Air tire with perfected breaker design

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry. Air tire has breaker structure that comprises first breaker layer (51), second breaker layer (52) arranged in radial-inner position relative to first breaker layer (51), third breaker layer (53) arranged in radial inner position relative to first (51) and second (52) breaker layers. Every breaker layer (51, 52, 53) comprises multiple elongated reinforcing elements arranged above 1st, 2nd and 3rd breaker angles. Note here that 1st and 2nd angles vary from 15 to 40 degrees. Second angle has opposite sign relative to 1st breaker angle. Third breaker angle features magnitude varying from 40 to 90 degrees and opposite sign with respect to second angle. Breaker structure comprises also breaker layer (54) arranged at zero degree angle relative to 1st breaker layer (51) comprising elongated reinforcing elements arranged to make, in fact, zero breaker angle,.

EFFECT: perfected performances.

21 cl, 11 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a pneumatic tire used on four-wheeled vehicles.

In particular, the present invention relates to a tyre with high performance, such as bus, designed for vehicles with a powerful engine, or, more generally, to the bus, intended for applications involving high operating speed and/or extreme driving conditions.

More specifically, the present invention relates to a tyre with high performance or ultra-high performance, as well as to the bus, suitable for use in sports, such as track racing. Preferably the tire corresponding to the invention is markedly tapered section.

More specifically, the present invention relates to an improved braceros design pneumatic tire for four-wheeled vehicles.

Pneumatic tyre as a whole contains: toroidal frame construction, comprising at least one frame layer; tread bracelet in a radially-outer position relative to the frame structure; Bracero structure disposed between the frame structure and tread bracelet, a pair of sidewalls, halogen the x frame design in the opposite axial positions. The ends of the at least one frame layer are connected with respective annular reinforcing elements, thus forming the tire bead, which attach the tire to the wheel rim.

There are several bragarnyk structures in the field of tires for cars.

In document EP 0477771 B1 describes a bus with three breakers having at least one frame layer, a tread, a pair of sidewalls, a pair of sides and a set of breakers, located between the tread and the frame layer. Set of breakers has three spaced radial layer. The first and third layers of the stack of breakers include many held essentially parallel reinforcing elements made of polymeric monofilament located under the first angle relative to the Equatorial plane in the range from about +15 to +20 degrees. The second layer of the stack of breakers is located between the first and third layers and contains many held essentially parallel to the metal reinforcing elements located under the second angle in the range of about -15 to -25 degrees relative to the Equatorial plane. The second layer is aligned with the Equatorial plane and has an axial width. The first and third layers are aligned relative to the Equatorial plane and have the corresponding axial width that is essentially equal the each other and more than the axial width of the specified second layer. Axial edge parts of the first and third layers are in contact with each other.

In document EP 0531136 B1 describes a pneumatic radial tire with high performance, including a tread surface formed with multiple annular grooves, a radial carcass, brokery belt, composed of two bragarnyk layers of metal cords, additional reinforcing layer located on the radially outer side of the belt in the axial direction in the Central region of the tread, and at least two additional auxiliary layer located on each of opposite lateral width of the parts of the tread and composed of cords of organic fibers. Additional reinforcing layer composed of cords crossing the metal cords in adjacent brekina layer and inclined relative to the circular direction of the tire, and has a width that is less than the minimum width brokerage zone, but greater than the distance between the annular grooves located on the outer width of the sides of the tread, respectively.

In document EP 1057659 A2 describes a pneumatic radial tire for passenger car, containing a skeleton radial passing in a toroidal shape between a pair of angry the nicknames of the tire bead and comprising, at least one rubberized frame layer containing cords of organic fibers, and brokery zone, reinforcing the crown portion of the carcass and consisting of many bragarnyk layers, in which at least one frame layer has an area cut in its crown portion, and a supporting frame layer is located adjacent to the area of the cut.

In document EP 1071567 B1 describes a pneumatic tire containing a pair of essentially parallel annular flanges, at least one enhanced frame layer, wrapped around a pair of sides, folded Bracero construction, comprising at least one folded breaker and at least one cropped Brecker and floor, located on top of at least one frame layer, rubber tread, located on top of the folded braceros design, and a sidewall located between the flanges and rubber tread. In the shown embodiment of the invention, the coating essentially covers the cut edges of the breaker and is adjacent to a cropped breaker, and the folded edge of the folded stacked up on top of the breaker edges, at least one cut of the breaker and coatings. Folded belt may be reinforced with wire or cord, selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, aramid, carbon fibers, nylon, rayon, polyester, polio is and mixtures thereof, and cut the breaker may be reinforced with wire or cord, selected from the group consisting of steel, fiberglass, aramid, carbon fibers, nylon, rayon, polyester, polyol and mixtures thereof. The floor is reinforced with thread or cord, selected from the group consisting of fiberglass, aramid, carbon fibers, nylon, polyester, polyol and mixtures thereof.

However, you need high performance tires with high or ultra-high performance characteristics of the type indicated above.

In particular, you need to get tyres with high performance or ultra-high performance, which is particularly suitable for high accelerations and decelerations that occur with powerful cars.

In addition, you need to get tires, brekina design which can increase the ability to retain its dimensions at high speeds, that is, the ability of the tire to resist the centrifugal force at high speeds, essentially without changing its shape in such a way as to preserve the size and shape of the contact area at high speeds (for example, more than 200 km/h).

You also need a tyre with high performance or ultra-high performance, demonstrating how it is possible flat tread profile, it is when it is used in extreme driving conditions, especially powerful when the car moves in turns at high speeds.

