Method and device to lay railroad ballast

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to systems intended for distributing ballast along railway in railroad maintenance. Proposed method comprises moving railway carriage with ballast that is furnished with ballast hatch cover that opens to let ballast out onto track bed and closes to prevent discharge of ballast. Proposed device can exploit multiple processes designed to determine train location and speed to distribute said ballast, including non-automated and automated visual processes and thermal vision.

EFFECT: higher accuracy and efficiency of laying ballast on railroads.

7 cl, 27 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates generally to logistics and, more specifically, to a system for distributing ballast along the railway tracks in the works on technical maintenance of railway tracks.

Background of the invention

Conventional Railways in the United States and in other countries, in the typical case, formed from compacted primary site of the railroad tracks, a layer of gravel ballast, wooden cross-ties located on the ballast and in him, and parallel steel rails attached to the sleepers. Design changes occur at intersections with roads and bridges and in other situations. The ballast under the sleepers and between stabilizes the position of the sleepers, stores the level of the rails and provides some attenuation of the composite structure under loads generated by movement along the rails. Vibration from the movement of railway vehicles on rails and destruction under the influence of weather (wind, rain, ice and frost and thaw cycles can contribute over time to offset part of the ballast. Thus, in addition to other maintenance actions necessary to periodically replace the ballast to maintain zelot the security and safety of Railways.

In the past, the ballast is distributed using a special ballast wagons, including bunker design, containing a certain amount of ballast, the ballast chute which is connected with the hopper, and a cover of the hatch of the ballast with a mechanical drive in the gutter. Manhole covers may operate to selectively open or close to control the discharge of ballast. In some designs manhole covers reset can operate for opening overboard in the direction of the surface outside of the rails, to close or to open the inner side in the direction of the surface between the rails. Typical ballast cars have front bunker and back of the bin, and each bin has two spaced apart in the transverse direction of the hatch covers: one left and one right. Thus, each hatch cover hopper may operate to release ballast outward from the rails to the left or right, or between the rails. A typical configuration of ballast wagon is described in more detail in U.S. patent No. 5657700 included here as reference material.

Distribution of the ballast is most often managed manually in cooperation with observers, which go hand in hand with moving ballast wagons to control the opening or closing of the covers ballast hatches as n is necessary. Later the technology distribution of the ballast provides the controller with RRC worn by the operator, which comes along with moving ballast wagons. Both the conventional control method is slow and, thus, jeopardize the normal movement served on the railroad, causing delivery delays and loss of revenue.

U.S. patent No. 6526339 generally describes how the distribution of track ballast control location-based data received from the global positioning system EGR. EGR is a "constellation" of satellites moving in orbits, which distribute them around the globe, and transmitting the signals of location and time. Specially designed receiver EGR, receiving signals from at least four satellites, was able to process the signals and to triangulate the location coordinates with an accuracy of about ten to twenty meters. The modern generation available in the market receivers EGR, made using different technologies EGR able to achieve accuracies in the range from one to five meters. This accuracy is adequate for laying ballast, where necessary, and prevent the laying of ballast where it is not required. Additional information related to the development of technologies EGR, which may be obtained from U.S. patent No. 4445118 and U.S. patent No. 5323322. The development given here SGP was sponsored by the U.S. government. However, it is also known satellite positioning system developed and operated by other countries.

Because railway companies typically serve hundreds and thousands of miles of track with periodic schedule, one component replacement ballast in the technical maintenance of railway tracks may be the main contractor in respect of equipment, materials, traffic control, labor, and control. System implementation based on CST of the type described in U.S. patent No. 6526339, may improve the accuracy and efficiency of laying ballast on the Railways, but the use of other technologies to control the laying of ballast can be as effective as using EGR technology, and in some embodiments, the application even better in some respects.

The invention

According to the invention created a method of laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations containing the following stages: the movement by rail of a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of BA is Lasta; providing a controller for opening and closing the cover of the ballast hatch; installation of multiple control characters along the railway at fixed locations; visual determination of the achievement of the railway car of each of the control symbols; manual feed signal to the controller whenever the visual detection of achieving railway carriage control character for supply controller new current data location; actuation controller to open the cover of the ballast current upon reaching the railway carriage plot distribution and closing of the cover ballast hatch when reaching the railway car end section of the distribution, thus putting the ballast in each segment of the distribution.

In another embodiment, a method of placing ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations, contains the following stages: the movement by rail of a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast;

preservation of visual images of famous locations along the railway; providing at which trojstva to create a visual image for the current visual images when moving railway carriage by rail; a comparison of the current visual image with the stored visual images to determine the current location of the train carriage each time the current visual image stored visual image; using the current location of a railroad car for opening and closing the cover of the ballast hatch for laying ballast from a railroad car in each segment of the distribution of the ballast when it passes a railway carriage.

