Airplane, fast-speed arrow wing and fuel system

FIELD: air transport.

SUBSTANCE: airplane includes nose, front, central, rear and tail sections and fast-speed arrow wing with jet engines. Fast-speed arrow wing is characterised by change of maximum relative profile thickness, geometric twist angle, angle of lateral V wing under wing semispan and middle surface curvature both along semispan and profile chord. Fuel system includes reservoir of the airplane central section and reservoirs in outer wings near the central section at middle part and at the periphery. The central section is equipped with expandable walls. Fuel system provides initial use of fuel from central section reservoir, then from fuel tanks of outer wings located near central section and then from tanks at the periphery of outer wings, and after all the others - from the middle part of the wing by fuel transfer between tanks.

EFFECT: improvement of aerodynamic characteristics for planes with different weight and hull length.

22 cl, 54 dwg

 

The claimed group of inventions relates to aircraft, and in particular to passenger aircraft, and includes combined to form a single inventive concept technical solutions to solve the issues of choice of design and design solutions passenger aircraft intended for development on its basis of a family of passenger aircraft model range aircraft with different capacity and the maximum design range, as well as aerodynamic scheme of its high-speed swept wing and its fuel system.

Analysis of technical solutions related to the appearance of a passenger plane to create on its basis the family of passenger aircraft, and the dynamics of their development (see, for example, the Design of passenger aircraft, Ed. Gavdopoula, M.: engineering, 1991, str-249) allows to distinguish two approaches to the development of the model range of passenger aircraft.

The first approach is associated with the serial for a long time to create the model number of the aircraft, with each subsequent model airplane is created on the basis of the previous one. Examples of this approach to the creation of a family of passenger aircraft, is the development of collections of passenger aircraft Il-18, Il-62, Boeing 707, Boeing 727, Boeing 737. The second approach is azan with the original design of the aircraft, intended for development on its basis of a family of planes, that is, parallel design family of aircraft, including airplanes various passenger and/or destination with the maximum degree of unification. Examples of this approach can be found in the decisions of the patent of the Russian Federation 2148534, Germany 4323020, USA 6575406, 6938854, EPO 0857648 in which the aircraft are distinguished by the shape of the fuselage, the number of motors and their characteristics, the number of wings. Practical implementation of these technical solutions is problematic.

Examples of practical implementation of the second approach to the choice of the model range aircraft can be attributed to the family of passenger aircraft, L-1011, DC 10, A319-A321, which is based on the design of the aircraft, which serves as a base for the entire range of aircraft.

Aircraft L-1011 (see Pineland. Production of wide-bodied aircraft. M: mechanical engineering, 1979, p.87-101) includes a fuselage, a high-speed swept wing, vertical and horizontal tail, engines and chassis.

Aircraft L-1011 technological joints is divided into the nose of the fuselage (nose compartment), the middle part of the fuselage (front compartment, the Central compartment), rear compartment, the rear compartment, detachable wing, the wing center section with additional walls, placed in parallel is the side members, vertical and horizontal tail. High-speed swept wing includes front and rear spars and the power set of stringers and ribs.

The range of aircraft L-1011 Lockheed Aicraft" (see Belyaev V.V. Passenger aircraft in the world. M.: Izd. Aspal, Argus, 1997, str-242) includes two groups of planes, the first of which is designed to carry up to 400 passengers, the second to transport up to 330 passengers.

The first group of aircraft includes the aircraft, a four level-range flights. The plane with the lowest level of the range of this group is the plane L-1011-1: when transporting 276 passengers with Luggage a range of 5350 km Aircraft L-1011 - 100 and L-1011-200 are aircraft models with intermediate levels of range, for the same load range of these aircraft are 6390 and 7600 km of the Plane L-1011-250 is the plane with the highest level of range in this group, its range with the carriage 276 passengers with Luggage is 8890 km

The second passenger group aircraft of this family is represented by one model - L-1011-500, intended for the carriage 246 passengers with Luggage with the flight distance of 9700 km

The transition from the first group of aircraft to the second is by reducing the length of the front and rear Otsego is, in addition, the transition from the planes of the first group to the second increased wing span.

In the internal volume of the high-speed swept wing, split technological joints on the center section and outer wing panels, placed fuel tanks. The transition within the first group of planes from the aircraft with the lowest range of flight L-1011 - 1 to the plane with intermediate range L-1011 - 100 is carried out by introducing into the design of the center section of the Central fuel tank and a corresponding increase in the mass of fuel. The transition to the next level of flight range (aircraft L-1011 - 200) from the aircraft L-1011 - 100 implemented through the use of more powerful engines, and the transition to the aircraft with the longest range L-1011 - 250 made by further increasing the mass of fuel in the Central fuel tank.

Another example of a technical solution of an aircraft designed to develop a family of passenger aircraft is a DC-10 aircraft company MC Donnel Douglas.

The plane of the considered family (see Belyanin PN. Production of wide-bodied aircraft, Meters: machinery, 1979, p.72-87) consists of a fuselage, split technological joints on the nose, front, center, rear and rear compartments, a high-speed swept wing, chassis.

High-speed swept the wing consists of a center section and outer wing consoles, made by dvukhlineinoi scheme, and includes front and rear spars, the casing with its upper and lower parts of the ribs and the power set of stringers. The wing is made variable by poluraspada wing relative thickness of the profile of the wing, while the relative thickness of the wing at the root portion of ~ 12.2%, and in the end ~ of 8.4%. The sweep of the wing along the line of the quarter-chord - 35 degrees.

Under wing consoles placed two engine nacelles. Additionally, you may be placing another engine in the rear fuselage. In addition, the aircraft can be used in engines of different brands with different characteristics.

The fuel system includes a wing fuel tanks and fuel tank in the wing center section. On the basis of this plane can be developed aircraft family with 2 groups of planes with different capacity.

The first group is intended for transportation of 236 passengers, includes one aircraft (DC-10 Twin), designed to fly up to 4050 km (see Strukov P. Modern aircraft in the U.S. and Western Europe, the Results of science and technology, ser. Aircraft engineering, vol. 1, M, VINITI, 1973, p.47).

In the lineup of the second passenger group of this family, is designed to carry up to 380 passengers included 4 aircraft models with different levels of range (see Belyaev V.V. Pass the passenger aircraft in the world. M.: Izd. Aspal, Argus, 1997, str-269). In this group the aircraft DC-1010 has the least range - 5370 km during transportation 277 passengers with Luggage, aircraft DC-1015 is a model with an intermediate level range of this group - 6940 miles when transporting the same number of passengers. Aircraft DC-1030 and DC-1040 are the models with the greatest range in this group: when transporting 277 passengers and Luggage, the flight range of the aircraft DC-1030 - 10460 km, aircraft DC-1040 - 10280 km

In this family of aircraft, the transition from one group by the passenger to another group is carried out by changing the length of the fuselage and change the number of engines on the aircraft: the length of the fuselage first passenger group is less than the length of the fuselage of the aircraft is the second passenger group, the aircraft first passenger group is equipped with two engines, and the second passenger group - three.

Inside the second passenger group's transition from the aircraft with the lowest estimated maximum flight range (DC-1010) to the aircraft intermediate (DC-1015) and the highest estimated maximum flight range (DC-1030, DC-1040) implemented due to the following changes in the design of aircraft with the lowest estimated maximum flight range:

change the wing (unwinding diameter of the wing is increased by 3.05 m);

change the fuel system of the aircraft (increased volume of the fuel tanks due to the introduction of the Central fuel tank in the wing center section);

by changing the gear of the aircraft (aircraft intermediate and maximum flight range are supplied with an additional (third) main support chassis, placed under the fuselage between the two main pillars);

change to aircraft engines with different traction characteristics and indicators of efficiency of fuel consumption.

The technical decisions aircraft suitable for the development of collections, wide-bodied aircraft, designed to carry from 200 to 400 passengers with a range of ranges of flight, including Intercontinental flights. In addition, the range of the considered families of planes, represented by two groups of planes with different Seating capacity, one of which included only one model of airplane with a single maximum of the estimated range, is not able to provide a flexible response to the changing requirements of airlines for passenger aircraft with different capacity and flight range. This is especially true for the segment of regional passenger aircraft, designed to carry from 60 to 100 passengers.

Reviewed technical solutions m is a sensible series of collections planes are characterized by a low degree of unification of the aircraft: the aircraft can be used in various engines, for example the engines from different manufacturers may vary the design of major parts of the airframe (wing, chassis, structures, tanks, fuel system etc).

The solution of the problem of designing a family of aircraft with a high degree of commonality, including different passenger groups, and hence different longitudinal dimensions of the fuselage, requires the solution of the task of equipping aircraft speed swept wing one geometry.

Known technical solution high-speed swept wing (see RF patent 1775972, IPC VS 3/10, publ. 30.09.1994). In accordance with this technical solution, each of the outer wings are composed of two parts, separated from each other by the base sections, parallel to the plane of symmetry of the aircraft, placed sequentially along the span of the outer wings, smoothly mated with each other and formed as a single spatial system. In this solution the first part of each of the consoles limited wing, tail section and the section in the middle part of the wing at z=0.3, and the second part of each of the outer wings is limited to the marked section in the middle part of the wing and the end section.

Wing is made as a single spatial system based on non-flat middle surface along with decreasing the of alarazboy wing relative thickness of the profile and decreasing during the transition from the side to the end section of the geometric angle of twist of the wing sections.

When switching from onboard to the end section of the wing profile cross-sections made with a monotonic decrease of the maximum relative profile thickness from 16...17% in the on-Board cross-section to 15.6...16% on the border of the first and second parts and to 13% in the limit section.

In addition, this technical solution, the wing performed with a negative angle geometric twist of the cross section, decreasing in wingspan: during the transition from the side section to the boundary between the first and second parts of the outer wings of the angle sections varies fromtoand then when moving to the end section to.

In addition, this technical solution, the profiles of the first and second parts of the outer wings is with the location of the middle line of the profile above the notochord. In this technical solution, as well as in the following technical solution according to the patent of the Russian Federation 2228282 as one of the signs is considered the position of the middle line of the profile relative to the chord. Hereinafter, in the middle line of the profile above the chord will use the term positive concavity of the profile, and when the designation of the maximum relative positive concavity (the ratio of maximum deflection of the middle line from the chord to the chord length) to use positive led the ranks. If the middle line of the profile below the chord will use the term negative concavity, and to indicate the maximum negative concavity to use negative values. The maximum relative positive concavity of the profiles on the first and second parts of the consoles in this solution, the swept wing located atand at the transition from the side section to the boundary between the first and second parts of the outer wings, the maximum relative concavity of the profile increases fromtoand with the further transition in the second part of the aerodynamic bearing surface practically does not change.

In accordance with this technical solution high-speed swept wing is used for wing subsonic aircraft with elongation λ=11...12, narrowingconstant sweep along the front and rear edges with sweep 1/4 £ chords χ1/4=3°, while the sweep line of the rear spar χPLN=0°.

This solution high-speed swept wing is effective at cruising speeds of flight Mach number...to 0.64 0.66 and does not provide optimal aerodynamic characteristics in flight from cruising speed to 0.82 M in Addition, this technical is some solution does not solve the location problem under consoles wing aircraft turbojet engines largely bypass ratio, characterised by its large size.

Development of the aircraft to create on its basis a unified model number family of passenger aircraft, poses certain problems in the development of the fuel system of the aircraft family. While traditional technical problems to be solved when designing fuel systems of aircraft, such as the increase in the mass of fueling, the decrease in dry weight fuel systems, reducing deverbative residual fuel, optimizing the production of fuel from mnogovekovyh fuel systems of aircraft, added tasks for the development of the fuel system, optimized for use in aircraft, designed for different capacity and different maximum current range.

An example of known technical solutions of the fuel system of the aircraft is the technical solution of the fuel system of the aircraft TU-134A (see Vairocana. "TU-134A", ed. Mechanical engineering, 1975, p.44-51, 305-308, 319). This fuel system includes fuel tanks, located in the center section and wing consoles. In this technical solution, the wing contains the longitudinal force kit including front and rear spars, shear strength set with ribs and sheathing with its upper and lower parts. The wing center section, made in the form of a caisson, is limited to the front and the back of the rails, side ribs, top and bottom panels and is divided by ribs into four compartments. Each of the outer wings is in the form of a caisson, which is limited to the front and rear spars, the lower and upper casings and provided with ribs, part of which is airtight, and the longitudinal force kit. The wing in this technical solution is made with a negative angle transverse V-wing.