In accordance with the present invention uses the following definitions:

"Equatorial plane" is the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the tire and including the axial center line of the tire;

"aspect ratio" is the ratio of the section height of the tire, i.e. the radial distance from the nominal rim diameter to the outer diameter of the tire at its Equatorial plane, divided by the width of the cross section of the tire, that is, the maximum linear distance parallel to the axis of rotation of the tire between the outer surfaces of the sidewalls (the above dimensions are defined according to the Standard ETRTO);

"rolling direction" is the direction of advancement of the bus when it is installed on the vehicle. It can be represented graphically by an arrow axis located in the Equatorial plane of the tyre;

"the angle of the breaker" is the smallest angle formed by stacking direction essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements of the breaker relative to the direction of rolling, assuming that the breaker is flat. The reinforcing elements of the breaker are angled breaker comprising zero degrees, when they are parallel to the direction of rolling. The angle of the breaker is positive when he defined the n by turning the direction of rolling clockwise to overlay the stacking direction of elongated reinforcing elements. The angle of the breaker is negative, when it is determined by the rotation direction of the roller counterclockwise to overlay the stacking direction of elongated reinforcing elements. Two bragarnyk layer, can be said to have the corners of the breaker of the opposite sign when the angle of the breaker of the first layer is negative, and the angle of the breaker of the second angle is positive.

It was found that the above-mentioned improved performance can be achieved through the provision of bus braceros structure contains:

first brickery layer containing many of essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements located below the first angle of the breaker;

second brickery layer in a radially inner position relative to the first brokerage layer, containing a number of essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements located under the second angle of the breaker of the opposite sign relative to the first angle of the breaker;

moreover, the first and second corners of the breaker have an absolute value of from 15 to 40 degrees;

this brickery layer at an angle of zero degrees located in a radially outer position relative to the first brokerage layer contains elongated reinforcing elements, which are essentially parallel to each other and are located so that they obra the comfort angle of the breaker, which is essentially zero;

this brekina design further comprises:

third brickery layer in a radially inner position relative to the first and second bragarnyk layers containing many of essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements located under the third angle of the breaker; and the third angle of the breaker has an absolute value of from 40 to 90 degrees and has the opposite sign relative to the second corner of the breaker.

Preferably, elongated reinforcing elements of the third brokerage layer are metal cords, more preferably steel cords.

Preferably, the first and second corners of the breaker have the same absolute value.

Preferably, the third brickery layer has a width that matches the width of the first brokerage layer.

Preferably, the second brickery layer has a width that is greater than the width of the third brokerage layer.

In one embodiment of the invention the third brickery layer is interrupted in the Central region, crossing the Equatorial plane of the tire.

The angle of the breaker brokerage layer at an angle of zero degrees has an absolute value not greater than 5 degrees. The reinforcing elements brokerage layer at an angle of zero degrees, preferably, are of the textile to the water.

According to another object of the present invention relates to a four-wheeled vehicle, containing the front axle and the rear axle and the front axle is equipped with the first bus and the second bus, and the rear axle is equipped with the third bus and the fourth bus, and the tires are above the tires.

According to a preferred variant embodiment of the invention in a four-wheeled vehicle corresponding to the present invention, the third bracerie layers of the first bus and the second bus are the angle of the breaker with an absolute value of from 50 to 75 degrees, while the third bracerie layers of the third bus and the fourth bus have the angle of the breaker with an absolute value of from 75 to 90 degrees.

Other characteristics and advantages will become more apparent from the detailed description of a preferred but not exclusive embodiment of the tire in accordance with the present invention. The present description is given with reference to the accompanying drawings, without introducing constraints.

In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a sectional view of the tire corresponding to the variant of implementation of the present invention;

Figa, 2b and 2c are schematic views in plan of the top three bragarnyk layers braceros tyre structure according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Figure 3 is another schematic view of the reinforcing elements is reconnai structure according to a variant embodiment of the invention with the layer at an angle of zero degrees;

4 is another schematic diagram reinforcing elements braceros structure according to a variant embodiment of the invention with the layer at an angle of zero degrees, in which the third brickery layer in the center interrupted.

5 is a preformed threadlike element, which can be used in brekina layer according to the present invention;

6 is a schematic view of one possible arrangement of the tires on the vehicle according to the present invention;

7 is a schematic view of another possible arrangement of the tires on the vehicle according to the present invention;

Fig is a schematic view of another possible arrangement of the tires on the vehicle according to the present invention;

Fig.9 is a schematic view of another possible arrangement of the tires on the vehicle according to the present invention;

Figure 10 is a graph of load versus length relaxation;

11 is a graph of load versus stiffness of the tire.

In the drawings, the parallel elongated reinforcing elements are schematically presented to illustrate how they are positioned in the tire, but with the number of cords (or density), which does not match the actually used number.

As shown in figure 1, the tire 1, the corresponding present and the finding, usually contains a toroidal frame structure 2, which includes a crown portion and two axially opposite sidewalls, each of which is connected with a corresponding design of the Board for mounting the tire on the rim. The frame structure 2 includes at least one frame layer formed elongated reinforcing elements embedded in rubber material. The frame structure is usually the radial type, that is, the reinforcing elements of at least one frame layer lie in planes including the axis of rotation of the tire and substantially perpendicular to the Equatorial plane of the tire. These reinforcing elements are generally made of textile cords such as rayon, nylon, polyester (for example, polyethylenterephtalate). Each design Board usually contains a bead wire 3 and the filler 4 sides and is connected to the frame structure through the reflection in the opposite direction the opposite lateral ends of the frame of the layer 2 around the bead wire in such a way as to form a so-called reverse bends of the frame, as shown in figure 1.

