Active element of solid state laser with crosswise electron-beam pump

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed active element comprises heterostructure built around semiconductor compounds selected from groups A2B6 or A3B5. Active structure is arranged between upper and lower limiting semiconductor layers that make, together with active structure, an optical waveguide. Said active structure comprises at least two alternating superfine semiconductor layers with different refraction factors and at least one active layer arranged between aforesaid two layers that has higher refraction factor than that of alternating layers. Note here that upper and lower limiting layers have higher refraction factor compared with layers of active structure. Thickness h of upper limiting layer satisfies the condition h<x, where x is the depth of electron beam penetration into active structure. Outer surface of upper limiting layer has corrugated relief with direction of corrugations perpendicular to active element optical axis. Note here that relief spacing equals whole number of half-waves of laser radiation in active layer material. Note also that corrugation depth does not exceed height h of upper limiting layer.

EFFECT: higher output power.

3 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of quantum electronics, and more specifically to active elements semiconductor lasers with transverse pumping, which can be used to create systems aircraft landing and pilotage, interferometry, ranging, in the information display systems for environmental monitoring, medicine, etc.

Known active elements semiconductor lasers with transverse e-beam pumped representing a rectangular parallelepiped of a semiconductor material, two plane-parallel faces which form a mirror bounding an optical cavity [1]. One of the other two plane-parallel faces of a parallelepiped that is perpendicular to the mirrors, is irradiated by an electron beam source pump laser, the opposite face of the parallelepiped strengthened (for example, soldered, glued) on hadproved. Optical radiation output from the optical resonator through the mirror. The disadvantage of this laser is the low efficiency of power generation, especially at relatively low (10-20 Kev) values of the energy E of the electron beam, due primarily to the large value of the threshold current density of the beam.

To reduce the threshold current density of the electron beam may use a semiconductor Goethe is of structur, what is experimentally demonstrated in a number of works. For example, the known semiconductor laser with transverse e-beam pumped-based heterostructures, selected as a prototype [2]. The active element of such a semiconductor laser is grown on a substrate and attached to hadproved semiconductor heterostructure based on zinc selenide (ZnSe) of the semiconductor group And2In6forming a symmetrical optical waveguide bounded on opposite ends of the mirrors. The heterostructure consists of alternating layers of semiconductor materials with different values of the band gap and consequently with different values of refractive index. It contains upper and situated towards hadproved lower bounding semiconductor layers

Znfor 0.9Mga 0.1Sof 0.15Seof 0.85a thickness of 0.1-0.2 μm and 0.7 μm, respectively. Between the upper and lower bounding semiconductor layers is active semiconductor structure in the form of a superlattice (CF), which contains a periodically alternating semiconductor layers with different values of refractive index, namely, alternating layers of ZnS0,14Se0,86thickness of 15 Å and ZnSe layers with a thickness of 18 Å (the total thickness of the semiconductor, the well layer is 0.2 μm), and placed between two of these alternating semiconductor layers of the active layer in the form of a single ZnCdSe quantum well structure of the 1st type) or ZnSe-quantum wells (CB) with the plane of quantum dots (CT) of CdSe in the center (the structure of the 2nd type), with a nominal thickness of CdSe is 2.5 monolayer. Thus the upper and lower bounding semiconductor layers is lower refractive index than the alternating semiconductor layers included in the active semiconductor structure. To ensure the effective pumping of the active semiconductor layer, the thickness h of the upper bounding the semiconductor layer must satisfy the condition h<x, where x is the penetration depth of the electron beam pumping in the active semiconductor structure.

The use of such heterostructures allowed to get generation when pumped by an electron beam with electron energy 8-30 Kev in the blue-green spectral range at room temperature. The minimum threshold current density of the electron beam (0.6 to 0.8 a/cm2) was observed for heterostructures with fractional multi-layer insert of CdSe at the energy of the electron beam 15-18 Kev and density of the pump power of about 10 kW/cm2. The maximum peak power generation amounted to 9 watts. When increasing the pump power, PEFC is to achieve maximum power generation was observed a decrease of the latter, associated with damage to semiconductor heterostructures.