Fuel system this technical solution contains two groups of fuel tanks placed in the right and left consoles wing aircraft, each of which includes a first fuel tank (in the terminology of the source tank No. 1), adjacent to the center section of the aircraft, the second fuel tank (in the terminology of the source tank No. 3)placed on the periphery of the wing span, and the third fuel tank (in the terminology of the source - tank No. 2)located between the first and second tank, and consumable compartment placed in the internal volume of one of the fuel tanks, the fuel supply line in the engine, the entrance of which is connected to the feed compartment. In addition, the fuel system is equipped with a mains pump fuel transfer pumps, the inputs of which are connected to the internal cavities of the wing tanks, and outputs - with feed compartments of the fuel tank groups.

In this technical solution, the fuel system supplies compartments placed in the internal is the amount of the first fuel tanks, while one of the walls of expenditure compartments combined with the front spar, and the other two with ribs inside the first tank of the fuel system. In addition, in the two Central compartments of the center section has two additional fuel tank a small amount (in the terminology of the source tanks No. 1A), one of which is structurally included in one and the other in another group of fuel tanks.

When designing in-flight fuel is first emptied the second fuel tanks placed on the periphery of the outer wings, then about half the fuel of the first fuel tanks adjacent to the fuselage of the aircraft, then a third fuel tanks, and then produces the second half of the fuel from the first fuel tank and the last to be produced fuel from a supply compartments. To control the processes running out of fuel system provides a complex management systems development of fuel.

Fuel system this technical solution does not ensure its effective use in aircraft, intended for use in the model number of aircraft with different capacity and different maximum flight range with different value of the maximum fuel. The great mass of the fuel system during flight varies greatly and is agenie center of gravity of the aircraft.

The closest analogue of the claimed technical solution "Airplane" is the technical solution of the plane, which is used in the family of passenger aircraft A319-A320-A321.

The plane of this family (see Passenger aircraft Airbus industry A320, ed. Zaitseva, N.N., TSAGI, 1993, p.13-48, p.51-58) is provided with a fuselage, split technological joints sequentially placed on the bow, front, center, rear and rear compartments. The nasal, Central and rear sections of the fuselage are made identical for all aircraft, and the front and rear compartments is made with a length that enables the accommodation on Board number of passengers corresponding to the group of aircraft in terms of passenger capacity. Due to this change the length of the aircraft and the transition from one group by the passenger to another: thus, the length of the planes of the first group - 33,84 m, the second - 37,57 m, the third - 44,51 m

All model aircraft of this family supplied identical for all aircraft speed swept wing of the same geometry and design. This wing is made with a sweep angle of 25°, elongation λ=9,42 with constant positive angle transverse V-wing, close to the value of 5°6'36". When switching from onboard to the end section relative that is the community profile is reduced from 15.3% to 10.8 per cent. While half of poluraspada wing, adjacent to the side rib, wing equipped with plot with a local minimum of the relative thickness of the profile (see Passenger aircraft Airbus industry A320. TSAGI, M., 1993, p.22, 26): from the side of the rib relative to the coordinates of poluraspada wingthe relative thickness of the profile decreases, reaching a local minimum atand fromtoincreases, then whenthe relative thickness of the profile continues to decline.

High-speed swept wing aircraft consists of a center section and wing consoles. It includes longitudinal and transverse power set, while the longitudinal force set includes front and rear spars and stringers, and cross-power set - rib, part of which is airtight, and the wing with the top and bottom parts.

In each of the outer wings placed on a dry compartment, with one of the walls dry compartments combined with the front spar. In this technical solution, the other two walls of the dry compartment aligned with the ribs of the wing, and the fourth wall separates the dry compartment from the internal volume of the wing.

In addition, the aircraft is family supplied power unit, containing two turbofan jet-propulsion engine, placed under the wing consoles symmetrically about the plane of symmetry of the aircraft. Consider the technical solution of the aircraft includes the use of different engines in airplanes of different groups in terms of passenger capacity and range.

Consider the solution of the plane assumes connection of jet engines the mains supply fuel from the fuel system, equipped with two groups of fuel tanks, each of which includes first and second fuel tanks, housed in a wing consoles, the first tanks of the groups placed in the root portion of the outer wings, and the second tanks on their periphery. Fuel tanks consoles wing separated from each other tight ribs.

Consider the technical solution of the airplane provides, in addition, the possibility of placing additional fuel in the Central fuel tank, located in the Central wing section, the side walls of which are formed by the front and rear spars of the wing center section and side ribs.

In addition, the aircraft is equipped with a chassis comprising two main bearings and nasal support.

On the basis of the considered technical solutions of plane it is possible to develop a family of passenger aircraft, the range of which is about consists of three groups of different aircraft passenger capacity (see Belyaev V.V. Passenger aircraft in the world. M.: Izd. ASPAL, Argus, 1997, p.108-121): the first group includes the aircraft, designed to carry 124...148 passengers (aircraft A319-110, A319-130), the second group of aircraft includes the aircraft, designed to carry 164...179 passengers (A320-110, A320-210, A320-230), the third group includes the aircraft, designed to carry 200...220 passengers (A321-100, A321-200).

This second group contains three aircraft, designed for different flight range: A320-110 - lowest - 4900 km, A320-210 - intermediate - 5185 km and A320-230 - greatest - 5370 km with 150 passengers with Luggage. The third group includes three aircraft, designed for different flight range: A321-100 - lowest - 4170 km and intermediate - 4350 km, A321-200 - greatest - 5000 km during transportation 185 passengers with Luggage.

Considered a technical solution family of passenger aircraft, suitable for aircraft designed to have a Seating capacity from 148 to 220 passengers, however, when the transition to the aircraft of smaller dimension technical and economic indicators of the family are unsatisfactory. First, the lack of unification of the aircraft model range. Compared to the above ones (family of aircraft L-1011 and DC-10) all model aircraft use the swept wing of the same geometry, but the lineup is Umalatov collection includes aircraft with different engines, different structure and arrangement of tanks of fuel systems of aircraft of various groups and maximum of the estimated range.

Secondly, the technical characteristics of high-speed swept wing and fuel system do not allow their use in the model number of regional passenger aircraft of smaller capacity, and hence the smaller size. Thus, characteristics of the wing are not optimal for use when placing consoles under the wing of a modern turbofan jet engines with significant dimensions near the fuselage, the weight of the fuel system is great, not supported by its robust and reliable controllability of the airplane.

The closest analogue of the claimed technical solution high-speed swept wing is a wing (see RF patent 2228282, IPC VS 3/14, publ. 10.05.10.2004), each of the consoles which is made up of six parts, separated from each other by the base sections, parallel to the plane of symmetry of the aircraft.

In this technical solution, each of the outer wings is made up of six sequentially placed along each console parts: the first part from the side section to the cross section G-G (see figure 1 description to the specified patent), the second - from-sections G-G to the cross section F-F, third from section F-F to the cross section D-D, the fourth the t-section D-D to the cross section C-C, fifth from section-to-sixth of section-to-section A-A. Part of the outer wings smoothly conjugate to each other, while the wing is formed as a single spatial system based on non-flat middle surface. Profiles of cross-sections of the outer wings is to change the position of the middle line of the profile with respect to chords: the position of the middle line of the profile with respect to the chord changes smoothly as the cross-section of the wing and along the span of the console. Smoothly change along the span of the console, the geometric angle of twist of the cross sections and the relative thickness of the profile sections.

Profiles of cross-sections of parts of the outer wings of this technical solution, the adjacent side section, starting from the first side section, performed on parcels with S-shaped medium lines profiles, composed of two half-waves. One of the half-wave performed with negative concavity: the middle line of the profile is located below the chord. Another wave made with positive concavity: the middle line of the profile is located above the notochord. The profile sections at the periphery of the wing adjacent to its tip, is made with positive concavity: the average line profiles along the entire chord located above the notochord.

In this technical solution, the half-wave S-shaped median surface with positive concavity precursors is the duty to regulate the wave with negative concavity in the transition from tip of wing to his back.

In addition, when switching from onboard to the end section of the wing profile cross-sections made with a monotonic decrease of the geometric angle of twist of the cross sections for the non-linear law from positive values to negative values and the decrease of the maximum relative thickness of the profile to the value of 9...10%. In this technical solution, the geometric angle of twist side cross-section close to 2 degrees, at the end section of the geometric angle of twist of the cross section selected from the range from minus 2 to minus 2.5 degrees, and the transition from a positive angle geometric twist to negative values is made in the section with the relative coordinate of poluraspada wing, close to 30%. In this technical solution, the maximum relative thickness of the cross section in side cross-section of slightly more than 11%, and the wing span is reduced by law, is close to linear.

In addition, in the present technical solution high-speed swept wing in side cross-section of the transition from the half-wave S-shaped medium lines with positive concavity to the wave with negative concavity performed at a relative coordinate. In the on-Board cross-section is the maximum positive concavity selected from the rangeand placed on Board the section on coordinate is the inat . During the transition from the side section to the wing tip position of maximum values of the positive concavity is shifted to the tail of the profile to the value of. The maximum relative thickness profiles are located at.

In accordance with this technical solution is considered high-speed swept wing is used for wing subsonic aircraft with elongation λ=9...11, narrowingthat sweep along the front edge of the first, second and third parts of the consoles χ=25...35° and sweep along the front edge on the fourth, fifth and sixth parts of the consoles χ=0...30°.

The technical solution of the high-speed swept wing does not provide high aerodynamic efficiency at cruise flight modes with M=0,75...0,82 using modern engines with high by-pass ratio and in a wide range of change of lift coefficient Withythat is typical when using a wing in the aircraft with different capacity and different range. In addition, in the technical solution of the problem associated with the placement of the engines largely bypass ratio engines under the wing due to the small distance between the contour of the engine nacelles and the surface of the Earth.

The closest analogue of the fuel system of the aircraft is the technical solution of the fuel system (see "IL-86, Vnukovo production Association, M, 1988, part 1, p.99-104, part 2, p.45-62), as implemented in the Il-86.

In this technical solution, the wing has a transverse power set, made of ribs, the longitudinal force kit including front and rear spars and stringers, and a casing comprising top and bottom. The wing center section, made in the form of a caisson, is limited to the front and rear side members, the side ribs, top and bottom panels with longitudinal walls, placed parallel to the spars. In the walls of the center section made the cut.

Each of the outer wings is in the form of a caisson, which is limited to the front and rear spars, the lower and upper parts of the casing and provided with ribs, part of which is airtight, and the longitudinal force kit. The wing in this technical solution is made with a positive angle transverse V.

The fuel system includes a Central fuel tank and two groups of fuel tanks. The Central fuel tank placed in the center section, it is made in the form of a caisson, is limited to the front and rear spars and side ribs and separated by the walls of the center section into compartments. Due to the cut in the walls of the Ah of the center section compartments Central fuel tank of this technical solution is made interconnected.

Two groups of fuel tanks placed in the wing consoles, limited to the front and rear spars, the lower and upper parts of the casing of the outer wings and separated from each other tight ribs. In each group of tanks the fuel tank (in the terminology of the source tanks # 2 and # 3), adjacent to the fuselage and separated from the Central fuel tank side rib, the second fuel tank (in the terminology of the source tanks No. 1A and No. 4A)placed on the periphery of the outer wings, the third fuel tank (in the terminology of the source tanks No. 1 and 4)located between the first and second fuel tanks. In addition, in the internal volume of the third fuel tanks each console posted by expenditure and main compartments (in the terminology of the source - the main part of the third tank). One of the walls of the consumable compartment aligned with the rib separating the third fuel tank from the first tank.

See technical solution assumes each group two tanks consumable compartments connected by a mains supply fuel to the engines. This expenditure compartments of the decision is placed in the inner volume prakashani compartments placed in the inner volume of the first tank groups (in the terminology of the source tanks No. 2 and No. 3) and in the inner volume of the third tank group (in terms of the source of tanks # 1 and # 4). Expenditure compartments in this technical solution is placed in the internal volume of the third fuel tanks near the axis of the outer wings.

In addition, the fuel system is equipped with a mains pump fuel transfer pumps, the inputs of which are connected to the internal cavities of the first tank and the main compartment of the third tank of each group, and the internal cavity of the Central tank is connected to the inputs of two highways pumping fuel, and output one of them is connected with the first, and the output of the other with the second group of tanks.

In this technical solution, the outputs of the arteries pump the fuel from the first tank placed in prakashani compartments, which are connected with feed compartments additional highways pumping fuel.