Alternative constructions of the Board are disclosed, for example, in the publications EP 0928680 and EP 0928702, according to which each design Board formed of at least two annular inserts, SF is smerovanymi of metal cords, spaced concentric coils, and a frame layer folded back around the ring inserts.

Tread bracelet 6 superimposed circumferentially in a radially-outer position relative to the crown portion of the frame structure 2. Sidewall 7 is also imposed from the outside on each axially opposite lateral portion of the frame structure, and each of these side passes from the design Board to the edge of the tread bracelet 6.

Preferably, the tire 1, corresponding to the invention is markedly flattened cross-section, namely the bus corresponding to the invention preferably has an aspect ratio (H/C) of from 0.20 to 0.65, more preferably from 0.25 to 0.55, more preferably from 0.25 to 0.45.

The tire 1 also contains Bracero structure 5 disposed between the frame structure and tread bracelet. Brekina the design of the tyre corresponding to the invention, includes first, second and third bracerie layers 51, 52, 53, which include a variety of reinforcing cords. Preferably, the third brickery layer 53 has a width that matches the width of the first brokerage layer 51. Preferably, the second brickery layer 52 has a width that is greater than the width of the third brokerage layer.

Figure 3 schematically shows brekina to the construction, corresponding to the present invention.

The reinforcing elements brokerage layer 54 at an angle of zero degrees is usually made of textile cords, such as cords of nylon cords of aramid or hybrid cords (i.e. combinations in some cords threads of different types, for example yarns of aramid and of filaments of nylon; see, for example, document EP 0335588 B1).

Each of the first, second and third bragarnyk layers 51, 52, 53 contains many essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements 511, 521, 531, respectively. Such reinforcing elements 511, 521, 531 in General are metal cords. The reinforcing elements 511, 521, 531 embedded in the rubber material and are arranged so that they form a rubberized fabric.

The reinforcing elements 511 of the first brokerage layer 51, preferably made of steel cords. Can be used for standard steel normal tensile steel high tensile, steel ultra-high tensile steel ultra-high elongation.

Usually steel cords 511 are supplied with a coating of corrosion resistant alloy, for example a coating of brass, generally having a thickness of from 0.10 μm to 0.50 μm. The specified coating provides better grip cords with progressivisim composition and provides protection against corrosion during production is DSTV tires, and during its use. Steel cords are usually embedded in the rubber composition according to the known methods.

Preferably, the number (or density) cords 511 and 521 in the first and second bragarnyk layers 51, 52 respectively is in the range of 40 cords/DM to 160 cords/inch

Preferably, the reinforcing elements 511 of the first brokerage layer 51 is located below the first corner VA1breaker, with the absolute value of from 15 to 40 degrees. In other words, BA1can range from +15 to +40 ° C or -15 to -40 degrees.

Preferably, the density of the elongated reinforcing elements 521 in the second brekina layer 52 is the same as the density of the elongated reinforcing elements 511 in the first brekina layer 51.

Preferably, the reinforcing elements 521 of the second brokerage layer 52 are located below the second corner VA2of the breaker. The second corner VA2breaker has the opposite sign relative to the first corner VA1of the breaker. More preferably, the first and second corners VA1and BA2breaker have the same absolute value.

Preferably, each of the metal reinforcing elements 531 of the third brokerage layer 53 is a cord that contains many filiform elements 200.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, the specified nitemid the s elements 200 pre-formed, as described, for example, in document WO 2000/39385.

Deformation of the filiform elements generally in the form of periodic deviations from a straight line can be obtained in any form. Preferably, these deformations are deformations of the coplanar type. Even more preferably, these deformations consist of essentially sinusoidal waves (such as shown in Figure 5), having a length of P waves (or step) and the amplitude of the N wave, as described in document WO 2005/014309.

The term "length of the P wave should be understood as the minimum length of the section, which is periodically repeated, and the term "amplitude N wave" should be understood as meaning double the amplitude of the maximum lateral deviation (estimated as equal in both directions) filiform element from the Central axis S.

Preferably, the length of the P wave (or step) from 2.5 mm to 30.0 mm, more preferably from 5.0 mm to 25.0 mm, Even more preferably, the length of the P wave is 12.5 mm

Preferably, the amplitude of the N wavelength ranges from 0.12 mm to 1.0 mm, more preferably from 0.14 mm to 0.60 mm

In General, the pre-formed filamentary elements 200, corresponding to the present invention have a diameter D ranging from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm, preferably from 0.08 mm to 0.20 mm, Especially preferred is a diameter of 0.12 mm

As indicated above, Nita is ednie elements 200 are metal.

Preferably, the filamentary elements 200 are made of steel. When the diameter of the filiform element is between 0.4 mm and 0.1 mm, the tensile strength steel standard normal elongation is in the range from approximately 2600 N/mm2(or 2600 MPa) to about 3200 N/mm2the tensile strength steel high elongation is in the range from about 3000 N/mm2to approximately 3600 N/mm2the tensile strength steel ultra-high elongation is in the range from approximately 3300 N/mm2to approximately 3900 N/mm2the tensile strength steel ultra-high elongation is in the range from approximately 3600 N/mm2to approximately 4200 N/mm2. These values tensile strength depend, in particular, on the amount of carbon contained in the steel.

