures are damaged, so that the contact is closed or interrupted, and thereby access to the schema is found.

The preferred way, leaning forward region have an edge that runs parallel to the protruding back of the Central region. This edge protection system hardware can be placed on a flat holder schemes and there to glue or solder.

In particular, the substrate is in the form of poluchasa.

The substrate is preferably a deep hood, is a printed circuit Board and/or film.

Especially simply and economically possible to produce conductive patterns through the press. This is the preferred way until planar substrate else equal, i.e. not subjected to deep drawing.

Protection system hardware has, in particular, the contacts for connecting with the of edst detection to detect damage of the conducting structure.

In the method of manufacturing the protection system of hardware with one of the above types of planar substrate provided with the conductive structures to detect access to the protected circuit. Before or preferably after, the planar substrate is provided in the form in which it has a protruding ago the Central region, which is surrounded by a protruding forward areas. Preferred variants of the method is used to determine the preferred options for implementation the protection system of hardware and Vice versa.

The device contains protection system of hardware with one of the above types and holder circuit for the protected circuit. Protection system hardware protruding forward areas of the substrate placed on the holder of the scheme, so that between the protruding ago a Central region and a holder of scheme forms a space for the protected circuit.

Holder circuit represents or contains the preferred way PCB holder scheme. Often it is also necessary to protect the rear. For this purpose, the device has, in particular, the second protection system hardware according to one of the described type which is placed on the side of the holder schemes, opposite the first security system.

In addition, the device preferably contains cf is DSTV detection to detect violation of conductive structures due to unauthorized access and/or unauthorized manipulation. To and detection were themselves protected, they can be run as an integral part of the protected schema.

The entire module with the holders of the schemes is used, in particular, in the tachograph, the data logger road and/or rail or vehicles not moving on rails vehicle. But it can also be used in the payment machines, devices, financial institutions and on airplanes. In particular, the use of the module with the holders of the schemes always has the advantage when used subject to the protection of cryptographic keys (RSA, DES).

Other characteristics and advantages of the invention arise from the description of examples with reference to the drawings showing the following:

Figure 1 - schematic representation of the integrated system of hardware protection for electronic modules;

Figure 2 - schematic partial view of the protection system hardware of figure 1;

Figure 3 - schematic view of the structure of the printed circuit Board of the protection system hardware of figure 1;

4 is a schematic of a rectangular printed circuit Board protection system hardware of figure 1;

Figure 5-7 - schematic conductive surface structure of the sensor circuit Board processor;

Fig - schematic conductive surface structure of the sensor framework of the PCB.

p> Figure 1 shows a holder 1 of the scheme with the first submodule in the form of a printed circuit Board 2 with the components 3 of the protected circuit. Printed circuit Board 2 contains conductive structure 4 in the form of a protective layer as part of a multi-layer Assembly for detecting accesses to the protected circuit. In addition, it has end-to-end (interlayer) holes 5 for the signal conductors and the supply voltage on the protected circuit to the outside of the holder of the scheme. These through holes 5 pass through surrounding the inner space of the conductive patterns and end at 6 installation of the connector.

The holder 1 schema also contains another circuit Board 7, which has other components 8 protected schema.

Other components 8 another printed circuit Board 7 is placed on the side of another printed circuit Board, which faces the side of the printed circuit Board 2, on which are some of the components 3 of the protected circuit. All components of the protected circuit are, therefore, between the circuit Board 2 and the other circuit Board 7 in the inner space 9 is formed between circuit boards.

Printed circuit Board 2 and the other printed circuit Board 7 are separated from each other by some distance through the framework of the PCB 10, which is placed between the two circuit boards together and to the circuit Board 2 and the other circuit Board 7 surrounds the internal p is stranstvo 9. Printed circuit Board 2, and the other printed circuit Board 7 and the master printed circuit Board 10, respectively, are designed so that the mounting connections and components 3, 8 protected circuits are arranged in and/or directed to the inner space 9 side and/or areas of the PCB 2, the other printed circuit Board 7 and the framework of the PCB 10. These mounting connections and components 3, 8 and, thereby, protect the scheme is fully surrounded by the configuration of the conductive structures 4 printed circuit Board 2, the conductive structures 11 is another circuit Board 7 and the conductive structures 12 of the framework of the PCB 10, which, respectively, are connected electrically. The connection conductive structures 11, 12, 4 are between the various circuit boards 1, 2, 10 through contacts 14. These contacts 14 posted by nonlinearly. The conductive patterns are connected with made in the form of a special electronic circuit detection means for detecting violations of the conductive structures. The conductive structures may be considered as belonging to the means for detecting. The connecting frame 13 surrounding them outside, electrically connected with a special electronic module, resulting in an additional protective function.