In addition, the fuel system is under consideration of the technical decisions made with the possibility of overflow of fuel from the second fuel tank to the main compartments of the third fuel tanks. This is ensured due to the presence of the pipeline between the second tanks and main compartments of the third tank, equipped with electrically-controlled valve and the check valves ensure that the movement of fuel by gravity from the second tank.

Consider the technical solution used in the wing with a positive angle transverse V.

In the process toplevelname emptied the Central fuel tank, then start at the same time to be emptied first fuel system tanks and third tanks. The emptying of the third tank, continuing the production of the fuel from the first tank of the fuel system begins emptying the second tank system. After emptying the first and second tanks in the last turn produces fuel from a supply compartments.

Consider the technical solution of the fuel system can be mainly used for wide-bodied aircraft, a large passenger capacity and range. Use this solution for smaller aircraft passenger capacity and range, and therefore designed for smaller volumes of fueling has several disadvantages.

The relative mass of the fuel system in accordance with this technical solution is great because of the complex structure of the fuel system, including prakashani compartments and additional mainline pumping fuel. Great and deverbative fuel remains in the fuel system. The disadvantage of this system is the complexity of managing production of fuel from tanks system that requires the fuel system special systems to control fuel production.

In addition, this fuel system does not allow its use for family of passenger aircraft, consisting of g is UPP aircraft various passenger in each of which included planes with different range. The various aircraft passenger capacity and range are different longitudinal dimensions of the fuselage and the different weight of fueling for aircraft of various range. When using the technical solutions of the fuel system for a family of aircraft changes the longitudinal alignment of the plane, which significantly complicates the process of control of the aircraft.

The technical problem solved by the claimed solution of the plane, is the development of aircraft with high feasibility and technical and operational characteristics, including a high degree of unification, mass perfection, reliable handling, high safety, combined with the ability to create on its basis the model number of aircraft with different capacity and flight range.

The technical problem solved by the claimed solution of the high-speed swept wing is the development wing with high aerodynamic characteristics providing the possibility of its use without changing the geometric parameters of the aircraft, intended for use in the collection of passenger aircraft of various passenger capacity and range, combined with the possibility for placement under the cap is Ohm two engines with large dimensions for use in the range cruising flight, characterized by the number M=0,75...0,82.

Technical problem solved by the claimed fuel system of the aircraft, is to develop a device of the fuel system, lowering the mass of the fuel system and reduce deverbative residual fuel, improving the controllability of the aircraft and increase the reliability of its work in emergency situations, combined with the possibility of its use in the aircraft family with group planes with different capacity and different maximum flight range.

The claimed technical solution of the aircraft delivered technical problem is solved as follows.

Known technical solution of the plane made by providing the possibility of changing the maximum design range. The fuselage consists of sequentially placed bow, front, center, rear and tail compartments. In the famous decision of the front and rear compartments is made with a length that enables the accommodation aboard different numbers of passengers. The chassis includes two main and fore leg.

High-speed swept wing known solutions of the aircraft consists of a center section and wing consoles, includes longitudinal and transverse power set and the casing with its lower and upper parts.

Cu is lo performed with a positive angle transverse V.

In a longitudinal power set of known wing included front and rear side members, and cross-power set - rib, part of which is airtight. Each wing is equipped with a "dry Bay", one of the walls which are aligned with the front spar.

Console known wing is made with a decrease in the maximum relative thickness of the profile at the transition from the on-Board cross-section of the console to the ending, and the halves of the arm adjacent to the side sections, placed areas with local minimum and maximum relative thickness of the profile.

The plane known solutions supplied power unit containing two turbofan jet-propulsion engine mounted under the wing consoles symmetrically about the plane of symmetry of the aircraft. The engines are connected to the mains supply fuel from the fuel system.

The fuel system is known solutions provided with two groups of fuel tanks. Fuel tanks are separated from each other tight ribs. Each group of tanks includes first and second fuel tanks, housed in a wing consoles, the first tanks of the groups placed in the root portion of the outer wings, and the second tanks on their periphery. In addition, in the known solution of the plane, its fuel system is equipped with Central fuel tank is m, placed in the center section, the side walls of which are formed by the front and rear spars of the wing and side ribs.

The claimed technical solution of the new plane is that plane installation turbofan jet-propulsion engines are located close to one-third of poluraspada wing. When passing through the wing from the side sections to one-quarter of poluraspada wing swept wing aircraft performed with increasing angle transverse V-wing, and with the further transition to the wing tip with its reduction. In the inventive solution, the profiles from the side section to at least half of poluraspada wing performed with positive angles geometric twist their sections.

A local minimum of the maximum relative thickness of the profile of the outer wings of the proposed solutions is shifted compared with the equivalent to one-third of poluraspada wing.

In each group of tanks of fuel system the proposed solutions of the aircraft also includes a third fuel tank placed in the consoles of the wing between the first and second tanks groups. Third tanks are divided into basic and expandable compartments. Expenditure compartments connected to the mains supply fuel. One of the walls of expenditure compartments combined with tight rib separating the third fuel tanks from the first, and the other Stadnik the spar.

Fuel system the proposed aircraft performed with capability running out of fuel at the beginning of the Central fuel tank, then from the first tank, then from the second tank, and in the last turn of the third tank group. The total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the entire Central fuel tank selected on the basis of securing the refuelling of the aircraft with the highest maximum of the estimated range.

Dry compartments of the fuel system of the proposed solutions of the aircraft placed on both sides of the sealed rib separating the first fuel tanks from third. In addition, in the above-mentioned longitudinal force set each console is enabled stringer closed U-shaped profile, hermetically connected to the upper part of the covering of the wing. The internal cavity of the U-shaped profile made communicating with the first and second fuel system. Stringers U-shaped profile in the greater part of its length placed near areas with a maximum relative thickness profile of the outer wings of the plane.

In the inventive solution of the plane, also new is that the front and rear sections of the fuselage can be made with a length that enables the transportation by aircraft from 58 to 68, from 66 to 83 and from 83 to 108 passengers.

In addition, in the inventive solution of the aircraft equival ntny the diameter of the fuselage may be selected from the range of 3.3...3,55 m, this lengthening of the fuselage of the aircraft, designed to carry from 58 to 68 passengers, can be selected from the range of 6,5 6,7...designed for transportation from 66 to 83 passengers from a range of 7.3...7,6, and lengthening the fuselage of the aircraft, designed to carry from 83 to 108 passengers, may be selected from the range of 8.2...8,6.

The fuselage and high-speed swept wing claimed plane can be made to allow flight with a cruising speed Mach number of 0.75 to 0.82.

In addition, in the inventive solution of the plane in the center wing can be set equipped with two cutouts wall, parallel side members, with these walls of the Central fuel tank can be divided into three compartments, the first of which is placed at the rear spar, and the third is the front spar, and the second between the walls. When this cut-outs in the walls of the center section can be accomplished by providing the possibility sealed overlap their covers. The total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the first compartment of the Central fuel tank can be selected on the basis of securing the refuelling of the aircraft with the lowest value of the maximum of the estimated range. The total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the first and second compartments of the Central fuel tank can be selected based software is oprawki fuel aircraft with an intermediate value of the maximum of the estimated range.

In addition, in the inventive solution of the plane sealed rib separating the first and third tanks wing consoles, at least in its tail part can be placed within the first quarter of poluraspada wing.

High technical and economic performance of the aircraft is achieved primarily through the development of high-speed swept wing single geometry for the entire range of aircraft with different length of the fuselage and providing accommodation under consoles wing air-jet engines of large size.

The proposed solution of the aircraft, providing the installation of engines and placement of local minimum and maximum relative thickness profile of the outer wings near one-third of poluraspada wing in combination with increasing angle of transverse V wing to one-quarter of poluraspada wing followed by a decline and execution profiles with positive angles geometric twist to at least half of poluraspada wing provides high aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft when placing the engines of considerable dimensions under wing consoles and if you change the dimensions of the fuselage.

Inclusion in the fuel system of the aircraft third tanks placed in consoles wing between the first and second tanks, and the inclusion in PR the fraction of the power set of each console stringer closed U-shaped profile, connecting the cavity of the first and second tanks of the fuel system, provides the possibility of running out of fuel at the beginning of the Central fuel tank of the plane, then from the first tank, then from the second tank, and in the last turn of the third tank group that not only has a positive effect on the stability and controllability of the aircraft, but also gives the opportunity to vary the maximum refueling aircraft, in which the total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the entire Central fuel tank can provide the refuelling of the aircraft with the highest maximum of the estimated range.

The combination of one of the walls of expenditure compartments with sealed rib separating the third fuel tanks from the first, and the other with the rear spar, the placement of dry bays in each wing at the front of the spar on both sides of the sealed rib separating the first fuel tanks from third, and the inclusion in the longitudinal power set of stringers closed U-shaped profile reduce the weight of the outer wings. In this case, placing stringers closed U-shaped profile near the sites with the maximum relative thickness of the sections, in addition, ensures the reliable operation of the fuel system. Design estimates show that the mass of the aircraft structure in accordance with the claimed re is the group decreased by 5...7% in comparison with analogues.

In addition, the location of the consumable compartment, the fuel of which is selected in the last instance, a relatively "dry" compartment console improves flight safety, as consumable compartment most remote from the zone of non-localized motion of the rotor tilting mechanism of the power plant.

Features changing the angle of the transverse V-wing and the geometric angle of twist of the cross sections on the wing in combination with the possibility of placing the sealed rib separating the first and third tanks consoles wing, enhance security and reliability of the fuel system in emergency situations.

As in the near equivalent, the transition from one group of aircraft passenger capacity to another is achieved by changing the length of the fuselage, and the fuselage of each aircraft family is divided technological joints sequentially placed on the bow, front, center, rear and rear compartments, with nose, center, and tail sections of the aircraft executed the same for all aircraft, and the front and rear compartments are performed with a length that enables the accommodation on Board number of passengers corresponding to the group of aircraft in terms of passenger capacity.

Change the maximum flight range of the aircraft models within family groups which can be achieved in the inventive solution, the change in disposable under the fueling of the Central volume of the fuel tank. When this cut-outs in the walls of the center section can be accomplished by providing the possibility sealed overlap their covers. While the total volume of the two groups of tanks of fuel system and the volume of the first compartment of the Central fuel tank can be selected on the basis of securing the refueling aircraft of any group with the lowest value of the range in their group, for a total of two groups of tanks and the volume of the first and second compartments of the Central fuel tank can be selected on the basis of securing the refueling aircraft of any group with an intermediate value of the range in their group, and the total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the entire Central fuel tank can be selected on the basis of securing the refueling aircraft of any group with the highest value of the range in its group.

The possibility of overlap of the cut walls of the center section covers shifts the center of gravity of the aircraft at the rear of the balance, reduce deverbative residual fuel, reduced dynamic effects of the fuel on the aircraft design. These factors are particularly relevant for aircraft smallest and intermediate range.

There are other technical solutions, providing the possibility of changing the mass of fueling under Maxim the optimum estimated flight range of the aircraft.

The inventive device family aircraft with these levels maximum flight range can provide a fourth level range, which is provided by the fuel placed only tanks in the outer wings. In this case, the Central fuel tank, located in the center wing fuel not dressed, and structurally it is isolated by hydraulic relations with fuel tanks of the outer wings.

Design and engineering studies demonstrate that on the basis of the proposed solutions of the aircraft can be designed lineup of passenger aircraft, comprising three groups of aircraft designed for transportation from 58 to 68, from 66 to 83 and from 83 to 108 passengers. When rounded cross-sectional shape of the fuselage with equivalent diameter of 3.3...3,55 m lengthening of the fuselage of the aircraft may vary from the 7.3 to 8.6. When the wing span of 25...30 m in each group of aircraft passenger capacity can be represented by three plane model with the lowest, intermediate and highest maximum flight range in their group. Each group of aircraft passenger capacity may include the aircraft with the lowest (3100 3300...km), intermediate (3900 4100...km) and largest (4600 4900...) maximum flight range.

Thus, when the Eden characteristics of the proposed technical solution of the aircraft allow you to select the device, characterized by high technical and operational characteristics, allowing for the development of the model range of passenger aircraft with different capacity and flight range, designed primarily to serve the regional lines. For the proposed aircraft characterized by a high degree of unification, reduction in comparison with analogues weight of the aircraft, reliable, manageable and secure.

The technical objective of the claimed solution of the high-speed swept wing is solved as follows.