Preferably, these thread-like elements are provided with a coating of brass (Cu 60 wt.% up to 75 wt.%, Zn from 40 wt.% up to 25 wt.%), having a thickness of from 0.10 μm to 0.50 μm. The specified coating provides better grip filiform element progressivisim composition and provides protection against corrosion of the metal during the production of tires, and in the course of its use. If you want to ensure a greater degree of protection against corrosion, these filiform elements 200, pre is respectfully, can be supplied with other corrosion-resistant coating, other than brass, capable of providing a higher resistance to corrosion, such as coverage-based alloys, zinc, zinc/manganese (ZnMn), alloys, zinc/cobalt (ZnCo) or alloys, zinc/cobalt/manganese (ZnCoMn).

Preferably, the density of the elongated reinforcing elements 531 in the third brekina layer 53 corresponding to the present invention is from 50 cords/DM to 100 cords/DM, more preferably from 50 cords/DM to 80 cords/inch

Parallel elongated metal reinforcing elements 531, located under the third angle BA3of the breaker. The third angle BA3the breaker has an absolute value of from 40 to 90 degrees and has the opposite sign relative to the second corner VA2of the breaker. The preferred absolute value of the third angle BA3breaker is from 45 to 80 degrees. More preferably, the third corner VA3breaker in the absolute value is between 45 to 55 degrees.

Preferably, parallel elongated metal reinforcing elements 531 of the third brokerage layer 53 are critical elongation of at least 3.0%, and preferably at least 3.5 percent. This critical elongation in General not higher than 8%.

Although the first, second and third bracerie layers 51, 52 and 53 in General, passing the continuously across the entire width braceros design, as shown in figures 1 and 3, the present invention also includes variants in which one or more bragarnyk layers 51, 52 and 53 and, preferably, only the third brickery layer 53 is interrupted. Possibly one or more bragarnyk layers 51, 52 and 53 is interrupted in a Central area, crossing the Equatorial plane. Figure 4 schematically shows a variant embodiment of the invention, in which the third brickery layer 53 is interrupted in the center. This leads to the preferred reducing weight without any substantial change in the characteristics of tires.

Brickery layer 54 at an angle of zero degrees is usually held in the axial direction at least over the entire axial width of the underlying bragarnyk layers 51, 52 and 53 in such a way as to prevent lifting of the edges of the latter during rotation at high speeds.

Figure 6 schematically shows a first typical location of the tires on four-wheel vehicle according to a preferred variant implementation of the present invention. In particular, figure 6 schematically shows a vehicle with the front axle and rear axle with four tires that are relevant to the present invention. Four tires designated as 1a, 1b, 1c and 1d. Bus 1a is installed on the front axle on the left side. Bus 1b is installed on the front axle on the right side. Bus 1c is installed on the rear axle, the lion is the second side. Bus 1d is installed on the rear axle, on the right side.

For each of the tires 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d schematically shows only the direction of the reinforcing elements 531 of the third brokerage layer 53. The reinforcing elements 531 tires on the right and left sides are symmetrical relative to the longitudinal axis L-L of the vehicle.

Table 1 below summarizes for each tire configuration, shown in Fig.6, the preferred range and the preferred range for the third corner VA3of the breaker. Also shown is the preferred range for the first and second corner VA1and BA2(not shown on Fig.6).

td align="center"> from -15 to -25
Table 1
VA3(preferred) [C]VA3(more preferable) [C]VA1(preferred) [C]VA2(preferred) [C]
Bus 1Afrom +50 to +75from +65 to +75from +15 to +25from -15 to -25
Bus 1bfrom -50 to -75from -65 to -75from +15 to +25
Bus 1Cfrom -75 to -90from -80 to -85from -15 to -25from +15 to +25
Bus 1dfrom +75 to +90from +80 to +85from +15 to +25from -15 to -25

7 schematically shows a second typical location of the tire on the four-wheeled vehicle corresponding to a preferred variant implementation of the present invention. In particular, figure 7 schematically shows a vehicle with the front axle and rear axle with four tires that are relevant to the present invention. Also, four tires 7 denoted by reference positions 1A, 1b, 1C and 1d. Like Table 1, table 2 summarizes the preferred range and the preferred range of BA3for the location of the tire shown in Fig.7. Also specify a preferred range for the first and second corner VA1and BA2breaker (not shown in Fig.7).

Table 2
VA3(preferred) [is the radius] VA3(more preferable) [C]VA1(preferred) [C]VA2(preferred) [C]
Bus 1Afrom -50 to -75from -65 to -75from -15 to -25from +15 to +25
Bus 1bfrom +50 to +75from +65 to +75from +15 to +25from -15 to -25
Bus 1Cfrom +75 to +90from +80 to +85from +15 to +25from -15 to -25
Bus 1dfrom -75 to -90from -80 to -85from -15 to -25from +15 to +25

On Fig schematically shows a third typical location of the tire on the four-wheeled vehicle corresponding to a preferred variant implementation of the present invention. In particular, Fig schematically shows a vehicle with the front axle and rear axle with four tires that are relevant to the present invention. Also the four tires on Fig designated as 1a, 1b, 1c and 1d. Like Table 1, table 3, below, summarizes the preferred range and the preferred range of BA3for the location of the tire on Fig. Also specify a preferred range for the first and second corner VA1and BA2breaker (not shown in Fig).