In the known semiconductor lasers with transverse pumping, made on the basis of heterostructures (such as in the prototype), it is impossible to obtain large values of the pulsed power because of the limited output power associated with the optical strength of the material of the mirrors of the active element. Indeed, when the density of the optical power of the order of Rkr=107W/cm2(this value slightly depends on the material of the active element, the duration of the pulse) mirrors the active element is destroyed. Thus, to increase the output power necessary to increase the surface area, which faces the optical radiation. In lasers with transverse pumping this area is S=bd, where d is the transverse size of the pumped region and b is the linear size of the symmetrical optical waveguide exits the laser light. The penetration depth of electrons pump lasers based heterostructures slightly exceeds the linear size b of the optical waveguide and, as a rule, is not more than ~1 μm. The use of large values of b is possible, but in this case it is necessary to increase the energy of electrons pumping that for practical applications of such lasers is undesirable. Limited to the I to the value of d is associated with an increase in the influence of superluminescence (amplification of spontaneous emission in the active element in directions not coinciding with the axis of the optical resonator) on power output and efficiency of the laser [1]. A typical value of d is equal to 0.2 to 0.5 mm, Thus, the output power from a single laser is limited to the value P=bdPkr. For the above numerical values of d, b and Rkrthe maximum power P is 20-50 watts.

For larger values of the pulsed power, you must use a multi-element laser, which is a set superiorcasino placed on the General hadproved rectangular parallelepipeds of semiconductor material (the Assembly of a large number of separate active elements of lasers arranged in a "ladder"). However, pulsed optical power in excess of hundreds of kilowatts, almost unattainable, as in this case, it is necessary to use a large number of individual active elements and dimensions of this design are too big.

Known lasers with longitudinal pumping, in which the direction of optical radiation of the laser coincides with the direction of the incident on the active element of the electron flow [1]. The active element of the laser consists of one or more polished monocrystalline wafer of semiconductor material mounted on transparent to the generated radiation substrate. P is owed output mirror of the laser is determined either by the cross-section of the used electron beam (with a diameter of 20-30 μm), either the geometrical dimensions of the pumped region of the laser. When the e-beam pumped laser over a large area (1-10 cm2) on the exposed surface of the active element of the laser cut groove (step 100-200 microns) to create a matrix of emitters, not optically connected to each other. This allows you to avoid, as well as in lasers with transverse pumping, the impact of superluminescence, i.e. amplification of spontaneous emission in the active element in directions not coincident with the axis of the optical resonator. In this case, d=b≈100-200 μm. The surface area of the laser S=d2in the longitudinal geometry of the pumping almost two orders of magnitude higher than the value for the laser with transverse pumping at heterostructures. Accordingly, in lasers with longitudinal pumping is possible to achieve a larger level of output power. However, when the longitudinal geometry of the pump are difficult to use for pumping low-energy electron beams. Indeed, in the longitudinal geometry of the pumping electron beam is carried out through the mirror, and, as a rule, is irradiated by the beam side of the crystal (active element) with a "blind" mirror. In lasers with longitudinal e-beam pumped light amplification occurs at a distance not exceeding the depth x of penetration of the electron beam in the crystal (value is x depends on beam energy; when E=15 Kev x~1 µm, E=50 Kev x~5 µm). With such a small depth of the amplifying medium to reach threshold, you must use the cavity mirrors with a reflection coefficient close to 1. Such mirror - layered, they usually consist of several (5-15) layers of dielectric thickness of a quarter wavelength. The thickness of such mirrors are typically larger than a few microns, and when the pump laser through this mirror electrons with energy E<15-20 Kev almost all the energy of the electron beam not absorbed in the active element of the laser and the mirror. In this regard, for lasers with longitudinal pumping beams are used with energy E>30 Kev (typically 50-70 Kev).

The objective of the invention is the creation of an active element of a semiconductor laser with transverse pumping, providing a high output pulse power when used for pumping low-energy electron beams.

In the present invention to effectively increase the radiated power of a semiconductor laser to increase the total area of the radiating surface of the active element by creating on the irradiated electron beam on the surface of the active element corrugated relief with a given period and a given depth of the corrugation.