In yet another embodiment, a method of placing ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations, contains the following stages: moving along the blade of a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast; reading well-known thermal characteristics along the railroad to determine the current location of a railroad car on railroad tracks; use the current location of the train carriage to effect the opening and closing cover ballast hatch for laying ballast from a railroad car for each segment distribution the ballast as it passes railway carriage.

According to the invention a device for laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations using a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, and the device comprises means for obtaining visual images on a railroad car designed to produce visual images along the railroad when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, means for comparing the visual images obtained by the means for obtaining visual images, with the control visual images representing a selected location along the railroad, and means for opening the cover of the ballast hatch when the achievement of one of the known locations based on a comparison of visual images with the control of visual images and, otherwise, to close the cover of the ballast hatch.

According to another variant of execution of a device for laying ballast on the railway, with stations distribution the ballast to the lack of ballast at known locations, using a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, and said device includes a thermal sensor located on a railroad car to read the known thermal characteristics of the fabric to determine the current location of the train carriage on the rail, and means for opening the cover of the ballast hatch when the current location of a railroad car to one of the known locations and, otherwise, to close the cover of the ballast hatch.

According to another variant of execution of a device for laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations using a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, and said device includes encoder means wheel, gyro, located on the railway VA is Ohe, interacting with coded vehicle wheel to determine the current location of the train carriage on the rail, and means for opening the cover of the ballast hatch when the current location of a railroad car to one of the known locations and, otherwise, to close the cover of the ballast hatch.

According to another variant of execution of a device for laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations using a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, and said device comprises a receiver for global positioning system, located on the railway carriage and determining the location of a railroad car in the global positioning system, inertial system that includes a gyroscope located on a railroad car, and acting as a backup system for the receiver of the global positioning system to determine the current location of a railroad car glands on the th road at the inability of the receiver of the global positioning system to determine the location of a railroad car in the global positioning system, and means for opening the cover of the ballast hatch when the current location of a railroad car to one of the known locations and, otherwise, to close the cover of the ballast hatch.

The present invention provides a receiving means and devices for the controlled distribution of ballast on the railway in large scale using a variety of ballast hopper cars simultaneously and periodically. In the system corresponding to the present invention, various techniques are used to determine where to put the ballast, and to control covers hatches for ballast distribution of controlled quantities of ballast in areas where the necessary ballast, and to prevent the distribution of ballast, where it is unwanted or not needed. The system allows the ballast train to distribute the ballast for the most part with a sufficiently high speed for normal movement by rail, on which he works, has been minimal influence from his presence.

When carrying out the present invention the ballast train may include one or more locomotives, carriage control (not required) and one or more ballast hopper cars, for example fifty hopper cars. Each hopper cars can and the et two bunkers, left and right ballast troughs for each bin, the lid ballast hatch for each chute, and a hydraulic actuator for each cover. The actuator can be managed to open the associated cover inward, between the rails, or outwards, outside of rails. Each bin may contain a known weight of ballast of a particular type, and the average consumption of the ballast of this type through ballast hatch also known. Each hopper car has the logical schema of the car, called the control unit of the car CCU, and microprocessor control system, which controls the operation of hydraulic actuators and which performs current control certain functions in the car.

The control units of cars associated with the device management network or the controller of the head of the train by using the network, including bus, referred to here as places of "wire communication". The bus runs from the controller to the head of the train through the control unit of the car each car. The controller of the head of the train can be a computer of a common type, such as a portable computer, and he may have a differential receiver EGR associated with it to obtain geographic coordinates. The relative location of each cover ballast hatch on each hopper train car will opredeletes is relative to a known reference location. Usually in the ballast train will be used many almost identical hopper cars with known distances between the covers ballast covers on this car and between the ballast cover of the hatch of a car and the next adjacent car.

To control the distribution of ballast along the length of the path is needed to determine the geographic location of the path. It is most often carried out using exploratory mileage by rail with the use of a road vehicle equipped with wheels with wheels for movement along the rails, such as vehicle Hy-Rail (trademark of Harsco Technologies Corporation). The vehicle for the exploration of the railway track can be equipped with a suitable tool to determine the location and the computer, which can be a controller of the head of the train with software intelligence railroad tracks. When exploration vehicle moves along the rail track, the exploration team, which may be present or which may enter the "road master", said parts of the distribution, which should be distributed ballast, and areas where it should not be distributed, such as bridges, road crossings, etc. where the ballast should not be distributed. The location distribution the population and neraspredeleniya written instrument, that can take many different forms.

