Car bimetal braking clamp

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: bimetal braking clamp comprises arc-bent cast pig-iron bar furnished with a boss arranged at rear side center and having a bore to receive wedge-like cotter-pin to be fixed in clamp holder. Said cast pig-iron bar body has cylindrical inserts arranged in rows and made from material that features higher abrasive properties compared with those of bar material. Groups of inserts are separated by sections with no inserts, said inserts being point-welded to steel plate repeating the shape of and covering bar rear side. Steel plate is perforated to have 25 mm-dia holes in compliance with arrangement of inserts in bar body. Two inserts should be located opposite each round hole. Insert face overlaps round hole area for 1/3. Insert face is eclectically welded to round hole edge. In casting, mould is filled so that steel plate round holes are filled with pig-iron. Square holes are arranged along steel plate edges to receive pig-iron U-section bosses. Length of section with no inserts exceeds both width.

EFFECT: uniform wear of braking surfaces, wheels locking in all braking conditions.

8 dwg

 

The invention relates to railway transport and relates to brake equipment, namely, brake pads railway rolling stock. Bimetallic wagon brake pad (the pad) designed for railway rolling stock, both foreign and domestic.

To date, passenger, freight cars and other rolling stock used several types of shoes of different designs made of different materials.

The requested block is designed to replace the existing composite and cast iron blocks, is another development of the family of bimetallic brake pads for rolling stock of railway transport.

Known bimetallic brake pad copyright certificate №1643266, Ál. VN 1/00 bull. No. 15, 23.04.91, the Block contains arcuate casting in the form of a beam of rectangular cross-section, while in the body of the beam from the side of the working friction surfaces made at least two parallel rows of inserts, the axis of which is parallel to the side pads, the body fixed cylindrical insert made of a material having a higher abrasion than the material of the beam. The inserts are placed in a checkerboard pattern.

A disadvantage of the known brake is lodki is the rapid wear due to the spread of the bully on the entire surface of the pads, that entails the wear on the pads, reducing the effect at high speeds of 80 to 90 km/h due to overheating of the inserts, as well as premature failure when the cracking of cast iron between the inserts.

The most structurally close is bimetallic brake pad containing the arcuate casting in the form of a bent iron bar, with the tide, under the wedge pin. Casting cast iron in the form, in the body which longitudinal rows of cylindrical insert made of a material higher abrasiveness than the material of the beam. The inserts are placed in two groups, each group inserts are arranged in two parallel rows, groups of inserts split plot without inserts. The insert is attached by spot welding to steel frame. Steel frame made in the form of a plate with lots of the same shape, curved-curved beams. Steel frame has a profile plot, covering the tide of iron Board, with holes in the side surface for fixing pads V-W / cotter pin in the Shoe (columntitle). Parallel rows of inserts deployed on the angle α=15÷20° in the same direction in both groups. The insert is made of heat-resistant steel.

Insert secured to the plate frame by spot welding. Four extreme insertion in the ranks of the issue is lnany with annular grooves on the lateral surface.

The working surface of the Shoe is made with a slope of 1:20. Patent RU 2298500, M CL VN 1/00, F16D 65/04, F16D 69/00, publ. 10.05.2007, bull. No. 13.

However, this construction of the pads has disadvantages which adversely affect performance pads and the relatively high cost of production. As shown, in contact with their wear 80÷85% occurs micromotion iron in the annular grooves of the inserts, as a result decreases the conductivity of the pad as a whole and the friction coefficient decreases, increasing the length of the brake path.

In addition, due to inaccurate placement of the inserts on the frame and body pads on the wheelset arise generation in the form of annular grooves.

In addition, the difficulty of automation of manufacturing and Assembly of the frame with inserts will not allow cost reduction pads in production.

As shown, when the wear 90% of the thickness of the pads, there is a slight weakening of the connection cast iron curved beams with steel frame and inserts attached to the frame, and fastening inserts spot welded to the frame is not strong enough.

The objective of the invention is to increase the resource blocks and associated wheels, reliability brakes, ease of manufacturing by increasing the strength of the fastening inserts on a steel frame, swarco and due to the peculiarities of the technology of casting iron in the manufacture of lumber at a more precise location of the inserts in the body cast iron block.