Table 3
VA3(preferred) [C]VA3(more preferable) [C]VA1(preferred) [C]VA2(preferred) [C]
Bus 1Afrom +50 to +75from +65 to +75from +15 to +25from -15 to -25
Bus 1bfrom -50 to -75from -65 to -75from -15 to -25from +15 to +25
Bus 1Cfrom -75 to -90from +80 to +85from +15 to +25from -15 to -25
Bus 1dfrom +75 to+90 from -80 to -85from -15 to -25from +15 to +25

Figure 9 schematically shows a fourth typical location of the tire on the four-wheeled vehicle corresponding to a preferred variant implementation of the present invention. In particular, figure 9 shows a schematic representation of a vehicle with the front axle and rear axle with four tires that are relevant to the present invention. Also four tires on Fig.9 designated as 1a, 1b, 1c and 1d. Like Table 1, table 4, below, summarizes the preferred range and the preferred range of BA3to position the tires in Fig.9. Also specify a preferred range for the first and second corner VA1and BA2breaker (not shown in the Fig.9).

Table 4
VA3(preferred) [C]VA3(more preferable) [C]VA1(preferred) [C]VA2(preferred) [C]
Bus 1Afrom +50 to +75from +65 to +75 from +15 to +25from -15 to -25
Bus 1bfrom -50 to -75from -65 to -75from -15 to -25from +15 to +25
Bus 1Cfrom +75 to +90from +80 to +85from +15 to +25from -15 to -25
Bus 1dfrom -75 to -90from -80 to -85from -15 to -25from +15 to +25

The location of the tire shown in Fig.6, 7, 8 and 9, show a large increase in friction characteristics, especially when cornering at high speed and under extreme driving conditions, e.g. when driving with maximum grip.

Testing indoors (change in diameter)

Were made tires that match the present invention ("bus A")having a size of 245/40ZR19, and tests conducted at the location on the subject of diameter change at the speed of 300 km/h. Bus And contained the first brickery layer with the angle of the breaker 27 degrees, the second brickery layer with the angle of the breaker -27 degrees and the third brickery layer with the angle of the breaker +70 degrees. The tire was inflated on the nominal pressure. Was also used well-known bus ("bus"), having the same size 245/40ZR19 and the same tread pattern, but not with the third brokerage layer, and brekina design was first brickery layer with the angle of the breaker 27 degrees and the second brickery layer with the angle of the breaker -27 degrees. The bus was also inflated to nominal pressure. Both bus a and b had the layer at an angle of zero degrees of nylon cords. For testing a device was used for testing the tire from Dr. Noll Gmbh of Bad Kreuznach, Germany. Both tires were without load.

According to the above measurements, it was found that the diameter of the tire In increased, was approximately 10 mm larger than the diameter of the tire A.

Tests in the open air (control)

Test management was carried out on the track and the driver test imitated some characteristic maneuvers (for example, changing lanes, entering the turn, coming out of a turn), running at a constant speed, with acceleration and deceleration. Then the driver test evaluated the behavior of the tires and appointed a score depending on the characteristics of the bus during a specified maneuver.

Management was generally divided into two options (soft governance and strict management) depending on the type of maneuver, performed by the driver test. Soft governance regarding the priority for the use of the tire under normal driving conditions, that is, at normal speed and good lateral grip. On the contrary, tests with rigid management relate to the behaviour of the tyres at the limiting clutch that is under extreme driving conditions. In the latter case, the driver of a test performed maneuvers that the average driver would have had to do in the event of unforeseen and dangerous circumstances: sharp taxiing at high speed, the sudden change lanes to avoid collisions with obstacles, sudden braking, etc

The vehicle used for testing was the BMW M5 is equipped with tires that are relevant to the invention, according to the arrangement shown in Fig.6. In particular, on the front axle were installed two tires And size 245/40ZR19 having first brickery layer with the angle of the breaker +/-27 degrees, the second brickery layer with the angle of the breaker -/+ 27 degrees and the third brickery layer with the angle of the breaker +/-70 degrees. On the rear axle were installed two tires And size 285/35ZR19 having first brickery layer with the angle of the breaker -/+27 degrees, the second brickery layer with the angle of the breaker +/-27 degrees and the third brickery layer with the angle of the breaker -/+70 degrees. Then on the same vehicle were installed four comparative tires Century Tires were the same size and tread pattern as the corresponding tire A, but without the third is th brokerage layer. Brekina design of all four tires was the same, that is, the first brickery layer with the angle of the breaker -27 degrees, the second brickery layer with the angle of the breaker +27. All tires and had the layer at an angle of zero degrees of nylon cords.

Tires were mounted on standard rims and were inflated to the rated working pressure.

Were performed two different types of tests: behavior at normal speed (soft control) and the behavior at the limit of adhesion (hard controls).

As for testing soft control, driver-test assessed: the void in the center, there is a delay and the degree of response of the vehicle at small angles taxiing; quick response to steering when entering a turn; the progressive response to the steering when driving in rotation; centering in turn, that is, the ability of the tire to keep the vehicle in a turn with a constant radius without continuous steering corrections; restoration of alignment, i.e. the ability of the tires to prevent the return of the vehicle on a straight-line trajectory at the exit of turn with deterrence and damping of transverse oscillations.

As for the test with hard running, the driver of a test assessed: the effort on the steering wheel a sharp turn; quick launch, that is, the behavior of the bus when crossing the ri joining the rotation, taken at top speed; balancing, i.e. the degree of excessive rotation or lack of rotation of the vehicle; flexibility, i.e. the ability of the tire to absorb the rapid transfer of load as a result of a sudden change lanes without excessive deformation and, therefore, no threat to the stability of the vehicle and manageability; releasing the rotation, i.e. the ability of the tire to absorb the effects of instability arising from the sudden release of the accelerator in turn, taken at top speed; controllability, i.e. the ability of the tire to maintain and/or return the vehicle on the trajectory after the loss of adhesion.