The connecting frame 13 and the contacts 14 serving for connection of the various texts printed circuits, provided surrounding conductive patterns 35, 37, which are electrically connected with the means of detection.

Figure 3 shows the structure of a printed circuit Board. It contains a grounding layer 21, at least one mesh layer 22 hardware protection for conductive structures 4, at least one mounting layer 23 of the protection system of hardware, at least one layer 24 power supply, at least one ground layer 25, the many signal layers 26, 27, 28. The arrangement of the layers is designed so that the outside are protective layers, and inside - signal layers and layers of power.

Figure 4 shows the structure of a printed circuit Board for the master printed circuit Board 10. The master printed circuit Board 10 consists of a multilayer printed circuit boards or multi-layer ceramic substrate comprising n conductive layers, and the gap between two conductive planes of less than 500 microns. To contact individual layers between themselves and the circuit Board 2 and the other printed circuit Board 7, the master printed circuit Board 10 has a through (via) holes 16 in the form of metallized via holes which are perpendicular to the layers of the PCB 2 to the other printed circuit Board.

Thus, the protection system hardware directly integrated into the electronic module, that is, in the printed circuit Board 2, 7, is rementeria for the module. Thus obtained integrated system of hardware protection for electronic modules in the form of a holder 1 circuit with the conductive structures to detect accesses to the scheme, located in the inner space 9 of the holder 1 schema.

This module is designed so that it has two submodule, both submodule only one side provided with a mounting components in the form of components 3, 8 protected schema.

The circuit Board 2, 7 for these submodules are designed so that they are executed as multilayer printed circuit boards, it is necessary for installation of the components 3, 8 inner and outer layers are facing to the side of the Assembly and have no interlayer contacts, leading out to the back side of the PCB, i.e. to the side opposite to the installation.

For this purpose necessary for the operation of the modules of the protected circuit via contacts made as hidden interlayer contacts, or necessary structural layers for mounting submodules made as patterns consistent growth with continuous contact type Micro-Via, formed by plasma etching, photolithographic method or laser drilling. For this purpose, the existing core consistently applied structural layers and supplied mentioned interlayer contacts.

On the Auron mounting PCB submodules outside the scope mounting contain contact pads in a lattice configuration, which serve to then both submodule printed single-sided mounting to connect electrically with each other "face to face" through the frame 10 in the form of a multilayer circuit.

The circuit Board 2, 7 submodules contain on the side opposite to the installation, i.e. on the side turned away from the internal space 9, several conductive layers. They are made of, for example, as a multilayer layers of copper with conductive structures 4, 11, which are respectively implemented as a very finely structured conductive tracks, which are in fine form to cover the entire surface of the layer and continue from layer to layer, which is caused by the execution of conductive paths.

The width of the conductors of one layer overlap the insulation distances and of the corresponding conductive tracks the underlying layers separated by a dielectric.

They through in-depth inter-layer connection or Micro-Vias to the module are connected to the internal Assembly.

The execution layer, for example, in the x-direction with a similar meander structure of the thin copper conductive tracks and below it and above it a layer in the y-direction with a similar structure, separated by a dielectric layer, provides a system of hardware protection module against mechanical manipulation due to the fact that these conductive dorok is 4, 11 towards the inside connected to the module and, thereby, due to the ultra-thin structure, when the access from outside damage. When this interrupt occurs and/or a short circuit conductive structures 4, 11, which is registered in the circuit or module.

Perform finest conductors may be carried out by a method of printing a resistive paste (integrated resistors with specific values of resistance) as a conductive paste (ceramic thick-film technology) or by ink printing carbon ink (integrated resistors with defined resistance values) in all conceivable structures, which on the whole surface on at least one layer formed of the fine-grained configuration and are electrically connected inside the module.

At least one of the circuit boards 2, 7 submodules can also be run as uprugosti printed circuit Board or a rigid circuit Board can be applied elastic guide data.

The dielectric gap layer system of hardware protection on printed circuit boards is chosen so that at the end of the drilling corruption occurs protective layers located above and below the protective layer, and thereby trigger the protection mechanism. For example, the frame 10 may be made USTC is m, and the two printed circuit boards 2, 7 submodules as well as a flexible schema.