Known technical solution high-speed swept wing, consisting of a center section and consoles. Each of the outer wings is made up of six parts, separated from each other by sections parallel to the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the aircraft, placed sequentially along the span of the outer wings and smoothly conjugate to each other. Console formed as a single spatial system based on non-flat middle surface.

In the famous decision of the profile sections consoles, adjacent to the fuselage, made with S-shaped medium lines, composed of two half-waves, one of which is made negative by the concavity and the other positive. The profile sections at the periphery of the outer wings is positive in what Gnutella medium lines.

In the famous decision of the wing, in addition, when switching from onboard to the end section of the wing profiles are made with a monotonic decrease of the geometric angle of twist from positive to negative values and the decrease of the maximum relative thickness of the profile to the value of 9...11%.

In the inventive solution, a high-speed swept wing new is the fact that profiles with S-shaped midline placed on the first five, counting from the fuselage, parts of each console. In addition, when moving along the chord of the profile from its nose to the tip of the wave with negative concavity of the middle line of the profile is preceded by a half-wave with positive concavity. Profiles with positive concavity of the middle line is placed in the sixth part of each of the consoles. In the inventive solution is new and what is on the first, fourth and fifth parts of each of the outer wings two half-waves S-shaped middle line profiles are preceded by an additional half-wave with positive concavity of the middle line of the profile.

In the inventive solution of the wing, in addition, the near side sectional angle transverse V wing on the leading edge selected from the range of 6 to 8 degrees, and in the transition from the side section to the border between the second and third parts of the wing consoles made with increasing angle the Popper is tion V wing on the leading edge to the values from 9 to 12°, and with the further transition to the wing tip is made with a decrease in the angle of the transverse V-wing to values in the range 5...6°.

In addition, the near side of the cross section is the geometric angle of twist is selected from the range plus 3 ... plus 3.8 degrees, and a maximum relative thickness of the profile is selected from a range of 14...16%. In the inventive solution on the boundary between the third and fourth parts of the outer wings hosted a local minimum of the maximum relative thickness of the profile of the wing, and when passing through the fourth part of the border it with a third part to the border with the fifth part of the profiles are achieved with the increase of the maximum relative thickness of the profile.

In the inventive solution, a high-speed swept-wing transition from sections with positive values of the geometric angle of twist of profiles to sections with negative values of the geometric twist of the profiles can be performed at the boundary between the fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings.

In addition, in the inventive solution of the wing maximum relative thickness of the profile, it is advisable to have atwhere- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

The plot with the maximum negative by the concavity of the profile in the inventive high-speed swept wing can be changed is when Yong the transition from the side section to the boundary between the fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings is the maximum relative concavity of the profile it is advisable to decrease from values in the rangeto 0, where- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

The relative coordinate of the transition from the half-wave with negative concavity of S-shaped middle line profiles to the wave with positive concavity average line profiles during the transition from the side section to the boundary between the fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings in the inventive solution, it is advantageous to shift from the rangein the rangewhere- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

Plot the maximum positive concavity of the profile it is advisable to have atthe transition from the side section to the wing tip is the maximum relative concavity of the profile should be increased fromtowhere- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

Most preferably, the inventive high-speed swept wing to do with the sweep angle of the leading edge on the first, the second and third parts of the outer wings, selected from a range of 31...33°, and on the fourth, fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings - from a range of 26...28°. Thus the rear edge of the wing on the first, second, third and fourth parts of the outer wings can be made without the sweep, and the sweep angle of the rear edges of the fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings can be selected from the range 20 to 23°.

When using the proposed solutions high-speed swept wing in regional passenger aircraft most preferably coordinates of side wing sections to choose from the rangethe coordinates of the boundaries between the first and second parts of the outer wings of rangethe second and third parts -, the third and fourth parts -, fourth and fifth parts -the fifth and sixth partsfrom poluraspada wing.

The set of features of the proposed high-speed swept wing allows to solve the technical problem.

Calculations show that the use of high-speed swept wing with the specified character of the middle surface provides a close to optimal nature of the flow around the wing is placed under the wing engines in nacelles and close to optimal the soap is a division of the aerodynamic pressure on the bearing surface. The nature of the middle surface, characterized by the presence of profiles with negative concavity of the middle line on a significant part of the wing adjacent to the fuselage, significantly reduces harmful interference between the wing and the fuselage.

The presence of an additional half-wave with positive curvature at the toe of the profile in the areas bordering the area that hosts the engine, in combination with selected laws changing the angle of the transverse V-wing and change the maximum relative thickness profiles poluraspada wing is formed not only favorable conditions of flow of the engine nacelle with the engine under the wing consoles, but also provide optimal allocation of consoles under the wing of a considerable size of the engine. This increases the length of the engine from the runway.

In addition, the angle of transverse V wing on the leading edge provide the necessary lateral stability characteristics.

In addition, the adopted changes in the geometric angle of twist profile, increases aerodynamic properties of the wing. Accommodation maximum relative profile thickness in the range from 35 to 42% of the chord length provides an additional increase of 2...4% values of aerodynamic quality.

Location of sites with maximum and negative values of the relative concavity of the profile on the parts of the outer wings from first to fifth in the range of relative coordinates along the length of the chord from 35 to 42% and a gradual change from the values ofto zero further reduces the value of the aerodynamic drag by 3...5%.

Calculations show that approximately the same values were additionally reduce the drag of the wing due to the displacement of the transition from the negative half of the S-shaped middle line of the profile to the positive half-wave of the range relative to the coordinate along the length of the chord 75...80% in the range 45...50% to the boundary between the fifth and sixth parts of the aerodynamic bearing surface.

In addition, the location of sites with maximum relative positive by the concavity of S-shaped medium line profiles on the wing in the range from 80 to 90% of the chord length of the profile and its increase from values ofin the on-Board cross-section up to values ofin the end profiles of the console increases glide 5...8%.

The presence of waves in the first and fourth parts of the outer wings on the front and rear edges optimizes the mode of flow in the area adjacent to the fuselage, and allows you to increase the mass of the fuel in fuel tanks that can be placed in the wing consoles. The direct influx on the rear edge additionally makes more efficient mechanization of the wing on take-off and landing modes.

The proposed boundary between the parts of the bearing and the dynamic surface optimize the flow regime of the wing and give the possibility of placing under the wing consoles significant dimensions of the engine on the border between the third and fourth parts of the aerodynamic bearing surface.

Calculations and tests show that the claimed solution, for example, when using a wing span of 26 to 30 m extension λ=9...11, constriction, not less thanin combination with the nacelle engines, placed under the wing consoles, provides high values of aerodynamic quality level Tomax=15...17 in a wide range of Mach numbers, the maximum value of the index Kmax*M on level 12...13 is achieved at M=0.76 to...of 0.82, indicating a high aerodynamic characteristics of high-speed swept wing.

In addition, the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing with the engine nacelles under the wing remain stable when you change the mass and length of the fuselage of the aircraft so that the aerodynamic performance of the wing varies by no more than 1...4% when moving from aircraft, designed to carry 60 passengers, aircraft, designed to carry 95 passengers. This allows the use of the inventive high-speed swept wing without changing the geometrical parameters for the family of passenger aircraft, different passenger capacity and range, combined with the placement under the wing of two engines largely bypass ratio in the range of cruising flight modes, characterized by the number M=0,75...0,82.

Declare the fuel system posed technical problem is solved as follows.

In the known technical solution fuel system fuel tanks placed in the center section and wing consoles. Wing known technical solutions are made with a positive angle transverse V and includes front and rear spars, the casing with its upper and lower parts, ribs, part of which is airtight, the longitudinal force set wing consoles, including the stringers. In addition, in the known technical solution in the Central plan included equipped with a zipper wall, parallel side members.

In the known technical solution of the fuel system is equipped with placed in the center wing of the Central fuel tank, made in the form of a caisson, limited front and rear spars and side ribs and separated by the walls of the center section into compartments. In addition, in the known technical solution of the fuel system is equipped with two groups of fuel tanks, housed in a wing consoles, limited front and rear spars, the lower and upper parts of the casing and separated from each other tight ribs. In each group of tanks the fuel tank adjacent to the fuselage and separated from the Central fuel tank side rib, the second fuel tank, placed at the periphery of the outer wings, the third fuel tank located between the first and second topl the main tanks. In the third fuel tank selected expenditure and main compartments. Consumable compartment is placed in the internal volume of the third fuel tank, with one of its walls combined with a rib separating the third fuel tank from the first tank. In addition, each group of tanks in a well-known solution is supplied by a fuel supply line in the engine, the input of which is connected with a metering compartment. In the known technical solution, in addition, the fuel system is equipped with a mains pump fuel transfer pumps, the inputs of which are connected to the internal cavities of the first tanks and main compartments of the fuel tank groups, and the internal cavity of the Central tank is connected to the inputs of two highways pumping, and output one of them is connected with the first, and the output of the other with the second group of tanks. In addition, the rib separating the second tanks from the main compartments of the third tank, equipped with check valves located close to the lower shell of the wing and provide the ability to move fuel from the second tank into the main compartments of the third tank,

The claimed technical solution what is new is that the second wall consumable compartment combined with the wall of the rear spar. In addition, the claimed technical solution what's new is that in the upper parts of the walls separating the consumable compartment is from the main compartments of the third fuel tanks, and in the upper parts of the ribs separating the third fuel tanks from the latter made the cut, and in longitudinal power set of each console is enabled stringer closed U-shaped section, which is tightly connected with the upper part of the covering of the wing. The inner cavity of the stringers are connected to the internal cavities of the first and second fuel tanks.

In addition, in the inventive solution, each group of fuel tanks equipped with overflow channels, providing the possibility of overflow of fuel from the first fuel tanks in the Central fuel tank, the inputs of which are located in the upper parts of the first fuel tanks, and the outputs are made with the possibility of overflow of fuel in one of the compartments of the Central fuel tank, and the outputs of the above-mentioned arteries pumping fuel from the first tank and the Central fuel tank is connected with the third tanks of the groups, and outputs mains pumping of the main compartments of the third tank connected with feed compartments of third tanks.

In the inventive solution, each group of fuel tanks can be fitted with a line pumping fuel from the second tank into the third.

In addition, in the inventive solution, the fuel system outputs mentioned highways pumping fuel from the first and second tank groups and the Central fuel tank can be connected with the main the compartments of the third tank group.

In addition, in the inventive solution, the fuel system outputs mentioned highways pumping fuel from the first and second tank groups and the Central fuel tank can be connected with feed compartments of the third tank group.

In addition, in the inventive solution, what's new is that in the lower parts of the walls separating the expenditure compartments from the main compartments of the third fuel tanks, and rib separating the first fuel tanks from the main compartments of the third tank can be placed opposite the valve, providing a flow of fuel from the first fuel tank to the main compartments of third tanks and major third compartments of the fuel tank into the feed compartments and exceptions overflow of fuel in the opposite direction.

In addition, in the inventive solution, it is new that mentioned overflow channels can be equipped with check valves, providing the possibility of overflow of fuel from the first tank in the Central compartment and exceptions overflow of fuel in the opposite direction.

In addition, in the inventive solution, the cut walls of the center section can be made with the possibility of a tight overlap their covers.

The claimed characteristics of the fuel system can solve the above technical problem.

Perform fuel system in accordance with the inventive solution allows the isite mass of the fuel system by 10-15%, and a lot deverbative residual fuel with 2...3% to 0.5...1%.

The presence of the slots in the upper parts of the walls separating the expenditure compartments from the main compartments of the third fuel tanks, ribs, separating the third fuel tank from the second tank, overflow channels connecting the first fuel tanks and the Central fuel tank stringers closed U-shaped profile, an internal cavity which connects the second and first fuel tanks, and non-return valves in the ribs separating the second tanks from third fuel tanks, provides the given sequence generation fuel from the fuel tanks of the fuel system without the use of complex control systems running out of fuel from the fuel tanks of the fuel system that reduces the weight of the system.

In addition, the placement of expenditure compartments in the aft part of the wing due to the overlapping walls of the consumable compartment with the rear spar not only reduces the weight deverbative residual fuel, but also improves the alignment of the plane.