The following table 5 summarizes the list of marks of the driver-investigator on the controllability of the tire. The results of these tests are expressed by the scale of assessments, representing a subjective opinion expressed by the driver test using a system of points. The values are reproduced in the table below represent the average value between the received multiple test sessions and are given multiple drivers test. It should be noted that the scale of values goes from a minimum of 4 to a maximum of 9.

table 5
Bus And (according to the invention)Tire (comparative)
The steering behavior (Soft control)The emptiness at the center7+6,5
Speed76,5
Progressive7+6
Centering in turn6,55,5
Restoring alignment76
Behavior when the speed limit (Hard controls)The speed of the orbital trajectory76+
Alignment6,56-
Compliance7-6
Releasing in turn 75+
Insufficient turning6,56
Excessive turning7-6
Manageability75,5

As can be seen in Table 5, the tire corresponding to the invention has significantly better characteristics than the comparative tire.

For example, the tire And has a high speed and grip (especially when the tyre is fitted on the driven axis)that can be derived from the above items: speed, progressive, centered on the rotation and the lack of turn.

In addition, the tire And has a high cross-coupling, which can be derived from the above: restore alignment, excessive turning, manageability and flexibility.

Bus And was successful in securing high equilibrium between the two axles of the vehicle and, thus, better balance the front and rear parts of a vehicle.

Figure 10 shows a graph of load [N] with respect to the length S0 [m] relaxation. Figure 10 shows two curves. The first curve is to the comparative tire, having a size 30535ZR20, Bracero design, formed the first brakeman layer with the angle of the breaker -27 degrees, the second brakeman layer with the angle of the breaker 27 degrees and the layer at an angle of zero degrees from a nylon cord over them. The second curve refers to the bus And the same size with the same tread pattern and design of the tires, but with an additional third brakeman layer corresponding to the invention, having a third angle of the breaker +70 degrees. When reading from Figure 10 it is clear that the relaxation length of the tire And less than the relaxation length of the tire at low loads. The difference increases at higher loads. This means that the tire And provides better performance than the bus, especially in conditions of strict control.

Figure 11 shows the graph of load [N] relative stiffness kd [N/deg.], measured on the same tires a and b, described above relative to Figure 10. When reading the 11 it is clear that the stiffness of the tire And substantially higher stiffness of the tire at low loads. The difference increases at higher loads. This means that the tire And provides better performance than the bus, especially in conditions of strict control.

1. Pneumatic tire containing a toroidal frame construction, comprising at least one frame layer, and the frame structure contains coronet and two axially opposite sidewalls, each of which is connected with a corresponding design of the Board for mounting the tire on the rim; the tread bracelet in a radially-outer position relative to the frame structure; Bracero structure disposed between the frame structure and tread bracelet, a pair of side walls, superimposed on the frame structure at opposite axial positions with brekina structure contains:
first brickery layer containing many of essentially parallel elongated metal reinforcing elements located below the first angle of the breaker;
second brickery layer in a radially inner position relative to the first brokerage layer, containing a number of essentially parallel elongated metal reinforcing elements located under the second angle of the breaker of the opposite sign relative to the first angle of the breaker;
moreover, the first and second corners of the breaker have an absolute value of from 15 to 40°;
this brickery layer at an angle of 0°, located in a radially outer position relative to the first brokerage layer contains elongated reinforcing elements, which are essentially parallel to each other and are located so that they form an angle of the breaker, which is essentially zero;
and brekina design advanced soderzhateley brickery layer in a radially inner position relative to the first and second bragarnyk layers, containing many of essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements located under the third angle of the breaker; and the third angle of the breaker has an absolute value of from 40 to 90° and has the opposite sign relative to the second corner of the breaker;
this essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements of the third brokerage layer are metal cords, containing numerous filiform elements.

2. The tire according to claim 1, in which essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements of the third brokerage layer are steel cords.

3. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, in which the third angle of the breaker has an absolute value of from 45 to 80°.

4. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, in which the third angle of the breaker has an absolute value of 45 to 55°.

5. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, in which the density of the cords of many essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements of the third brokerage layer is from 50 to 100 cords/inch

6. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, in which the density of the cords of many essentially parallel elongated reinforcing elements of the third brokerage layer is from 50 to 80 cords/inch

7. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, in which the first and second corners of the breaker have the same absolute value.

8. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, in which the third brickery layer has a width that matches the width of the PE the first brokerage layer.

9. The tire of claim 8, in which the second brickery layer has a width that is greater than the width of the third brokerage layer.

10. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, in which the third brickery layer is interrupted in the Central region, crossing the Equatorial plane of the tire.

11. The tire according to claim 1, in which the filiform elements are pre-formed by forming deformations, which take the form of periodic deviations from a straight line.

12. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, in which the reinforcing elements brokerage layer at an angle of 0° is made of textile cords.

13. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, with the aspect ratio from 0.20 to 0.65.

14. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, with the ratio of geometric sizes from 0.25 to 0.55.

15. The tire according to claim 1 or 2, having an aspect ratio of 0.25 to 0.45.

16. Four-wheeled vehicle, containing the front axle and the rear axle and the front axle is equipped with the first bus and the second bus, the rear axle is equipped with the third bus and the fourth bus, and the tires are tire according to claim 1 or 2.