This object is achieved in that the bimetallic wagon brake pad contains arcuate curved cast-iron beam, having a rear-located transversely in the middle of a burst, with a hole for the wedge pin for mounting in columntitle, cast iron in the form. In the body of the beam longitudinal rows of cylindrical insert made of a material higher abrasiveness than the material of the beam. The inserts are placed in two groups and separated by a land without inserts. The insert is attached by welding to a steel plate that covers and follows the shape of the back side of the beam.

A steel plate made of perforated round holes with a diameter of 25 mm in accordance with the scheme of placing the inserts in the body of the beam so that opposite each of the holes on the two inserts. The ends of the inserts 1/3 overlap area round holes. The ends of the inserts are welded by welding to the edge of the hole. When iron casting form to fill out so that these holes in the steel plate were filled with iron. At the ends of the steel plate is made rectangular hole cast iron tides, having a sectional shape of the channel. Length of the plot without inserts To exceed the width of the tide and is determined by the formula

K=(1,75÷1,85),

the de - length of the plot pads without inserts;

C - width of the tide.

The novelty of the invention lies in its structural features.

- A steel plate made of perforated round holes with a diameter of 25 mm in accordance with the scheme of placing the inserts in the body of the beam so that opposite each of the openings to position the two inserts. Inserts are arranged so that their ends 1/3 overlap area round holes. Insert weld by welding to the edge of the hole. The layout of the round holes on the steel plate in accordance with predetermined parameters of uniform placement of the working surface of the inserts on the working surface of the pad is calculated on computers and accurately transferred to the steel plate at its perforation. In accordance with the calculated grid coordinate set and arc welding machine, submerged arc welding produces the welding of inserts to a steel plate, which simplifies the manufacture and eliminates manual labor.

- When iron casting form fill so that these holes in the steel plate were filled with iron. This created a powerful T-shaped hooks cast iron over the ends of the inserts, which increases the strength and durability of the pad.

- On the ends of the steel plate is made rectangular hole cast iron tides, and Elsie in the sectional shape of the channel. In the deepening of the channel are placed the ends of the V-checks during installation, allowing you to more accurately fix the position of cheques and to prevent rotation of the pad about its longitudinal axis. It improves the conditions of the pads and ensures uniform wear of the working surface.

- Length of the plot without inserts To exceed the width of the tide C. This improves the durability of the pads at the site of attachment to the Shoe.

The essential features of the invention allows 90% to automate the process of production pads and to achieve precise placement of inserts in the body of cast iron beams, which increases the quality of the resulting pads, improves its performance properties. Increases the strength of the pads due to changes in the technology of its manufacture, reduced cost of production.

The resulting design allows to achieve uniform wear of the pads and the wheelset. This prevents the appearance on the surface of the wheels annular grooves during operation and locking wheels on all modes of braking in any weather and any time of the year, provided the absence of the wheelset pricehow, fat and sliders - this block generates when braking kaeseberg the braking mode.

The insert is made of more abrasive metal or alloy, that is the number of heat-resistant steels hardness not exceeding 155 HB units.

When calculating the geometry of the location of the inserts in the body of the iron bar on the computer to ask a number of parameters.

Length of the plot without inserts To exceed the width of the tide and is determined by the formula

K=(1,75÷1,85),

where-To - length pads without inserts;

C - width of the tide.

Each of the two groups of cylindrical inserts contains 8-10 inserts, each of the rows in the group contains 4-5 insertions.

The working surface of the brake pads made according to the profile wheelset with a slope of 1:20 or other bias in accordance with the standards of other countries.

The area S of the working surface of the pad is determined by the formula

S=(3.21÷5.46)×S2+S1,

where S is the area of the working surface of the pad;

S2the sum of the areas of the working surfaces of the inserts;

S1- the area without inserts.

The area without inserts is determined by the formula

S1=K×B,

where S1- the area without inserts;

To - length pads without inserts;

In - the width of the working surface of the pad.

The diameter d of the cylindrical inserts is determined by the formula

d=(3,0÷4,0)×,

where d is the diameter of the cylindrical insert;

In - the width of the working surface of the pad.

The length of the cylindrical insert is determined by the formula

L=(0,95÷0,96)×N,

where L is the length of C is indecency inserts;

H - the thickness of the pads without thickness steel perforated plate.