The presence of check valves in the lower parts of the walls separating the service tanks and the third fuel system tanks, ribs, separating the third fuel tanks from the first and second tanks of the fuel system, and overflow channels connecting the first tanks and the Central fuel tank, preventing unplanned overflow of fuel between tanks system, to omnitele contribute to improving the reliability of the fuel system when random unplanned evolutions of the aircraft. Introduction to fuel system of highways pumping fuel from the second fuel tank to the third fuel tanks does not change the specified sequence generation fuel from the fuel tanks of the fuel system, however, the delay time generation fuel from the main compartment of the third fuel tank extends management capabilities to change the position of the center of gravity of the aircraft in flight.

Connection mains pumping fuel from the second and the first fuel tank and center tank fuel system with the main compartments of the third tank in combination with the presence of highways pumping fuel from the main compartment into the feed compartments of the fuel tank increases the reliability of the fuel system: under this scheme pumping fuel settles in the main compartments, with gas impurities in the fuel are separated from the liquid phase fuel.

Connection mains pumping fuel from the second and first fuel tanks, the main compartments of the third tank and center tank fuel system directly with feed compartments of third tanks allows to simplify the design of the fuel system and to reduce its weight.

The presence of check valves in overflow channels connecting the first fuel system tanks with a Central tank, prevents overflow of fuel from the Central tank to the first fuel tanks of the system is s abnormal modes of operation.

In accordance with the claimed solution of the fuel system cut-outs in the walls of the center section can be closed lids. This gives the opportunity to produce aircraft with fuel system, designed for different levels of maximum filling. In the manufacture of aircraft with a small maximum range of lids can be fitted with one of the walls of the center section and under the fuel can be allocated to the Central part of the fuel tank. The other part of the Central fuel tank remains "dry". On the contrary, in the manufacture of aircraft the greatest range, not providing the cut walls of the center section covers, it is possible to use them for fueling the total volume of the Central fuel tank. This improves the alignment of the planes of the smallest and intermediate ranges of the flight. In addition, when used for aircraft smallest and intermediate-range flight reduces the disturbances caused by vibrations of the fuel in the Central fuel tank, by reducing the surface area of the fuel tank.

The claimed group of inventions is illustrated by the following materials:

Figure 1 - General view of the airplane;

Figure 2 - flow chart of the division plane;

figure 3 is a layout diagram of the planes of the three groups in terms of passenger capacity (side view);

4 - to neovossia circuit planes of the three groups in terms of passenger capacity (top view);

5 is an external view of the plane (side view and front view);

6 is a structural force diagram of the wing;

Fig.7 - typical leaky rib wing (view B-B 6);

Fig - section stringers U-shaped profile (type I, 7);

Fig.9 is a cross - section of the rib on L-L 7;

figure 10 is a cross section of the wing centre-section (cross-section And with Fig.6);

11 - wall of the center section with cutouts (view G-G 6);

Fig - view of the wall of the center section with openings covered with lids;

Fig - section cover (cross section d-D with Fig);

Fig is a graph of angle cross V wing;

Fig is a graph of the maximum relative thickness of the profile of the wing;

Fig is a graph of the geometric angle of twist of the cross sections on the wing;

Fig - General schematic diagram of the fuel system;

Fig diagram of a third tank of the fuel system;

Fig-20 - sequence generation fuel from the fuel tanks of the fuel system;

Fig - approximate layout of a passenger aircraft, designed to carry 60, 75 and 95 passengers when the spacing between the rows of chairs 812,8 mm;

Fig - cross-section of the passenger cabin (section C-C with Fig);

Fig, 24, 25 - the graphs of dependences of the calculated range - payload aircraft for 3 different passenger groups airplanes is s;

Fig diagram of wing;

Fig is a graph of the average line profile in the on-Board cross-section (cross-section N-N with Fig),

Fig is a graph of the average line profile in cross section G-G Fig,

Fig is a graph of the average line profile in cross section F-F with Fig,

Fig is a graph of the average line profile in cross section D-D Fig,

Fig is a graph of the average line profile in cross section C-C with Fig,

Fig is a graph of the average line profile in cross-section In-Fig,

Fig is a graph of the average line profile in cross-section a-a with Fig;

Fig settlement line wrapping the upper surface of the wing;

Fig - calculated distribution of isobars on the upper surface of the wing;

Fig is a graph of maximum aerodynamic qualities (Kmax) and indexmax*M for aircraft, designed to carry 83...108 passengers;

Fig is a diagram showing changes in the aerodynamic properties of the wing with the engine nacelles for aircraft of different passenger capacity;

Fig - comparison of aerodynamic quality and value To themax*M wing claimed wing with one of the analogs;

Fig - schematic diagram of the fuel system to pump the fuel from the first tank and the Central fuel tank in the main compartments of third tanks;

Fig - schematic diagram of the fuel system to pump the fuel from the first and second tanks and the Central nervous system, the th of the fuel tank into the feed compartments of the third tank;

Fig - schematic diagram of the fuel system to pump the fuel from the first and second tanks and the Central fuel tank in the main compartments of third tanks;

Fig - polimanteia diagram of the fuel system (in accordance with the circuit diagram shown in Fig);

Fig - longitudinal section of the wing U-shaped stringer;

Fig - view of the sealing rib separating the tanks from each other (view W-W with 6);

Fig diagram of the Central fuel tank with the placement of the overflow outputs of the channels in the first Central compartment of the fuel tank;

Fig diagram of the Central fuel tank with the placement of the overflow outputs of the channels in the second compartment of the Central fuel tank;

Fig-52 is a sequence diagram of the main stages of development of the fuel from the fuel system;

Fig-54 - sequence diagram of the main stages of development of the fuel from the fuel system with mains pump the fuel from the second tank to the third tank.

The claimed technical solution of the plane as follows. The aircraft is equipped with (see figure 1) fuselage 1, a high-speed swept wing 2, power unit with turbofan jet-propulsion engines 3, fuel system, chassis with two main pillars 4 and a nose support 5, 6 vertical and horizontal 7 plumage.

F. selai 1 is divided technological joints (see 2) sequentially placed on the nose 8, FWD 9, 10 Central, 11 rear, the tail 12 compartments and compartment auxiliary power unit 13. In the direction of flight to the nasal compartment 8 is adjacent the nose fairing 14. The compartments of the fuselage split floor 15 on the passenger saloons 16 and baggage-technical Department 17.

The nose 8, 10 Central and tail 12 compartments of the fuselage of the plane is made identical for all aircraft model range. The front 9 and rear compartments 11 are performed with a length that enables the accommodation on Board number of passengers corresponding group of aircraft in terms of passenger capacity. As an example, figure 3-4 shows three aircraft with different capacity (58...68, 66...83 and 83...108 passengers), representing three groups of aircraft. During the transition from the aircraft, designed to carry from 58 to 68 passengers to the aircraft, designed to carry from 66 to 83 passengers length of the anterior compartment is increased by 1, the rear 1.5 m, and the transition from the aircraft, designed to carry from 58 to 68 passengers to the aircraft, designed to carry from 83 to 108 passengers, the length of these compartments by 3 meters

The aircraft is equipped with a chassis comprising two main bearings and nasal support, the most advisable to choose a device is on the chassis is the same for the entire range of aircraft. Vertical and horizontal tail is also advisable to choose the same for all aircraft.

The proposed solution is a plane involves the use (see figure 4) is identical to the geometry of the high-speed swept wing 2 for different passenger aircraft. The wing consists of a center section 18 and consoles 19 wing. The wing of the plane is made with a positive angle transverse V (see figure 5, 14).

Wing aircraft of the proposed solutions (see Fig.6) with longitudinal and transverse power set. In a longitudinal power set includes front 20 and 21 rear spars and stringers 29 and the cross-power set - rib 22, part 24, 25, 26, 27 is airtight.

In addition, each wing is equipped with a "dry" compartment 23, which is not filled with fuel. "Dry" compartment adjacent to the front spar: one of the walls it is combined with the front side member 20, while the "dry" compartment is located on both sides of the rib 24. The rib 24 is sealed. Rib wings are perpendicular to the axis of the outer wings, with the exception of side ribs 25 and one rib 28 in each wing following side ribs 25.

In a longitudinal power set of consoles wing included the stringers 29 (see Fig.7, 8). In addition to these stringers 29, a longitudinal force nab the R wing consoles included the stringer 30 closed U-shaped profile. This stringer is hermetically connected to the upper part of the casing 31 of the wing.

The center section of the wing (see 6, 10) formed in the front 20 and rear side members 21, the side ribs 25, the upper 32 and lower 33 panels. In addition, the center section has two longitudinal walls 34, placed parallel to the spars. Wall 34 of the center section provided with notches 35. The walls 34 of the internal volume of the center section is divided into three compartments: the first of which 36 are placed at the rear spar, third 38 - the front spar, and the second 37 - between the walls 34 of the center section. The notches 35 in the walls 34 of the center section can be accomplished by providing the possibility sealed overlap their covers 39 (see Fig, 13).

High-speed swept wing aircraft made the same geometry with the top 31 and the bottom 40 coverings for the entire model range.

Wing claimed the plane is made by changing the angle of the transverse V along the console (see Fig). When this angle transverse V as on the front edge (curve 41 Fig)and rear edge (curve 42 at Fig) when passing through the wing from the side sections to one-quarter of poluraspada wing (25%) increases with further transition to the wing tip decreases.

In addition, the wing is made with a decrease in the maximum relative thickness of the profile at the transition from root sections konso and the ending (see Fig), and her half of the adjacent side section, a hosted site with a local minimum 43 and maximum relative thickness of the surface profiles. Wing aircraft in the inventive solution made with achieving a local minimum of the maximum relative thickness of the surface profiles near one-third of poluraspada wing.

In addition, the profiles of the outer wings claimed the plane is made with positive angles geometric twist from side section to at least half of poluraspada wing (see Fig).

Mentioned stringer 30 closed U-shaped profile, it is advisable to skip the profiles of the outer wings near their maximum relative thickness. For a family of regional aircraft, designed to carry from 53 to 108 passengers, the specified profile, it is advisable to put inwhere- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

The most suitable high-speed swept wing claimed the aircraft to perform in accordance with the claimed solution of the high-speed swept wing, described below.

The power plant contains two turbofan jet-propulsion engine 3, is placed in the nacelle under the wing consoles symmetrically Rel is relative to the plane of symmetry 67 aircraft. In the inventive solution, all the aircraft it is reasonable to provide the same turbofan jet-propulsion engines. Thus, with the use of the proposed solutions for a family of regional passenger aircraft, these features allow wing to place under his consoles jet engines largely bypass ratio and large size, which allows their use without modification in all planes model number of the family. The plane of installation of jet engines it is advisable to position near one-third of poluraspada wing, which in combination with the above-noted features high-speed swept wing claimed plane allows to solve the location problem under consoles wing jet engines of large size.

Jet engines of the proposed aircraft connected (see Fig) mains supply fuel 44 with the fuel system.

Schematic diagram of the fuel system of the claimed family of aircraft is shown in Fig. In this diagram, as well as diagrams of the fuel system shown in Fig-41, 47-54, for illustrative purposes compartments of the center section placed in the plane of the drawing (above each other). This order does not coincide with their order of placement in the inventive aircraft family - along the longitudinal axis of the fuselage.

Topl the main system of the proposed aircraft is equipped with two groups of fuel tanks, posted in consoles wing. In addition, the aircraft is equipped with Central fuel tank, placed in the center wing.

Each group of fuel tanks consoles wing contains the first 45 and second 46 and third 47 tanks. The first tanks 45 of the outer wings are placed in the root of consoles, the second 46 on the periphery of the outer wings, and some 47 fuel tanks between them in the middle part of the consoles. The Central fuel tank placed in the internal volume of the wing center section, its side walls formed by the front 20 and rear side members 21 and side ribs 25. In addition, to ensure the operation of the fuel system, namely magbabago movement of fuel mentioned stringers 30 closed U-shaped profile suitable hermetically connected with the upper part of the casing 31 of the wing, and its internal cavity connecting with the first 45 and second 46 fuel system.

Fuel tanks of the outer wings are separated from each other and from the drainage compartment 55 sealed ribs 26 and 27, and the first tanks 45 groups separated from the main fuel tank 71 side by the ribs 25. Third fuel tanks 47 consoles wing tanks separated (see 6, 18) on the main 48 and expenditure 49 compartments, the latter of which is connected to the mains supply fuel 44 to the engine. One of the walls of the consumable compartment 49 is combined with the sealed rib 24, talauma third fuel tanks 47 from the first 45, and the other with the rear spar 21.