Features active element of the semiconductor laser with a Popper is offered by the e-beam pumped, including fixed on hadproved directly or through a wafer of semiconductor heterostructure based on semiconductor compounds, selected from one of the semiconductor group And2In6or a3In5containing the active semiconductor structure, placed between the top and located on the side of hadproved lower bounding semiconductor layers, forming in conjunction with the active semiconductor structure of the optical waveguide, the active semiconductor structure contains at least two periodically alternating ultrathin semiconductor layers with different values of refractive index, which is made of solid solutions selected semiconductor compounds, and placed between alternating ultrathin semiconductor layers, at least one active layer, made of a solid solution selected semiconductor compounds and having a higher coefficient of refraction than the surrounding alternating ultrathin semiconductor layers, upper and lower bounding semiconductor layers are also made of solid solutions selected semiconductor compounds have lower values of index of refraction than poluprovodn iMovie layers, included in the active semiconductor structure, and the thickness h of the upper bounding the semiconductor layer satisfies the condition h<x, where x is the penetration depth of the electron beam pumping in the active semiconductor structure, the outer surface of the upper bounding the semiconductor layer is made corrugated relief with the direction of the corrugation perpendicular to the optical axis of the active element of the semiconductor laser, and the period of corrugated relief equal to the whole number of half wave laser radiation in the material of the active layer, the depth of the corrugation does not exceed the thickness h of the upper bounding the semiconductor layer.

In one embodiment of the present invention, the semiconductor heterostructure is divided into individual elements of grooves parallel to the optical axis of the active element of the semiconductor laser.

In another embodiment, the present invention is an active element contains multiple semiconductor heterostructures posted Supercourse General hadproved.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the proposed active element.

Figure 2 shows a General view of the proposed active element.

Figure 3 shows a General view of the offer is the first active element, heterostructure which is divided into individual elements of the grooves.

Figure 4 shows a General view of the proposed active element that contains multiple heterostructures posted Supercourse.

The active element, schematically depicted in figure 1, is grown on a semiconductor substrate 1 of the semiconductor heterostructure 2, forming an optical waveguide bounded on opposite ends of the mirrors, which is formed by the end faces 3, 4 of the active element arranged perpendicular to the optical axis of the active element (the optical axis of a semiconductor laser). On the opposite side of the substrate 1 mounted on hadproved 5. Semiconductor heterostructure 2 made of semiconductor compounds, selected depending on the desired wavelength of the optical radiation of the laser from one of the semiconductor group And2In6or a3In5. Semiconductor heterostructure 2 contains the active semiconductor structure 6, that is, the semiconductor superlattice (CF), consisting of having different values of refractive index alternating with the set period of ultrathin semiconductor layers 7, 8, made of a solid solution semiconductor compounds, selected from one of groups a2In6or the 3In5and located between the layers 7, 8 of the active layers 9 made of a solid solution semiconductor compounds, selected from one of groups a2In6or a3In5and having a higher coefficient of refraction than the surrounding ultrathin semiconductor layers 7 and 8. When the active layers 9 are to be agreed by the period of the crystal lattice with the surrounding layers 7 and 8. The thickness and the values of the coefficients of refraction of alternating ultrathin semiconductor layers 7, 8 are selected to ensure the effective collection and limit the number of nonequilibrium carriers in the active layers. Each active layer 9, is placed within the active semiconductor structure 6 between the two layers 7, 8, represents one or more quantum well layers with a thickness of about waves de Broglie electrons in the semiconductor material of the active layer 9 (you can also use two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots). Active semiconductor structure 6 is placed between the top 10 and placed on the substrate 1 to the bottom 11 of the bounding semiconductor layers made from solid solutions of semiconductor compounds, selected from one of groups a2In6or a3In5. Bounding layers 10, 11 must be mutually agreed to by lane is an ode to the crystal lattice as the active semiconductor structure 6, and with the substrate 1. The upper 10 and lower 11 bounding the semiconductor layers is lower refractive index than the semiconductor layers included in the active semiconductor structure 6 (for the localization of the field of optical radiation within the optical waveguide and efficiency limitations of nonequilibrium carriers in the active semiconductor structure 6 of the active element of the laser). The thickness h of the upper limiting layer 10 satisfies the condition h<x, where x is the penetration depth of the electron beam pumping in the active semiconductor structure 6, which provides efficient pumping of the active semiconductor structure 6.