The abrasiveness of timber pads is determined by the formula

C=(0,6÷0,7)×M,

where C is the abrasiveness of timber pads;

M - abrasive insert.

All cylindrical insert is placed in the conductor on geometric pattern designed on the computer, opposite round holes perforated steel plates in pairs and are welded to a steel plate welding machine submerged arc welding from the back side of the steel plate. The package inserts together with a steel plate is placed in a mold and pour the molten iron so that all the holes were filled with iron, the formation of powerful T-shaped hooks cast iron over the ends of the inserts. With the working surface of the pad all inserts filled 3÷4 mm thick cast iron, i.e. closed, in addition to the four extreme installation in a mold.

Design features pads allow 90% automate their production, to improve its performance and reduce the cost of production.

Steel inserts and T-shaped bays of iron into the holes of the perforated steel plates provide a better heat sink and therefore, as shown, the pad does not lose the coefficient of friction when braking at high speeds 90÷140 km/h

High mechanical properties, pre is ashodaya properties of bimetallic and cast iron blocks early production, allow to exploit it to wear constituting 0,12 original thickness.

In General, the block having good thermal conductivity and heat capacity, provides elastic-plastic friction at a temperature of pads to 750°, extending the life of the pads and the wheelset.

In the brake Shoe with the back mounting part is made of a steel plate with portions of the same shape curved curved beams and located in the middle part of the profile section in the form of tide with holes in the side surface for fixing pads V-W / cotter pin or other means in accordance with the standards of any country in the world.

In steel perforated plate at the ends made quadrangular hole cast iron tides, with the sectional shape of the channel. When installing pads and fastening it with the ends of the cotter cheques are located inside the channel, which prevents the rotation of the pad about its longitudinal axis.

Steel perforated plate is placed and secured through the holes from the back side of the welding machine submerged arc welding steel inserts, spaced geometric pattern designed on the computer. After this layout perforated steel plate welded to steel inserts placed in the mold and saliva the camping melt cast iron, the chemical composition of which is specified in the table, or cast iron, of a different chemical composition.

Table
The composition of iron.
GroupSiMnPS
C12,8-3,40,7-1,10,4-1,10,4-0,9not more than 0.2
F2.8 to 3.51,3-2,0of 0.3-0.91,0-1,5not more than 0.15

The melt cast fills out the form, including holes in a steel plate, through which the welded insert, forming in this connection is a powerful T-shaped spikes, two inserts - one thorn. These spikes in conjunction with the tide from the back side of the pad in the middle of the curved beam and inserts ensure a good connection of cast iron beams with steel back plate of the pad and the powerful heat from the working surface of the wheel, saving it from sharp thermopaste with corresponding negative effects and - the development of microcracks.

The mode pads with timely and high-quality heat from the working contact of the pair of friction pad-wheel provides a more reliable braking with a large coefficient of friction and in conjunction with the prevention of the occurrence of microcracks on the surface of the wheels, and a complete lack of wheel lock on all modes of inhibition are coleosperma preventing damage to the wheelset: floaters, Navara, burns, thermal cracks, fishermen etc.

The working part of the pad is made with a slope of 1:20 or otherwise in accordance with the standards of other countries, which can increase the working surface of the inserts, as it is when working pads takes the form of an ellipse, which contributes to the enhancement of the resource block.

The insert is made of ductile metal or alloy with hardness not more than 155 HB units and their attachment to a perforated steel plate by welding, as shown, provide a reliable fastening of inserts and good heat from the working surface of the pad.

The calculation of the length of the cylindrical insert, depending on the thickness of the pads allows for the manufacture of pads to create an opportunity to fill their iron to a height of 3÷4 mm from the working party, which allows for the first braking ensure the ü abrasion of the layer of iron and break in a body pads with inserts along the running surface of the wheel, providing quality brake effect from the first braking cycles, given that practically due to the different wear and different number of grooves of the wheels due to their damage all wheels have different radii of the surface and require an individual break pads each to his wheel. Question quick break pads and initial quality braking in this case solved due to the fact that all inserts are closed 3÷4 mm thick cast iron.

Inserts have a higher abrasion than the body of the pad.