Fuel system the proposed aircraft performed with capability running out of fuel at the beginning of the Central fuel tank 71, and then of the first tanks 45, then from the second tank 46, and the last third tanks 47 groups (see Fig). As mentioned above, the internal volume of the third fuel tanks 47 divided into core 48 and expenditure 49 compartments, from which the fuel supply to the engines. When this fuel system of the aircraft should be implemented with software poslepozharnoj running out of fuel from a supply compartments (see Fig). It is most expedient to ensure the development of fuel in the sequence specified in accordance with the claimed solution of the fuel system of the aircraft, below.

The claimed solution of the plane is made to ensure the possibility of its implementation with three levels of maximum flight range: lowest, intermediate and highest range in their group.

This can be achieved by a flexible use of the internal volume of the center section is the Central fuel tank to accommodate the fuel in the plane.

While the total volume of the two groups of tanks consoles wing and the volume of the first compartment 36 of the Central fuel tank can be selected on the basis of securing refills toplevelname with the lowest value of the range. Use for placing the fuel of the second compartment 37 of the Central tank allows you to make the transition from the aircraft with the lowest range to the plane with intermediate range: the total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the first and second compartments of the Central fuel tank can be selected on the basis of securing refuelling aircraft with an intermediate value of the range. The additional use of the third section 38 of the Central fuel tank allows the transition from a plane with intermediate range to the aircraft with the longest range: total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the Central fuel tank selected on the basis of securing the refuelling of the aircraft with the highest value of the range.

The above-mentioned "dry" compartments appropriate place in the first 45 and 47 third tanks of fuel tank groups on both sides of the sealed rib 24 that separates the first and third fuel tanks. This expenditure 49 compartments, it is advisable to place at the rear 21 of the side members of the outer wings. For one of the walls of expenditure compartments it is reasonable to use the same sealing rib 24, near which the front side member 20 posted by "dry" compartment. In this arrangement of the consumable compartment provides sufficient distance potential is Ino the danger zone during emergency situations when working jet engines, and in combination with the placement of the dry compartment near the sealed rib reduces the mass of the structure.

The claimed solution of a passenger plane is most appropriate to use for the development of the model range of passenger aircraft, comprising three groups of aircraft designed for transportation from 58 to 68, from 66 to 83 and from 83 to 108 passengers. On Fig shows the approximate layout of passenger aircraft, designed to carry 60, 75 and 95 passengers when the spacing between the rows of chairs 812,8 mm When changing the pitch between the rows of seats and different the layout of aisles in the same dimensions of the passenger compartment can be placed from 58 to 68, from 66 to 83, from 83 to 108 passengers.

For these groups of aircraft in terms of passenger capacity, it is advisable to choose a rounded cross-sectional shape of the fuselage, the equivalent diameter is the same for all aircraft, to choose from a range of 3.3...3,55 m to select the equivalent diameter of the fuselage of this range when rounded cross-sectional shape of the fuselage allows you to put in the passenger compartment of five seats in a row (see Fig). This lengthening of the fuselage of the aircraft, designed to carry from 58 to 68 passengers, it is advisable to choose from the range of 6,5 6,7...designed for transportation from 66 to 83 passengers from a range 7,6 7,3...and the lengthening of the fuselage when Molotov, designed for transportation from 83 to 108 passengers, it is advisable to choose from the range of 8.2...8,6.

In addition, the fuselage, high-speed swept wing and the propulsion unit of the aircraft, it is advisable to choose based on the flight of each aircraft family with a cruising speed Mach number of 0.75 to 0.82.

The claimed technical solution of the plane when the specified dimensions of the fuselage and the wing span of the aircraft selected from a range of 25...30 m, allows each group of aircraft passenger capacity to present three models of the aircraft with the lowest, intermediate and highest maximum flight range in their group. On Fig, 24, 25 are presented according to the range - payload aircraft for the three groups of passenger aircraft, designed to carry from 58 to 68 (Fig), from 66 to 83 (Fig) and from 83 to 108 (Fig) passengers. Each group of aircraft passenger capacity includes aircraft with three levels of range: smallest (curve 50 on Fig-25), intermediate (curve 51) and the highest (curve 52) the maximum design range. Maximum filling fuel system model number of aircraft allows each group of passenger aircraft to provide aircraft with a maximum flight range 3100 3300...miles, 3900 4100...miles and 4600 4900...at the level of com is arcasoy load 6000, 7500 and 9500 kg

The claimed solution to high-speed swept wing is made as follows.

High-speed swept wing consists of a center section and consoles. Each of the outer wings is made up of six parts 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66 (see Fig). Part of each wing separated from each other by sections parallel to the plane of symmetry of the plane 67. When this part of the console placed sequentially along the span of the outer wings and smoothly conjugate to each other.

Blending parts of the outer wings is achieved by the smooth median pair of surfaces, smooth change along the span of the outer wings, the maximum relative thickness of the profile, the smooth change of the angle of twist of the cross sections and smooth change in the angle of the transverse V-wing.

Part of the outer wings formed as a single spatial system based on non-flat middle surface. The profiles of the cross sections of parts consoles, starting with the first 61 from the side of the cross section of the fifth 65 with parcels with S-shaped medium line profiles. S-shaped medium lines profiles composed of two half-waves, one of which 68 are made with negative concavity - average line profiles are located below the chord, and the other 69 with positive (see Fig-31) - the average line profiles are located above the notochord.

Savla is my solution to high-speed swept wing differs that half-wave 68 is negative by concavity of S-shaped medium line profile is preceded by a half-wave 69 with positive concavity when moving along the chord of the profile of the wing from tip to tip profile. The profiles of the sixth side 66 of the console is made with positive concavity of the profile (see Fig).

The first part 61 of each console adjacent to the fuselage 1 of the aircraft and limited side cross-section H-H section G-G (see Fig).

On the first part 61 wing two signal halves 68 and 69 S-shaped medium line profiles are preceded by an additional half-wave 70 with positive concavity average line profiles. In the on-Board section on the site adjacent to the toe of the wing profile, the middle line of the profile is placed just above the notochord (made with positive concavity): the length of the optional half-wave with positive concavity may be not more than 5...8% of the chord length of the profile, and the maximum value of the relative concavity can be no more than 0.001. Further along the chord of the profile Board section for more half-wave 70 with positive concavity becomes S-shaped, made of two half-waves 68 and 69, and during the transition to the end profile of the half-wave 68 with a negative curvature of the middle line is preceded by a half-wave 69 with positive concavity of the middle line. The transition from OTP the negative half wave to the positive half-wave may be completed at the maximum value of the relative negative concavity can make this minus 0,01 ... minus 0,015 and positive concavity 0,001...0,002.

In addition, in the on-Board cross-section is the maximum relative thickness of the profile it is advisable to choose from the range of 14...16% (see Fig), the geometric angle of twist of the cross section is in the range 3...4 C (see Fig), the angle of transverse V wing on the leading edge of the range 6...8 degrees and the rear edge of the range 8...10 degrees (see Fig).

When switching on the first part 61 of the wing from the side section to the border with the second part 62 console additional half-wave 70 with positive concavity profile disappears. The transition from the negative half 68 S-shaped medium line profiles to the wave 69 with positive concavity of the middle lines of the profiles are shifted to fit the profile of the wing.

When switching on the first part 61 wing from side cross-section N-N to the boundary with the second part 62 along section G-G, the maximum relative thickness of the profile of the wing, the angle of their geometric twist this decrease (see Fig, 16), and the angle of the transverse V-wing increases (see Fig).

The second part 62 of the wing is limited by the cross-sections G-G and F-F.

When switching on the second part 62 of the wing from its border with the first part of it to its limits with third cha is thew 63 console angle transverse V-wing continues to increase, reaching a maximum at the boundary between the second and third parts of the outer wings (see Fig), located close to one-quarter of poluraspada wing. In this case the angle of transverse V wing on the border with the third part of the surface of the leading edge it is advisable to choose from the range of 9.5...10 degrees, and the rear edge of range 14...16 degrees.

In addition, when switching on the second part of the wing from its border with the first part 61 of the console to its limits with the third part 63 two half 68 and 69 S-shaped medium lines profiles fill the entire chord of the profile (see Fig and 29), the transition from negative to positive half-wave of the middle line of the profile continues to blend socks profiles, angle geometric twist of the profiles and the maximum relative thickness profiles continue to decrease (see Fig, 16).

The third part 63 of the outer wings limited-sections F-F and D-D. When passing through the third part of the wing from its borders with the second part of cross section F-F of the surface to its border with the fourth part of the console along section D-D, the maximum relative thickness of the profile sections continues to decrease (see Fig), reaching at the boundary between the third 63 and the fourth part 64 of its local minimum. It is advisable to choose from the range of 11 to 12%.

The angle of the transverse V-wing, starting from the border of the second and RETA parts of the console along section F-F, begins to decrease (see Fig). The decrease in the angle of transverse V wing continues with further transition to the wing tip on the fourth 64, 65 fifth and sixth 66 parts of the aerodynamic bearing surface. At the end section of the outer wings angle transverse V-wing is advisable to choose on the front edge of the range 4...5.5 degrees, and the rear edge 5...6 degrees. The geometric angle of twist of the profile sections at the third part 63 aerodynamic bearing surface continues to fall (see Fig).

In addition, when switching on the third part 63 console from its borders with the second part 62 of the surface along section F-F to its border with the fourth part of cross section D-D continues to shift the transition point of the half-wave 68 is negative by concavity of S-shaped medium line profiles in the wave 69 with positive concavity.

Under the wing with a gap in relation to the boundary between the third and fourth parts can be accommodated axially elongated body, for example a jet engine in the gondola. The border between the third and fourth parts of the outer wings, it is advisable to place near one-third of poluraspada wing.

The fourth part 64 of the wing is limited by the cross-sections D-D and C-C.

When switching on the fourth part of the wing from its border with the third part on D-D to its border with the fifth part of the section With the maximum relative thickness of the profile sections is increased (see Fig). At the boundary between the fourth and fifth parts of the console in cross section With its value can be chosen from a range of 12...13%.

The claimed technical solution high-speed swept wing has on the fourth and fifth parts of the aerodynamic bearing surface for more half-wave 70 with positive concavity, which precedes, in the transition from tip of wing profiles along the chord of the profile, half-wave 68 with a negative curvature of the S-shaped medium line profiles. The length of the site an additional half-wave 70 with positive concavity average line profiles from the border of the third and fourth parts of the consoles along section D-D increases to 10...20% of the chord length to the boundary between the fourth and fifth parts of the consoles along section C-C. the length of the half-wave 68 is negative by concavity of S-shaped medium lines profiles decreases, and the transition of the negative half 68 S-shaped medium line profiles in the positive half-wave 69 continues to shift to fit the profile of the wing and on the border between the fourth and fifth parts in cross section C-C it is advisable to make when.

The fifth part 65 wing is limited by the cross-sections C-C and b-C.

When moving along the fifth part of the wing from its border with the fourth part of cross section C-C to its border with the sixth frequent the Yu in the cross section In the length of the half-wave 68 is negative by concavity of S-shaped middle line profiles and decreases to the boundary between the fifth and sixth parts of the console on section b-b half-wave 68 with negative concavity is lost. Additional half-wave 70 with positive concavity of the profile to the section b-b merges with the wave 69 S-shaped middle line profiles (see Fig).

The maximum relative thickness of the profile, starting from the boundary between the fourth and fifth parts of the console, is reduced. With further transition to the wing tip on the sixth side 66 of the console, the maximum relative thickness of the profile continues to decrease to values in the range 9...11% (see Fig).

The sixth part 66 console is limited by the cross-sections B-b and a-A.

Sixth part of the carrier console completed with positive concavity average line profiles (see Fig).

When moving along the fifth and sixth parts of the console from the border between the fourth and fifth parts to the wing tip angle geometric twist decreases from positive values to negative (see Fig). In the end section of the geometric angle of twist of the cross-sections it is advisable to choose from the range of 1.5...-2,5°.

The transition from positive angles of geometric twist sections to negative can be performed at the boundary between the fifth and sixth parts of the wing, close to the cross-section B-C.

The maximum relative thickness of the profile, it is advisable to have at. In side cross section, the maximum relative thickness of Celes is figuratively be placed in to the border with the second part of the console to shift the position of maximum relative height to the end of the profile to 37...38%, and to the border with the third part of the console advanced to shift the position of maximum relative thickness profile on the chord of the wing relative to the coordinate. In the subsequent parts of the aerodynamic bearing surface, the maximum relative thickness of the profile, it is advisable to have at.