To connect both submodules, posted by "face to face"can also be used to design printed circuit boards in such execution, as described above. This printed circuit Board is constructed as a frame 10 and is designed as a multilayer structure, which, due to its construction, prevents the crack from the end of the module. Typically, this is achieved by separation of the individual layers is less than 500 microns. Inside the topology of the protection circuits are electric interlayer contacts 16, which in the assembled condition, electrically connects the two submodule. In the areas of topology, which contain conductive patterns 12 in the form of conductive tracks or printed resistors or the like for protection function, with irregular distribution bred hidden interlayer contacts for individual layers of protection circuits. Both types or kinds of interlayer contacts on the upper side and the lower side of the framework multilayer printed circuit boards of the frame 10 is made in the connecting pads, which are used for subsequent contact with each other separate submodules.

The electrical connection and the mechanical connection of the submodules with the master circuit Board can be performed by soldering with the subsequent sealing of the seam pike is glue, lamination, contact bonding or other such means.

Described that way we get integrated in the holder of the scheme in the form of a printed circuit Board sensor system, which can be made according to the traditional "high-tech" technology printed circuit boards and can be equipped and processed on conventional production lines for the manufacture of electronic modules. In addition, one achieves the advantage that a reliable, economical and processed for installation without significant cost of the protection system can directly provide and integrate into an electronic module that provides reliable detection of attacks on the hardware.

Figure 5-7 presents the completion form conductive structures 4 surface of the sensor printed circuit Board 2 to form in the plan. The conductive patterns 11 of the surface of the sensor printed circuit Board 7 can be performed similarly to the execution of the conductive structures of the PCB 2.

The conductive patterns 4 are made as flat laundromatinee circuit patterns to protect against tampering with the hardware that is integrated directly into the circuit Board 2, is applied to circuit of the electronic module.

The configuration of the conductive structures 4 surface sensor generally performed so that the surface is th sensor had a separate segments 42, 43 sensor, which have lantopolog structure, which is formed from opposing angular and/or curved geometric structures 42, 43. The start and end points 44, 45 geometric structures of their respective points of contact lie, respectively, in the center of the structure 42, 43.

Making two opposing geometric structures 42, 43 with such meander structure consists of, respectively, two thin, essentially parallel copper conductive tracks of different potentials.

Installation of individual segments 42, 43 of the sensor through the layer 46 of installation, below, remote from the outer side of the protection system hardware, which also contains thin copper conductive paths through which the segments 42, 43 of the sensor circuit main types connected with each other. The layer 46 of the Assembly, as the layers of the sensor to have a counter geometric patterns 42, 43.

Layer segments 42, 43 is separated from the layer 46 of the mounting dielectric layer and only through partial deaf interlayer contacts, such as laser drilled holes Vias-type or performed by plasma etching or photolithographic method deaf interlayer contacts associated with it.

This combination gives the protection system of hardware fashion is her protected circuit from the manipulation of any type from the outside. The whole scheme of conducting tracks of conductive structures 4, 11, 12, or partial schema of conductive tracks connected inside the module schema and recognize attacks, thanks to its ultra-thin structuring, due to the interruption or short circuit possible attack, which is registered in the schema.

With reference to Fig again seen implemented in the frame 10 by means of conductive structures 12 transverse surface sensor in the form of a lateral sensor. On Fig shows the cross section of the frame 10, and the section plane with respect to figure 4 rotated 90.

Here you can see the structure of a single conductive layer lateral surface of the sensor for mechanical protection from drilling. In conductive layers, i.e. in the signal and potential layers of multilayer printed circuit boards of the frame 10, is made conductive patterns 12, respectively, as circular, conductive meander line, which surrounds the outside of the protected point 17 of the contact, and with them electrically in contact through the interlayer microcontinent.

The dielectric gap that separates the layers of protection system hardware in printed circuit boards 2, 7, 10 submodules selected so that at the end of the attack causes damage to at least one of the layers of the protection system, and thereby trigger the protection mechanism.

The surface is restie sensors surround fully protected interior space and form together the associated diagram of the sensor with the following features:

detection of attacks due to the interruption of the conductors of the sensor

- attack detection through digital detection of short circuits on the earth included on the plus conductor sensor,

detection of attacks due to the analog detection of short circuits on the earth included on the minus conductors of the sensor, under the potential of different voltage levels,

detection of the above combined analog and digital attacks.

Described that way we get integrated in the holder of the scheme in the form of a printed circuit Board sensor system, which can be manufactured according to the traditional "high-tech" technology printed circuit boards and can be equipped and processed on conventional production lines for the manufacture of electronic modules. In addition, one achieves the advantage that a reliable, economical and processed for installation without significant cost of the protection system can directly provide and integrate into an electronic module that provides reliable detection of attacks on the hardware.