Installation and dimensions of pads, and a burst from the back side for mounting the wedge Shoe W / cotter pin or other means can be performed according to the standards of any country in the world.

Resource declared uniform bimetallic brake pads exceeds existing resources bimetallic brake pads on 5÷8%, and iron in dozens of times. Environmental regulations pad is much superior both in manufacture and in operation, any composite block and is completely harmless.

According to their mechanical characteristics of the requested block is considerably larger than the prototype and other bimetallic pads through reliable connection cast iron beam body pads with steel inserts and steel plate due to the Bay of pig iron in the United TVersity.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, figure 1-8.

Figure 1 shows a General view of the pad with a slit going through a number of inserts. The layer of cast iron, closing the ends of the inserts from the side of the working surface, conventionally not shown.

Figure 2 shows a General view of the pad.

Figure 3 - view of the pad in the section a-A.

Figure 4 - placement of inserts in front of the orifice plate.

Figure 5 - type steel perforated steel plate from the side of the working surface of the pad.

Figure 6 - type perforated steel plate from the back side of the pad.

7, a cylindrical insert.

On Fig - wedge check.

Bimetallic wagon brake pad contains arcuate curved cast-iron beams 1 and steel perforated plate with 2 round holes 3 with a diameter of 25 mm Hole 3 is posted in accordance with the scheme of placing the inserts in the body of the beam 1. When pouring iron into the holes 3 are obtained T-shaped bays cast iron 4. The steel plate 2 has an opening 5 under the wedge pin. At the ends of the steel plate 2 is rectangular holes 6 for iron tides, having a sectional shape of the channel 7. Cylindrical insert 8 posted by longitudinal rows of body iron beam 1.

The beam 1 is located transversely in the middle of a burst of 9 with a hole 5 for the V-10 checks to to the Alenia in columntitle.

The two ends of the inserts 8 1/3 overlap area round holes 3, the ends of the inserts are welded by welding to the edge of the hole 3.

Insert 8 arranged in two groups separated by a land without inserts.

Length of the plot without inserts To exceed the width of the tide and is determined by the formula.

Steel perforated plate 2 has the following openings Figure 2:

from 8 to 10 holes 3 for welding of inserts 8 to the plate 2 with the formation of the T-shaped Bay 4 iron in the hole 3,

- holes 5 under klinovuyu pin 10,

- hole 6 terminal iron tides 7 supports the V-10 checks or other method of attachment made under the standards of any country in the world.

Figure 3 in the body cast iron beams 1 posted by cylindrical insert 8, made of various metals or their alloys and welded welding machine to the edge of the technological holes 3 in the frame 2 at least two inserts 8 in the same hole. Filled in that hole cast iron during pouring of the frame forms a mushroom-shaped (in cross section is T-shaped) casting 4, securely connecting the body of the pad 1 with frame 2.

Figure 4 insert 8 is fixed electric welding machine to the frame 2 through the holes 3 in geometric pattern designed on the computer. This same pattern is configured electric welding machine. The number of inserts on the Xu pad - 16÷20 pieces depending on the speed performance pads, its length and width, diameter and material of the inserts.

Brake pad cast iron into the mold with pre-laid steel perforated plate 2, on which are fixed by welding the insert 8. The whole package is filled with molten cast iron, forming a curved beam 1 with the tide 9 from the back side in the middle or high tide, another configuration in accordance with the standard of any country for fastening pads in columntitle through holes 5 V cotter 10, finger, or other fastening.

Insert 8 is made of metal with abrasive higher abrasiveness body cast iron beam 1.

Work uniform brake pads is ensured by pressing the pad to the tread surface of the wheel, thus there is an interaction of the rubbing pair of strip - wheel, in this case there is elasto-plastic friction with a friction coefficient of 0.48÷0,50, the conditions for the occurrence of this friction:

1. body pads - iron groups1F and other cast iron, hardness 197÷255 env.

2. insert soft from various metals and their alloys, the hardness is not more than 155 env.

3. the rolling surface of the wheel, the hardness of 235÷340 HB units.

4. the ultimate resistance of the pad is not lower than 750°C.