The plot with the maximum negative value of the relative concavity of the profile on the console parts from the first to the fifth, it is advisable to have at. The maximum negative relative concavity of the profile decreases from values in the rangeto 0, where- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

As noted above, parts of the first through the fifth passage from the negative half of the S-shaped medium line profiles to the positive half-wave from the relative coordinatesshifted to toe profiles, with the fifth part of the bearing surface transition in the negative half positive, it is advisable to put in.

The plot with the maximum positive value of the Rel the relative concavity on parts of the aerodynamic bearing surface from the first to the sixth, it is advisable to have at while the first part of the wing maximum value positive concavity of S-shaped medium lines in the appropriate place whenwhen you proceed to the terminal sections to shift his position to fit the profile, placing the location of the site with the maximum positive value of the relative concavity of the profile in the sixth part is when. The maximum positive value of the relative concavity of S-shaped medium line profiles should be increased fromin the vehicle sections beforethe fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings.

It is most expedient to form the claimed swept wing having a cross-section of the boundary between the parts of the outer wings, in the following ranges: side cross-section N-N ' the boundary between the first 61 and second 62 parts of the outer wings (section G-G) -between the second 62 and third 63 parts (section F-F) -the boundary between 63 third and fourth 64 parts (section D-D) -between the fourth 64 65 and fifth parts (cross-section C-C)the boundary between 65 fifth and sixth 66 parts (section b-b)where z is the relative CCW is dinata section along poluraspada wing.

Calculations and aerodynamic experiments show that using the proposed technical solution for the wing with aspect ratio λ=9...11, constriction, not less thanin combination with the nacelle engines, placed under the wing consoles, on the surface of the wing is implemented close to the optimal nature of the flow surface (see Fig) and close to optimal pressure distribution on the wing surface (see Fig). The high value of the aerodynamic qualities (see Fig) occurs in a wide range of Mach numbers (M=0,2...0,82), and the maximum value To amax*M is achieved at high numbers M=0,75...0,82.

The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing with the engine nacelles under the wing of the use of the claimed technical solution remains stable when used in the composition of the family of aircraft represented in figure 1, 3-5, which differ in mass and length of the fuselage (see Fig). As shown by experimental aerodynamic research and the translation of their results for aircraft, the aerodynamic performance of the wing varies by no more than 1...4% when moving from aircraft, designed for the carriage 58 to 68 passengers to the aircraft, designed to carry from 66 to 83 and from 83 to 108 passengers that enables you to use the claimed speed V. lavigne wing without changing the geometrical parameters of the wing model aircraft, designed for different passenger capacity and maximum current range.

Comparison of the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing with the characteristics of a wing of one of the foreign analogues (see Fig) shows that the cruising speed of the aircraft with the claimed wing exceed the cruising speed of a foreign analogue.

The claimed fuel system family of aircraft as follows.

The claimed fuel system is designed for use in the design of aircraft with positive V wing. The wing includes (see Fig.6) front 20 and 21 rear spars missed for consoles wing and the wing center section 18, the wing with the top 31 and the bottom 40 parts, sealed side ribs 25 that separate the center section from the outer wings, ribs 22, 24, 26, 27 and longitudinal power set of the outer wings. The center section 18, in addition, provided with a longitudinal walls 34, placed parallel to the spars. The walls of the center section provided with notches 35. As shown in figure 10, the center section may be provided with two walls 34. The notches 35 of the walls 34 of the center section can be made with the possibility of a tight overlap their caps 39.

The fuel system includes a Central fuel tank 71 is placed in the center section, and two groups of fuel tanks, housed in a wing consoles. Schematic diagram of the fuel in the systems, placed in the right and left wing, the same, Fig, 39, 40, 41 is a schematic diagram of the fuel subsystem, located in the left wing.

The Central fuel tank 71 (see Fig.6, 41)made in the form of a caisson, is limited to the front 20 and rear side members 21, the side ribs 25, the bottom 33 and the upper 32 panels. Wall 34 of the center section divide it into compartments. In the case of the centre-section of the two walls 34 of the Central fuel tank is divided into three compartments 36, 37, 38, the first of which 36 is adjacent to the rear spar, third 38 to the front, and the second 37 is located between them.

In each group of fuel tanks, housed in a wing consoles, the first fuel tank 45, adjacent to the sealed side of the rib 25, the second fuel tank 46, is placed on the periphery of the wing, the third fuel tank 47 placed between the first and second tank. The internal volume of the third fuel tank 47 each group is divided into the core 48 and expenditure 49 compartments.

Fuel tanks wing consoles are limited to the front 20 and rear side members 21, the bottom 40 and top 31 parts plating Krylov. They are separated from each other tight ribs 24, 26.

The rib 26, which separates the second tanks groups from the main compartments of the third tank, provided with check valves 83, providing the ability to move fuel from the second tank is the main compartments of the third tank and exceptions overflow of fuel in the opposite direction.

One of the walls of the consumable compartment 49 is aligned with the rib 24, which separates the third fuel tank 47 from the first fuel tank 45 and the other wall consumable compartment combined with the wall of the rear side member 21 (see Fig, 18).

In addition, in each group of fuel tanks included the supply line to the 44 fuel into the engine, the input of which is connected with the third fuel tank 47, and it is a consumable compartment 49. Highway fuel supply to the engine left and right wing advisable to link artery banding fuel from the main crane banding, which is not shown in the diagrams. The submission trunk 44 fuel in the engine is equipped with a booster pump 72.

The fuel system is equipped with highways 74, 76 fuel transfer pumps pump 73. The input line of the pump 74 is connected with the inner cavity of the first tank, the inlet line 76 is connected to the main compartment 48 of the third tank.

In addition, the internal cavity of the Central tank (see Fig) are connected to the inputs of two highways pump 77, and output one of them is connected with the third tank of one group of tanks, and the output of the other with the third tank of another group of tanks. In addition, the fuel system may be provided with a line pumping 75, which provides the pumping of fuel from the second tank of the fuel system to third tanks.

The outputs of the master whom she pumping 74, 75, 77 fuel from the first and second tanks and the Central fuel tank can be connected, as shown in Fig, with the main compartment 48 of the third fuel tank. The outputs of these highways can be connected, as shown in Fig and directly with feed compartments 49 groups of tanks.

The walls 53 that separates the expenditure compartments from the main compartments of the third fuel tanks, and in the tight rib 26 (see Fig, 40, 41)separating the third fuel tanks from the latter made the slots 78. The slots are cut in the upper parts of the walls and ribs, it is possible more close to the top covering of the outer wings (see Fig).

In the cross the power set of each console is enabled stringer 30 closed U-shaped section (see Fig.7, 8, 17, 39, 40, 41, 42), tightly connected with the upper part 31 of the covering of the wing. The internal cavity of the U-shaped stringer 30 (see Fig) is in communication with the internal cavities of the first 45 and second 46 fuel tanks. At the entrance of the internal cavity of the U-shaped stringer appropriate place in the upper part of the second fuel tank is probably the most close to the top covering of the wing.

In addition, each group of fuel tanks equipped with overflow channels 80, providing a possibility of overflow of fuel from the first fuel tanks in the Central fuel tank. Inputs overflow channels of appropriate size is good in the upper parts of the first fuel tanks 45.

Inputs overflow channel connecting the first fuel tanks with a Central fuel tank, it is advisable to place above the U-shaped stringers in the first fuel tanks. The overflow outputs of the channels 80 in the Central fuel tank must be performed by providing the possibility of overflow of fuel in one of the compartments of the Central fuel tank.

When using the inventive fuel system in various aircraft flight range the execution of the overflow channel 80 may be different. When you use fuel system in the plane with the lowest range output overflow channel 80 is advisable to place, for example, as shown in Fig, in the first compartment 36 of the Central fuel tank, and the cutouts in the wall of the center section 34 that separates the first compartment 36 of the Central fuel tank from the second compartment 37 may be covered by caps 39. When you use fuel system in the aircraft intermediate and longest-range output overflow channel 80 can be placed in the second compartment 37 of the Central fuel tank, as shown in Fig. When you use fuel system in the plane with intermediate range cut-outs in the wall 34 of the center section, which separates the second compartment 37 of the Central fuel tank from the third compartment 38 may be covered by caps. In the model aircraft is with the greatest range of the cut walls of the center section 34, as shown in Fig, caps do not overlap.

In the lower parts of the walls separating the expenditure compartments 49 from the main compartments 48 of the third fuel tanks 47 and rib 24 that separates the first fuel tanks from third, it is advisable to place the check valves 81, providing a flow of fuel from the first fuel tank to the main compartments of third tanks and major third compartments of the fuel tank into the feed compartments and excluding fuel overflow in the opposite direction.

In addition, overflow channels 80 it is also advisable to provide check valves 82, providing a possibility of overflow of fuel from the first tank in the Central compartment and the overflow exception of fuel in the opposite direction.

The slots 78 in the walls of the consumable compartment and sealed ribs 26, which separates the third fuel tanks from the second, the inputs and outputs of the internal cavities of the U-shaped stringers 30 and inputs overflow channels 80, it is advisable to perform the agreed height of their location relative to each other. Thus the inputs in the internal cavity of the U-shaped stringers, it is advisable to place above the slots 78 in the rib 26, which separates the second tanks from the third, which in turn it is advisable to place above the slots in the walls of the consumable compartment 49, separating it from the inner volume of the main compartment 48 of the third fuel tanks./p>

The claimed fuel system works as follows.

In the manufacture of the fuel system in accordance with the level of maximum flight range of the ordered aircraft selects the desired maximum fuel fuel system. While the cut in one side of the center section can be tightly covered lids. Thus, the Central fuel tank on the circuits supplied by the two walls. This enables to form the fuel system, designed for three levels of maximum fuel.

Fuel system with the lowest maximum fuel load can be realized if the overlap covers the cut wall of the center section, closest to the rear spar of the wing. When this fuel refuel tanks consoles wing and Central compartment of the tank, adjacent to the rear spar.

Fuel system with an intermediate value of the maximum refueling can be realized if the overlap covers the cut wall of the center section closest to the front spar of the wing.

When this fuel refuel tanks consoles wing and Central compartment of the tank, adjacent to the rear spar, and a compartment between the two walls of the center section.

Can be proposed and other methods of refueling the fuel system when it is used in the model is x aircraft minimum and intermediate the maximum design range.

Fuel system with the highest value of the maximum refueling implemented in the absence of caps on the openings in the walls of the center section. When this fuel refuel tanks consoles wing and the Central fuel tank.

After refueling the fuel system and include all pumps pumping begins circulation of fuel between tanks (see Fig).

Did you pump the fuel 74, 77 fuel from the Central tank and the first tank is fed to third tanks of the outer wings. When this fuel from the first tank group and the Central tank may, in accordance with the scheme shown in Fig, 41, served in the main compartments of the third tank, from which fuel through line pump 76 can be pumped into the feed compartment. On highways pump 74, 76 and 77 of the first tanks of the groups, the main compartments of the third tank and the Central tank may, in accordance with the scheme shown in Fig, pumped directly into the feed compartment.

Excess fuel from a supply compartment through the slots 78 in the walls 53 that separates the expenditure compartments from the main compartments of third tanks, moved into the main compartments of the third tank. Then through the slots 78 in an airtight walls 26 between the third and second fuel tanks moved in the second tanks. Internal cavity stringers 30 with a U-shaped profile fuel is remediesa in the first fuel tanks, where overflow channels 80 the excess of it can move in the Central fuel tank 71.

After turning on the engine part fuel from a supply compartment begins to flow into the engine.

During the lowering of the fuel level in the first fuel tanks below the entrance to the overflow channel 80 (see Fig)connecting the first fuel tanks with a Central fuel tank, stops payment of expenditure from the Central fuel tank overflow of the first fuel tanks and the Central fuel tank is emptied.

After emptying the Central fuel tank total fuel level in fuel tanks consoles wing goes down and when it drops below the entrance into the internal cavity of the U-shaped stringers (see Fig) poured it in the first fuel tanks shall be terminated. Pumping fuel from the first fuel tanks in the expenditure compartments is not compensated by the overflow of fuel from the second fuel tank to the first fuel tanks. The first fuel tanks are emptied.

After emptying the first fuel tanks begins to develop fuel from the second and third fuel tanks. Due to the presence of the check valve 83, the fuel level in the second fuel tank does not exceed the level of fuel in the main compartment of the third tank, the valve 83 provides a flow of excess fuel from the second tank into the main compartment of the third tank. Because wings is performed with a positive angle transverse V, first emptied the second fuel tank (see Fig, 51). After emptying the second fuel tank (see Fig) fuel continues to be pumped through line 76 into the feed compartment. After running out of fuel from the main compartment of the third tank of fuel lasts from a supply compartment (see Fig).