17. Four-wheeled vehicle according to clause 16, in which the third bracerie layers of the first bus and the second bus are the angle of the breaker with an absolute value of from 50 to 75°, and the third bracerie layers of the third bus and the fourth bus have the angle of the breaker with an absolute value of from 75 to 90°.

18. Four-wheel Tr is nsportname tool PP or 17, in which
the first bus is mounted on the front axle on the left side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between +50 and +75°;
the second bus is mounted on the front axle on the right side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between -50 and -75°;
the third bus is mounted on the rear axle, on the left side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between -75 and -90°; and
the fourth tire is installed on the rear axle, on the right side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between +50 and +75°.

19. Four-wheeled vehicle according to item 16 or 17, in which the first bus is mounted on the front axle on the left side and contains
third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between -50 and -75°;
the second bus is mounted on the front axle on the right side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between +50 and +75°;
the third bus is mounted on the rear axle, on the left side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between +75 and +90°; and
the fourth tire is installed on the rear axle, on the right side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between -50 and -75°.

20. Four-wheeled vehicle with adsto according to item 16 or 17, in which the first bus is mounted on the front axle on the left side and contains
third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between +50 and +75°;
the second bus is mounted on the front axle on the right side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between -50 and -75°;
the third bus is mounted on the rear axle, on the left side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between +75 and +90°; and
the fourth tire is installed on the rear axle, on the right side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between -50 and -75°.

21. Four-wheeled vehicle according to item 16 or 17, in which the first bus is mounted on the front axle on the left side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between -50 and -75°;
the second bus is mounted on the front axle on the right side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between +50 and +75°;
the third bus is mounted on the rear axle, on the left side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between -75 and -90°; and
the fourth tire is installed on the rear axle, on the right side and includes a third brickery layer in which the third angle of the breaker is between +50 and +75°.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed pneumatic tire incorporates a carcass and a tread formed by, at least, two tread layers made up of rigid reinforcing elements with alternating crossed-over layers forming, with the peripheral direction, the angles varying from 10° to 45° on the tread crown zone. The said tread crown zone is jointed to two beads by side walls. The tread side thickness-to-tread center thickness ratio makes below 1.20 and the tread crown zone-to-tire total width ratio exceeds or equals 0.89.

EFFECT: higher strength and reliability.

25 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to pneumatic tire for which factor of H/S type has value exceeding 0.55 and which has radial reinforcement of frame and contains flange reinforcement formed by at least two flange working layers created of inextensible reinforcing elements intercrossing from one layer to another forming with circumferential direction the angles in the range of 10 to 45°. Tyre tread connected with two beads by means of two sidewalls is located over this radial frame reinforcement in radial direction. Crest reinforcement contains at least one layer of circumferential reinforcing elements. Value of ratio of crest block width at the end of shoulder area to crest block width at center circumferential plane is less than 1.20, and value of ratio of axial width of at least one layer of circumferential reinforcing elements to axial width of tire tread exceeds 0.5 and preferably exceeds 0.6.

EFFECT: tire strength and reliability is improving.

23 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to pneumatic tire which has radial reinforcement of frame and contains crest reinforcement formed by at least two crest working layers created of inextensible reinforcing elements intercrossing from one layer to another forming with circumferential direction the angles in the range of 10 to 45°. Tire tread connected with two beads by means of two sidewalls is located over this radial frame reinforcement in radial direction. Crest reinforcement contains at least one layer of circumferential reinforcing elements which has axial width less than axial width of at least one of crest working layers. Ratio of axial width of at least one layer of circumferential reinforcing elements to axial width of tire tread is equal to value which exceeds 0.6 and preferentially exceeds 0.65. Ratio of tire tread axial width to maximum axial width of this pneumatic tire is equal to value exceeding 0.89.

EFFECT: tire strength and reliability is improving.

17 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pneumatic tyre with radial carcass reinforcement over which ridge reinforcement consisting of at least two working layers of ridge formed by metal reinforcement members is arranged in radial direction. Said reinforcement members intersect from one layer to the other forming angles of 10 to 35° with circumferential direction. Ridge reinforcement includes at least one additional reinforcement formed by metal reinforcement members orientated in circumferential direction. Additional reinforcement consists of at least two layers of metal members of small diameter not exceeding 0.6 mm. Metal reinforcement members of additional reinforcement are assemblies, type 1 x n where n is from 2 to 5, made of steel featuring high breaking strength SHT, and diameter of threads is within 12/100 and 30/100.

EFFECT: increased strength and wear resistance of tyres.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed pneumatic tire has crown, two side strips and two beads as well as carcass reinforcement secured in each bead and crown reinforcement provided with working unit and protective unit form inside to outside in radial direction. Protective unit contains at least one layer of parallel reinforcement circumferentially orientated elements. Layer of protective unit is formed by reinforcement elements made of aromatic polyamide with initial modulus of elasticity not less than 1000 cN/tex and breaking strength exceeding 65 cN/tex.

EFFECT: increased strength of pneumatic tire crown.

20 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: road vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed tire has radial body with one or several breaker layers on place close to outer surface, and strengthening layer with nylon cord wound in spiral over breaker. It is desirable that tread belt of tire be formed by underlayer and outer layer, one placed on the other, elasticity and/or hardness characteristics of first layer remaining stable at temperatures within 20 and 110oC.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of tires.