1. Tachograph with protection hardware for electronic data processing modules from external manipulation, and mentioned remedies include a surface sensor with conductive structures (4, 11, 12), which passes the thus, what happen insulation between forms of conductive structures, and conductive patterns (4, 11, 12) and the insulating gaps cover a surface, in which the aforementioned conductive patterns formed with the formation of, respectively, the opposing geometric shapes, which have, respectively, at least two conductive paths of different electrical potentials.

2. The tachograph according to claim 1, characterized in that a surface sensor has many segments (41) sensor, in which the conductive structures (4) placed at the geometric forms (42, 43).

3. The tachograph according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the start and/or end point (44, 45) geometric shapes (42, 43) and, thus, the appropriate point of contact segments (41) of the sensor are, respectively, the geometric center of the form (42, 43).

4. The tachograph according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the conductive patterns (4) strikebrakerami geometric shapes (42, 43) is made as parallel forms of conductors, and various geometric shapes combined with each other.

5. The tachograph according to claim 3, characterized in that the conductive patterns (4) strikebrakerami geometric shapes (42, 43) is made as parallel forms of conductors, and various geometric shapes combined with each other.

6. The tachograph according to Liu the WMD claim 1, 2 or 5, characterized in that a surface sensor has a mounting layer (4 6), through which the contact segments (41) sensor.

7. The tachograph according to claim 3, characterized in that a surface sensor has a mounting layer (46), through which the contact segments (41) sensor.

8. The tachograph according to claim 4, characterized in that a surface sensor has a mounting layer (46), through which the contact segments (41) sensor.

9. The tachograph according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that the mounting layer has a geometric shape that correspond to the geometric shapes of the segments of the sensor, but relatively they are arranged so that the respective conductive patterns are shifted relative to each other.

10. The tachograph according to claim 6, characterized in that the mounting layer has a geometric shape that correspond to the geometric shapes of the segments of the sensor, but relatively they are arranged so that the respective conductive patterns are shifted relative to each other.

11. The tachograph according to claim 1, characterized in that a surface sensor has multiple conductive layers, perpendicular to the plane in which the conductive structures (12) are arranged one above the other, and between which the insulating layers.

12. The tachograph according to claim 11, characterized in that the conductive structures (12) are in conductive layers in fo the IU meanders.



 

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30 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electronic units, namely, to simplification of such units. In particular, invention is related to electronic ballast resistors for gas discharge lamps, at that such ballast resistors have higher scattering of heat, reduced amount of components, minimised mechanical stress in electric components and improved suppression of electromagnetic interferences (EMI). Electronic unit having vessel is arranged with sealing against effect of environment, with possibility to suppress EMI and proper thermal connection between hot electric components and external heat radiator contained in unit.

EFFECT: improvement of electronic units operation, improvement of electronic ballast resistances operation for gas discharge lamps, reduction of mechanical stresses in such devices, lower EMI emitted by these devices.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics; computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: tachograph for highly sensitive processing and protecting data which includes a system for protecting hardware for a protected circuit has a substrate which has a central region projecting backwards, where the central region is surrounded by regions which project forward. Due to this, the system for protecting hardware is particularly made in form of a half-cup. Also the system for protecting hardware has conducting structures placed on and/or in the substrate for detecting access to the protected circuit.

EFFECT: design of a system for protecting hardware which can be integrated into an electronic module, which provides reliable detection of attack on hardware.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: in system of hardware protection for sensitive electronic modules of data processing against external manipulations has accordingly matched topology.

EFFECT: improves manufacturability.

12 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: hybrid integrated microwave circuit includes dielectric substrate on the front side of which there located is topological metallisation pattern, and on rear side - screen earthing metallisation, at least one metallised mounting platform connected to screen earthing metallisation, at least one transistor, at least two capacitors on both sides of transistor. At that, at least one of the transistor outputs is electrically connected to upper coatings of capacitors, at least two other outputs are electrically connected to topological metallisation pattern, lower coatings of capacitors are electrically connected to metallised mounting platform and through it to screen earthing metallisation. Transistor with outputs, two capacitors and electric connections of one of transistor outputs to upper coatings of capacitors are made in the form of at least one crystal of monolithic integrated circuit, which is located on one metallised mounting platform. At that, both capacitors are film-type, upper coatings of capacitors, outputs of transistor and electric connections of one of transistor outputs with upper coatings of capacitors are provided in one metallisation layer of crystal of monolithic integrated circuit. At that, in crystal of monolithic integrated circuit immediately under lower coatings of capacitors there made are through metallised holes for electric connection of lower coatings of capacitors with metallised mounting platform.

EFFECT: improving electrical and mass and dimensions characteristics, improving reliability, reducing labour input of manufacturing process.

6 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex

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