Introduction to fuel system highway fuel transfer 75 (see Fig, 41) from the second fuel tank in the third fuel tank does not change the order of running out of fuel from the fuel tanks of the fuel system. This somewhat changes the alignment of the plane.

After production of the first fuel tanks (see Fig) the fuel is produced from the second fuel tank (see Fig). The check valve 83 prevents movement of fuel from the main compartment of the third tank to the second tank of the fuel system. By pumping fuel main compartment of the third tank remains full, output is produced only from the second tank of the fuel system.

After running out of fuel from the second tank (see Fig) the fuel is produced from the main compartments of the third tank and expandable compartments (see Fig).

The proposed solutions of the aircraft, the speed of the swept wing and the fuel system can be manufactured at the enterprises of the aviation industry.

1. The plane made by providing the possibility of changing the maximum raschet the second range, the fuselage consists of sequentially placed bow, front, center, rear and tail sections, and front and rear compartments is made with a length that enables the accommodation aboard different numbers of passengers, the chassis includes two main and nose supports its high-speed swept wing consists of a center section and wing consoles, includes longitudinal and transverse power set and the casing with its lower and upper parts and is made with a positive angle transverse V, the longitudinal force wing set included front and rear side members, and cross-power set - rib, part of which is airtight, in addition, each wing is equipped with a dry compartment, one of the walls which are aligned with the front spar, while the wing is made with a decrease in the maximum relative thickness of the profile at the transition from the on-Board cross-section of the console to the ending, and the halves of the arm adjacent to the side sections, placed areas with local minimum and maximum relative thickness of the profile, in addition, the aircraft equipped with a power unit containing two turbofan jet-propulsion engine mounted under the wing consoles symmetrically about the plane of symmetry of the aircraft, the engines are connected to the mains supply fuel from the fuel system equipped with the two groups separated from each other tight ribs fuel tanks, and each group of tanks includes first and second fuel tanks, housed in a wing consoles, the first tanks of the groups placed in the root portion of the outer wings, and the second tanks on their periphery, and the Central fuel tank, located in the Central wing section, the side walls of which are formed by the front and rear spars of the wing and side ribs, characterized in that the plane of the turbofan installation of air-jet engines are located close to one-third of poluraspada wing, and when passing through the wing from the side sections to one a quarter of poluraspada wing swept wing aircraft performed with increasing angle transverse V-wing, and with the further transition to the wing tip with its reduction, in addition, the profiles from the side section to at least half of poluraspada wing performed with positive angles geometric twist their sections, and referred to a local minimum of the maximum relative thickness of the profile of the outer wings reached near one-third of poluraspada wing, these tanks fuel system is equipped with third tanks placed in consoles wing between the first and second tanks groups, and third tanks are divided into basic irashome compartments, the latter of which is connected to the mains supply fuel, with one of the walls of expenditure compartments combined with tight rib separating the third fuel tanks from the first, and the other with the rear spar, thus the fuel system is designed with capability running out of fuel at the beginning of the Central fuel tank, then from the first tank, then from the second tank, and in the last turn of the third tank group, and the total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the entire Central fuel tank selected on the basis of securing the refuelling of the aircraft with the highest maximum of the estimated range, referred to dry compartments in each wing are placed on both sides of the sealed rib separating the first fuel tanks from third, as in the above-mentioned longitudinal force set each console is enabled stringer closed U-shaped profile, hermetically connected to the upper part of the covering of the wing, the inner cavity of which made communicating with the first and second fuel system, these stringers in the greater part of its length placed near areas with a maximum relative thickness profile of the outer wings of the plane.

2. The aircraft according to claim 1, characterized in that the front and rear sections of the fuselage is made from a length, providing in the possibility of transportation by plane from 58 to 68, from 66 to 83 and from 83 to 108 passengers.

3. The aircraft according to claim 2, characterized in that the equivalent diameter of the fuselage of the aircraft is selected from the range of 3.3...3,55 m, while the lengthening of the fuselage of the aircraft, designed to carry from 58 to 68 passengers selected from a range of 6,5 6,7...designed for transportation from 66 to 83 passengers from a range of 7.3...7,6, and lengthening the fuselage of the aircraft, designed to carry from 83 to 108 passengers selected from a range of 8.2...8,6.

4. The aircraft according to claim 3, characterized in that the fuselage and high-speed swept wing aircraft designed to fly at a cruising speed Mach number of 0.75 to 0.82.

5. The aircraft according to claim 1, characterized in that the center section has two equipped with a zipper wall, parallel side members and providing opportunities sealed overlap their lids, with these walls of the Central fuel tank is divided into three compartments, the first of which is placed at the rear spar, the third in front of the spar, and the second between the walls, while the total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the first compartment of the Central fuel tank selected on the basis of securing the refuelling of the aircraft with the lowest value of the maximum of the estimated range, and the total volume of the two groups of tanks and the volume of the first and second compartments Central fuel tank wybraniec calculation software refuelling aircraft with an intermediate value of the maximum of the estimated range.

6. The aircraft according to claim 1, characterized in that the sealed rib separating the first and third tanks wing consoles, at least in its tail placed within the first quarter of poluraspada wing.

7. High-speed swept wing, consisting of a center section and consoles, each of which is composed of six parts, separated from each other by sections parallel to the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the aircraft, placed sequentially along the span of the outer wings, smoothly conjugate to each other, and formed as a single spatial system based on non-flat middle surface, and the profiles of the cross sections of the arm adjacent to the fuselage, made with S-shaped medium lines, composed of two half-waves, one of which is made negative by the concavity and the other is positive, and the profile sections at the periphery of the outer wings made with positive concavity of the middle lines, in addition, when switching from onboard to the end section of the wing profiles are made with a monotonic decrease of the geometric angle of twist from positive to negative values and the decrease of the maximum relative thickness of the profile to the value of 9...11%, characterized in that the profiles with S-shaped midline placed on the first five, counting from the fuselage, the parts of each to the Soli, moreover, when moving along the chord of the profile from its nose to the tip of the wave with negative concavity of the middle line of the profile is preceded by a half-wave with positive concavity, and the sixth part of each of the consoles posted profiles with positive concavity of the middle line, and the first, fourth and fifth parts of each of the outer wings two half-waves S-shaped middle line profiles are preceded by an additional half-wave with positive concavity average line profiles, in addition, the near side sectional angle transverse V wing on the leading edge selected from a range of 6...8°, and in the transition from the side section to the border between the second and third parts of the wing consoles made with increasing angle of transverse V wing on the leading edge to the values from 9 to 12°, and with the further transition to the wing tip is made with a decrease in the angle of the transverse V-wing to values in the range 5...6°, near side sectional angle geometric twists selected from the range +3 ... +3,8°, the maximum relative thickness of the profile is selected from a range of 14...16%, on the border between the third and fourth parts hosted a local minimum of the maximum relative thickness of the profile of the wing, while the transition in the fourth of the console from its border with the third part to the gra is itzá with the fifth part of the profiles are achieved with the increase of the maximum relative thickness of the profile.

8. High-speed swept wing according to claim 7, characterized in that the transition from cross-sections with positive values of the geometric angle of twist of profiles to sections with negative values of the geometric twist of the profiles is performed on the boundary between the fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings.

9. High-speed swept wing according to claim 7, characterized in that the maximum relative thickness profiles are located atwhere- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

10. High-speed swept wing according to claim 7, characterized in that the area with the maximum negative by the concavity of the profile is located atthe transition from the side section to the boundary between the fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings of the maximum negative concavity of the profile decreases from values in the rangeto 0, where- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

11. High-speed swept wing according to claim 7, characterized in that the relative coordinate of the transition from the half-wave with negative concavity of S-shaped middle line profiles to the wave with positive concavity average line profiles during the transition from the side section to the boundary between the fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings (Mus) is moved out of range in the rangewhere- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

12. High-speed swept wing according to claim 7, characterized in that the section of maximum positive concavity of the profile is located atthe transition from the side section to the wing tip, the maximum value of the positive concavity of the profile increases fromtowhere- relative coordinate along the chord of the profile.

13. High-speed swept wing according to claim 7, characterized in that the sweep angle of the leading edge on the first, second and third parts of the outer wings selected from a range of 31...33°, and on the fourth, fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings - from a range of 26...28°.

14. High-speed swept wing according to claim 7, characterized in that the rear edge of the first, second, third and fourth parts of the outer wings is without a sweep, and the sweep angle of the rear edges of the fifth and sixth parts of the outer wings selected from the range 20 to 23°.

15. High-speed swept wing according to claim 7, characterized in that the coordinates of the side sections of the wing are selected from the rangethe coordinates of the boundaries between the first and second parts of the outer wings of the range - the second and third parts -, the third and fourth parts, fourth and fifth parts -the fifth and sixth parts -from poluraspada wing.

16. Fuel system containing the fuel tanks, located in the center section and wing consoles, made with a positive angle transverse V and including front and rear spars, provided with cutouts wall, placed in the center section parallel to the side members, the casing with its upper and lower parts of the ribs of the outer wings, part of which is airtight, thus the fuel system is equipped with placed in the center wing of the Central fuel tank, limited front and rear spars and side ribs and separated by the walls of the center section into compartments, and placed in consoles wing two groups of fuel tanks, limited front and rear spars, the lower and the upper casings and separated from each other tight ribs, with each group of tanks included the first fuel tank, separated from the Central fuel tank side rib, the second fuel tank, placed at the periphery of the outer wings, the third fuel tank located between the first and second fuel tanks and divided into primary and expandable compartments, the ri one of the walls of the consumable compartment aligned with the rib, separating the third fuel tank from the first fuel tank and the fuel supply line to the engine, the input of which is connected with a metering compartment, in addition, the fuel system is equipped with a mains pump fuel transfer pumps, the inputs of which are connected to the internal cavities of the first tank and the main compartment of the third tank each group of tanks, and an inner Central cavity of the fuel tank is connected to the inputs of two highways pumping, and output one of them is connected with the first, and the output of the other with the second group of tanks, besides, rib separating the second tanks from the main compartments of the third tank, equipped with reverse valves located near the bottom of the sail wing and providing the ability to move fuel from the second tank into the main compartments of the third tank, characterized in that the second wall consumable compartment combined with the wall of the rear spar, and in the upper parts of the walls separating the expenditure compartments from the main compartments of the third fuel tanks, and in the upper parts of the ribs separating the main compartments of the third tank from the second, made slits in the longitudinal power set of each console is enabled stringer closed U-shaped section, which is tightly connected with the upper part of the covering of the wing, and the inner cavity of the specified stringer soy is inane with the internal cavities of the first and second fuel tanks, in addition, each group of fuel tanks equipped with overflow channels, providing the possibility of overflow of fuel from the first fuel tanks in the Central fuel tank, the inputs of which are located in the upper parts of the first fuel tanks, and the outputs are made with the possibility of overflow of fuel in one of the compartments of the Central fuel tank, and the outputs of the above-mentioned arteries pumping fuel from the first tank and the Central fuel tank is connected with the third tanks each group and outputs mains pumping fuel from the main compartments of the third tank connected with feed compartments of the fuel tank groups.

17. Fuel system according to item 16, characterized in that each group of fuel tanks equipped with a mainline pumping fuel from the second tank into the third.

18. Fuel system 17, characterized in that the outputs of the arteries pump the fuel from the first and second tanks and the Central fuel tank connected with the main compartments of third tanks.

19. Fuel system 17, characterized in that the outputs of the arteries pump the fuel from the first and second tanks and the Central fuel tank is connected with a metering compartments third tanks.

20. Fuel system according to item 16, characterized in that in the lower parts of the walls and ribs separating the main compartments of the third fuel tanks from rashomon the x compartments and from the first fuel tanks, posted by check valves made by providing the ability to move fuel from the first fuel tank to the main compartments of the third of the main tanks and compartments in the expenditure compartments and exceptions movement of fuel in the opposite direction.

21. Fuel system according to item 16, characterized in that the said overflow channels are provided with check valves allowing fuel overflow from the first tank in the Central fuel tank and exceptions overflow of fuel in the opposite direction.

22. Fuel system according to item 16, characterized in that the cut walls of the center section is made with the possibility of a tight overlap of their covers.



 

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