23 cl, 4 tbl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to the automotive industry

The invention relates to road transport

FIELD: tire industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tire with radial reinforcement of carcass for use on heavy vehicles, such as transport or construction and road-building machines. It relates to tire with axial width exceeding 37 inches. According to invention, tire has working reinforcement crown consisting of at least two uninterrupted working layers and terminating from each side of circumferential (equatorial) middle plane in at least two half-layers whose metal reinforcement members form angles exceeding minimum angle which is formed by reinforcement members of uninterrupted layers relative to circumferential direction. Half-layer passing in axial direction outwards further than other half-layers is in contact with widest in axial direction uninterrupted layer in crown, and two half-layers cover in radial direction axially outer end of said working layer widest in axial direction.

EFFECT: increased service life of tire.

8 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: tire industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of automobile tires, particularly to those used in construction vehicles. proposed reinforcement pack N of pneumatic tire contains reinforcement member embedded in converting materials and it includes first layer C1 and second layer C2 of metal elements E1, E2 parallel to each other and embedded into covering materials M1, M2 and third layer C3 of elements E3 made of textile material is placed between two layers C1 and C2, third layer being embedded into covering material M3. Textile elements E3 are orientated relative to elements E1 and E2 at angle within 70° and 110°.

EFFECT: increased strength of tires.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: automotive industry; tire industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tires for machines used in civil engineering. Proposed tire has radial carcass reinforcement 1 second in each bead by means of ring reinforcement member of bead and radially upper crown reinforcement containing at least two working layers of non-stretchable metal cord with intersecting threads of layers, width of said layers is at least 50% of tread width L, and radially upper two protective layers along crown made of so-called elastic metal cord with intersecting threads of layers. Tread includes, in its grooveless part of thickness D, at least one reinforcement made of strengthening members. Said reinforcement consists of at least two layers of textile monofiber whose threads are parallel in each layer. Axial width of said layers is at least equal to width of most narrow working layer.

EFFECT: increased strength of crow of pneumatic tire.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed pneumatic tire has crown, two side strips and two beads as well as carcass reinforcement secured in each bead and crown reinforcement provided with working unit and protective unit form inside to outside in radial direction. Protective unit contains at least one layer of parallel reinforcement circumferentially orientated elements. Layer of protective unit is formed by reinforcement elements made of aromatic polyamide with initial modulus of elasticity not less than 1000 cN/tex and breaking strength exceeding 65 cN/tex.

EFFECT: increased strength of pneumatic tire crown.

20 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: automotive industry; tyre industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of radial-ply tyres for trucks. Proposed tyre casing contains tread, breaker consisting of metal cord and textile layers, carcass, side strips and bead rings. Diameter of metal cord is from 0.83 to 0.91 mm. Metal cord proper is made of metal threads of equal diameter, ratio of diameter of metal thread to diameter of metal cord being from 0.280 to 0.331. ratio of pitch of metal cord in breaker to diameter of metal cord is from 1.978 to 2.168, and linear density of metal cord lies within 2.64 and 2/96 g/m. Ratio of thickness of each rubber-lined layer of metal cord in breaker to diameter of metal cord is from 1.538 to 1.839, and breaking strength of metal cord is not lower than 855±5N.

EFFECT: reduced materials usage, labour input and power consumption at production of tyre.

2 dwg

FIELD: automotive industry; tyre industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of radial-ply tyres for trucks. Proposed tyre casing contains tread, breaker, carcass, side strips and bead rings. Diameter of metal cord is from 0.87 to 0.97mm. Metal cord proper is made of metal threads of equal diameter, ratio of diameter of metal thread to diameter of metal cord being from 0.242 to 0.293. Ratio of pitch of metal cord in breaker to diameter of metal cord is from 1.85 to 2.076, and linear density of metal cord lies within 2.84 and 3.16 g/m. Ratio of thickness of each rubber-lined layer of metal cord in breaker to diameter of metal cord is from 1.62 to 1.85, and breaking strength of metal cord is not lower than 955±5N.

EFFECT: reduced materials usage, labour input and power consumption at production of tyres.

2 dwg

FIELD: automatic industry; tyre industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of radial-ply tyres for trucks. Proposed tyre casing contains tread, breaker, carcass, side strips and bead rings. Diameter of metal cord is from 1.14 to 1.26 mm. Metal cord proper is made of equal-diameter metal threads, ratio of metal thread diameter to diameter of metal cord being from 0.253 to 0.298. Ratio of breaker metal cord pitch to diameter of metal cord is from 1.9 to 2.25, and linear density of metal cord lies within 5.0 and 5.5 g/m. Ratio of thickness of each rubber-lined layer of metal cord in breaker to diameter of metal cord is from 0.35 to 1.49, breaking strength of metal cord being not lower than 1715±5N.

EFFECT: reduced materials usage, labour input and energy consumption at production of tyres.

2 dwg

The invention relates to the automotive industry

The invention relates to the automotive industry and is designed primarily for vehicles of high capacity

FIELD: automatic industry; tyre industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of radial-ply tyres for trucks. Proposed tyre casing contains tread, breaker, carcass, side strips and bead rings. Diameter of metal cord is from 1.14 to 1.26 mm. Metal cord proper is made of equal-diameter metal threads, ratio of metal thread diameter to diameter of metal cord being from 0.253 to 0.298. Ratio of breaker metal cord pitch to diameter of metal cord is from 1.9 to 2.25, and linear density of metal cord lies within 5.0 and 5.5 g/m. Ratio of thickness of each rubber-lined layer of metal cord in breaker to diameter of metal cord is from 0.35 to 1.49, breaking strength of metal cord being not lower than 1715±5N.

EFFECT: reduced materials usage, labour input and energy consumption at production of tyres.

2 dwg

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