In contrast to previously known structures on the outer surface of the irradiated electron beam upper bounding the semiconductor layer 10 is made corrugated relief 12 with the direction of the corrugation perpendicular to the optical axis of the active element (the optical axis of the laser). The depth t of the corrugation relief 12 does not exceed the thickness h of the upper limiting layer 10, so as not to disrupt the structure of the active semiconductor structure 6. The active element is transverse geometry of the pump, when the direction of optical radiation (light quanta hν) perpendicular to the direction of the exciting beam of electrons . Corrugated relief 12 has a dual purpose: on the one hand, it is an element that provides a distributed feedback in the active element due to the interference of light waves reflected from different parts of the corrugated surface of the upper limiting layer 10 of the semiconductor heterostructure 2. On the other hand, as the propagation of the light wave semiconductor heterostructure 2 part of the optical radiation output from the active element to the outside due to the diffraction of light on the corrugated surface of the layer 10. However, depending on the configuration of the corrugation this part of the optical radiation is directed at a different angle relative to the optical axis of the laser. To provide distributed along the length of the optical resonator of the amplification optical power in each active layer 9 and exit it through the corrugated surface of the active element should be the condition under which the period T of corrugated relief 12 should be equal to the whole number of half wave laser radiation in the material of the active layer 9.

As in the proposed design of the active element is used transverse geometry of the pump, it is still possible to use for pumping low-energy electron beams with shallow depth of penetration into the active is poluprovodnikov structure 6. However the output of the optical radiation is not only along the optical axis of the laser (i.e., the end faces 3, 4 of the active element forming mirror laser), as in known lasers with transverse pumping, but with the outer corrugated surface of the active element. As a result, the proposed design limit output power (i.e. the power at which begins the destruction of the material of the mirrors of the active element of the laser optical radiation) will be determined not only by the area of the mirrors, but the area of the outer corrugated surface of the active element, which may for orders greater than the area of the mirrors. Due to this, in this design provides the possibility of obtaining high pulse power (>1 MW/cm2with the radiating surface) when used for pumping of electron beams with low energy (of the order of 10-20 Kev).

To eliminate the effect of superluminescence on power output and efficiency of radiation in the proposed design of the active element can either be used as a pump (as shown in figure 2) tape electron beamsoriented along the optical axis of the laser within the boundaries of the 13 pumped region of the active element, or with electron beams of large cross section, can the be used (as shown in figure 3) laser Assembly, consisting of separated from each other parallel to the optical axis of a semiconductor laser grooves 14 elements 15 of the semiconductor heterostructure 2, while the longitudinal size of the elements 15, i.e., the size along the optical axis of the active element of the semiconductor laser exceeds its transverse size (figure 2 and figure 3 hadproved 5 not pictured).

There is also a variant of execution of the active element of a semiconductor laser in which the active element contains multiple semiconductor heterostructures 2 posted Supercourse, i.e. in the form of stairs, at the General hadproved 5 (as shown in figure 4), which can significantly increase the total power of the optical radiation when using a small number of individual semiconductor heterostructures, i.e. without a significant increase in the overall dimensions of this design.

The active element is shown in figure 1 and figure 2, works as follows.

The electron beampumping with a given energy falls on the corrugated surface of the upper limiting layer 10 and penetrates into the following layers of semiconductor heterostructures 2, leading to the emergence of nonequilibrium carriers. As a result of diffusion of nonequilibrium carriers are concentrated in the active layer 9 active pressurizat rodnikovoy structure 6 of the active element and the process of recombination, which leads to the luminescence of the heterostructure 2. At sufficiently high carrier concentration is achieved a state of population inversion, and in the active semiconductor structure 6 amplification of optical radiation as in the direction of the mirrors and in the direction of the corrugated surface of the active element. Part of the radiation returns to the active semiconductor structure 6 heterostructure 2 due to the reflection from the mirrors at the ends 3, 4 of the active element of the laser, as part of the radiation returns to the active semiconductor structure 6 by reflection from a distributed Bragg mirror formed from a corrugated surface (a surface with a relief 12) of the active element, providing, thus, a distributed feedback in the active semiconductor structure 6. This corrugated surface of the active element provides distributed along the length of the optical resonator, that is, along its optical axis, increasing the optical power in the active semiconductor structure 6 only, provided that a corrugated relief 12 with period T, equal to the whole number of half wave laser radiation in the material of the active layer 9. When the gain in the active semiconductor structure 6 will exceed the losses in this structure, generated coherentialisms radiation and outputting it to the external environment as a mirror of the active element, and with a corrugated outer surface of the active element.