Production pads offer implies a higher coefficient is ecient automation, hence, lower cost. The proposed solution device and manufacture of the pad allows you to get better quality and a long service life of the pad. When using it you do not lock the wheels, and hence the damage associated with this phenomenon. Furthermore, the very structural integrity of the pad due to a more mechanically stable connection of the perforated steel plate with cast-iron curved beam pads and inserts it provides high reliability and without damage on all modes of inhibition of rolling stock.

Bimetallic wagon brake pad contains arcuate curved cast-iron beam, having a rear-located transversely in the middle of the flow hole wedge pin for mounting in columntitle, cast iron in the form, in the body whose longitudinal rows of cylindrical insert made of a material higher abrasiveness than the material of the beam, the inserts are placed in two groups and separated by a land without inserts, the insert is attached by spot welding to a steel plate that covers and follows the shape of the back side of the beam, characterized in that the steel plate is made of a perforated round holes with a diameter of 25 mm CE is provided with layout inserts in the body of the beam so to the contrary each round holes arranged along two insertion, the ends of the inserts 1/3 overlap area round holes, the ends of the inserts are welded by welding to the edge of the round hole, when iron casting form to fill out so that these round holes in steel plate were filled with iron, the ends of the steel plate is made rectangular hole cast iron tides, having a sectional shape of the channel, the length of the plot without inserts To exceed the width of the tide and is determined by the formula
K=(1,75÷1,85),
where-To - length pads without inserts;
C - width of the tide.



 

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Friction product // 2353837

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to friction elements containing a polymer composite layer to be operated in various friction assemblies in contact with a metal counter body. The proposed friction product comprises a friction element made in a polymer binder, dispersed fillers, fibrous reinforcing and metal-containing fillers. The friction element comprises additionally not over 2.5 % of a material made from powder high-molecular polyethylene as filler.

EFFECT: higher friction-wear properties due to higher friction and mechanical-effect.

FIELD: engineering industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to engineering industry, and namely to manufacturing methods of friction items with firm inserts, which are meant for various transport types. Method is realised by hot moulding of shoe from polymer compound in a moulding tool under pressure at simultaneous alignment thereof with metal frame and firm inserts. Hot moulding is carried out in moulding tool with grooves located in a punch that forms the shoe working surface in firm insert location areas. Process projections are formed from polymer friction material on shoe working surface in those zones; then, shoe working surface is machined and process projections are removed, thus providing arrangement of working surfaces of firm inserts and polymer friction material in one plane. Moulding tool used for shoe manufacturing consists of a matrix and upper and lower punches. Punch forming the shoe working surface is equipped with grooves meant for each of the inserts arranged in location areas of firm insert working surfaces. Each groove is bigger than the appropriate insert.

EFFECT: providing the possibility of manufacturing railroad transport means brake shoe and locating working surfaces of firm inserts and working surface of friction material of shoe friction element in one and the same plane, providing efficient operation from the very beginning of brake shoe operation, and minimising the number of expensive friction material waste appearing during machining of shoe working surface.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: braking block comprises metal carcass, composite material friction element and two solid inserts arranged symmetrically relative to the block horizontal axis and overlapping its friction part over the width. The said metal carcass represents a wire carcass representing two closed frames press-fitted into the block rear part friction material and perforated tin press-fitted into the block rear part composite friction material. Inner parts of the said frames are partially interoverlapped and bent outwards from the block rear part to form an ear designed to pass the cotter. Rear nonoperating part of every cotter has consoles arranged on each side of the aforesaid inserts all along their length. One of the said consoles is bent towards the block rear surface and arranged in the central boss, the other one being located between the central and auxiliary bosses. Each of the inserts is fitted into one of the wire carcass frames and jammed therein. The inserts, along with the carcass, are pressed in the composite friction material so that the insert console rear surfaces are located in one plate with the perforated tin of the block rear side.

EFFECT: higher durability and safety, longer service life, sable braking capacity and wheel surface recovery in braking.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport, particularly to railway vehicle block brakes. Block brake comprises at least one-layer composite friction element, wire carcass and two solid inserts. Aforesaid wire carcass is pressed in the composite friction material on the block brake rear side. Solid inserts are jointed with the wire carcass. Each of two solid inserts has at least one ledge on the brake rear part, on every side along the insert length. One of the said ledges is arranged in central boss, on both sides from the block center.

EFFECT: higher-efficiency braking, increased durability and longer life.

4 cl, 4 dwg

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