Changing the shape of the corrugated relief on the outer surface of the active element, it is possible to change the radiation pattern of the laser. For example, for a sinusoidal corrugation radiation with a corrugated surface will come out with the same intensity in the two sides and perpendicular to the direction of the corrugation. You can also use reliefs bumps, which are used in the manufacture of diffraction gratings for concentrating light in a specific order of the lattice. For example, using the triangular corrugation with strongly asymmetric sides of the triangle, it is possible to achieve a preferential emission in the same direction.

Example.

Tested semiconductor laser green range (with a wavelength of optical emission 535 nm) with transverse e-beam pumped heterostructures ZnMgSSe/ZnSSe/ZnCdSe grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a substrate of GaAs (001) at a temperature of growth 270-280°C. Heterostructure contains the lower and upper bounding layers

Znfor 0.9Mga 0.1Sof 0.15Seof 0.85thickness of 1.5 μm and 20 nm, respectively, are made with flat outer surfaces, and placed between the active semiconductor structure in the form of SR 1.5 nm - ZnS0,14Se0,856/1.8 nm - ZnSe General is a thickness of 0.6 μm, which are equidistant ten active layers consisting of 4 nm ZnSe CB with the plane of CdSe KT in the center. Nominal thickness of CdSe layer into an array of self-assembled CdSe - enriched KT, 2.5 monatomic layer. The use of variable-strained short-period superlattices helped to increase the resistance of the entire heterostructure to mechanical stresses, as well as to protect the active layer from penetration and development of extended and point defects. If the length of the optical resonator 0.46 mm, the transverse size of the pumped region of 0.2 mm and the energy of the electron beam of 20 Kev was obtained output power of 12 watts each face of the optical resonator. The energy conversion efficiency of the electron beam in the light of this laser was 8.5%. At this power level, the intensity of optical radiation in the heterostructure is approaching the damage threshold of the material of the mirrors so that the optical resonator is impossible to further increase the output by increasing the pump power. At the same time, the use of such heterostructures made (as proposed in the invention) with a corrugated relief on the outer surface of its upper limiting layer (for example, in the case of corrugated relief with t=20 nm, T=10 nm at the wavelength of the laser radiation in the material of the active layer, equal to 200 nm), makes it possible to increase the laser power by 1-2 orders at the same energy of the electron beam and the same dimensions of the optical cavity.

Sources of information

1. O.V. Bogdankevich, S.A. darznek, Elisha p. g Semiconductor lasers. M.: Nauka, 1976.

2. MoI, Svinarov, Dverevogo, Iveda, Savarin, Pscope. Low-threshold semiconductor lasers green band pumped by an electron beam on the basis of quantum-well heterostructures. Quantum electronics, t, No. 10, 2004, 909-911.

1. The active element of a semiconductor laser with transverse e-beam pumped, including fixed on hadproved directly or through a wafer of semiconductor heterostructure based on semiconductor compounds, selected from one of the semiconductor groups
And2In6or a3In5containing the active semiconductor structure, placed between the top and located on the side of hadproved lower bounding semiconductor layers, forming in conjunction with the active semiconductor structure of the optical waveguide, the active semiconductor structure contains at least two periodically alternating ultrathin semiconductor layers with different what values of refractive index, made of solid solutions selected semiconductor compounds, and placed between alternating ultrathin semiconductor layers, at least one active layer, made of a solid solution selected semiconductor compounds and having a higher coefficient of refraction than the surrounding alternating ultrathin semiconductor layers, with the upper and lower bounding semiconductor layers are also made of solid solutions selected semiconductor compounds have lower values of index of refraction than the semiconductor layers included in the active semiconductor structure, and the thickness h of the upper bounding the semiconductor layer satisfies the condition h<x, where x is the penetration depth of the electron beam pumping in the active semiconductor structure, wherein on the outer surface of the upper bounding the semiconductor layer is made corrugated relief with the direction of the corrugation perpendicular to the optical axis of the active element of the semiconductor laser, and the period of corrugated relief equal to the whole number of half wave laser radiation in the material of the active layer, the depth of the corrugation does not exceed the thickness h of the upper bounding the semiconductor layer.

2. And the active element according to claim 1, characterized in that the semiconductor heterostructure is divided into individual elements of grooves parallel to the optical axis of the active element of the semiconductor laser.

3. The active element according to claim 2, characterized in that it contains multiple semiconductor heterostructures posted Supercourse General hadproved.



 

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