Alternatively, you can anticipate other procedures for determining the coordinates distribution and neraspredeleniya. For example, if the available data file previously obtained coordinates of the railway track, it is assumed that they can be processed to indicate areas of distribution and neraspredeleniya. In addition, in some circumstances, the exploration of the railway track can be conducted even on a ballast train in front of simultaneous distribution of ballast. In normal circumstances, intelligence before distributing the data file is created intelligence railroad tracks, which is transmitted to the controller of the head of the train for processing during a run with the distribution of ballast.

In addition to the exploration of train paths relative to its coordinates to determine, therefore, areas requiring ballast, and areas where the ballast is not required, it is necessary to examine the ballast train on the subject of identity cars, the order of cars and orientation cars. Each control unit of the car includes appointed front relay discrete autodeclaration and assigned to the rear relay discrete autodeclaration, which in the normal inactive state. These discrete lines are independent control lines on odashimae in the cable wire line, which connects each car with the network. Hopper cars can be concatenated in the ballast train in any random order and orientation of some of the cars front side back, while the other is oriented rear edge first. Would be too costly to make a ballast train in any particular order or to change the orientation of any particular car. However, the controller of the head of the train must determine the order and orientation of the cars to be able to send commands to cover ballast hatch appropriate car during distribution of ballast.

In the review process control blocks hopper cars, the controller of the head of the train to request a report control units of cars about their identity or neural identification numbers. Then, through an iterative procedure wagons and teams to open their front and then the rear relay discrete self-declared assessment and report about their identity, the controller of the head of the train to determine the order of the cars and their orientation. In particular, after determining the identity of the controller, the head of the train may pass the command to the chosen car for the activation of its front relay discrete self-declared assessment. The controller then head of the train may cause any cars, the discrete line is modelarzy are activated, for identification. The same car then the command to the activation of its rear relay discrete self-declared assessment, and the survey is repeated. This process is repeated using cars that responded to the previous survey, while all the cars will not be related to each other. The data file is identified with a specific order and orientation hopper cars is saved as a data file Declaration.

The distribution of the ballast can be controlled in terms of number or weight of ballast, distributed per unit length of railway track. Based on historical experience and to reflect the required amount of ballast can be determined in tons per mile. Although this scale is more convenient to determine the cost of the operation, it is too rough for the dynamic regulation of the distribution of ballast at a relatively high speed. The length of the railway track can be divided into "buckets", which are "filled" to achieve the required total number of tons of ballast per mile. The length of the buckets may be any convenient length and may be defined as stretches of railway track length, for example, in one foot. Each cover ballast hatch can distribute or on the inner side or the outer side, and both distributions can be simultaneously the time. Each bucket has indicated coordinates, which may include the coordinates of the EGR system of the set of buckets along with consistent element of this set. Coordinates bucket display by processing a previously created file exploration of the railway track.

The distribution process monitors the current location of the control point of the ballast train with regard to the location of his "bucket", the current load of ballast in each wagon, percentage fill each bucket, closed or open state of the cover and in what direction and speed of the train. Due to the delay of response of the actuator covers ballast hatches and movement of the ballast due to the movement of the train, the distribution process can work with "ahead" for the effective correlation condition of the cover and the bucket. The allocation process can be triggered by a timer and begins to execute a series of actions through each interval timer or "pulse time signal". The interval timer may be about 100 milliseconds, or one tenth of a second. The actions of distribution affect the speed and location of the train and, therefore, all calculations are performed taking into account the factor of speed and position. In contrast, the consumption of ballast ballast hatch can in General be regarded as constant. P is edocfile, cover ballast covers work so that they can be considered as completely closed or completely open, however, the present invention provides the ability to work with a partially open lids ballast hatches and the use of flow sensors.

At each timer tick can also check the status of each ballast cover hatches along with the "planned ahead" set of buckets and, if the cover is currently open, the percentage content of the current bucket or set of buckets that will take the ballast out of the hatch for the current time interval. When the cover is closed, check the status of scheduled ahead of the set of buckets to determine whether exceeded the target fill these buckets with the opening of the current cover. If not, the current lid is opened. If the current cover is already open, the percentage fill of the current set of buckets is updated, and checked scheduled ahead of the set of buckets to determine whether current population target population. If not, the lid remains open.

In General, the threshold value for maintaining the open state of the cover is not as strict as the threshold for opening the closed cover. In areas where you want the distribution, it is preferable to distribute several large is the target population, than less. Subsequent maintenance shall include action teams, which will correctly position the ballast and tamp it in place. Thus, the presence of a small excess ballast is preferable insufficient. However, in the case of section neraspredeleniya, any laid ballast can be dangerous, for example, at road crossing, and may require cleaning. For the purpose of processing the buckets in the areas neraspredeleniya are initialized as empty, resulting in a program of pre-emption, which collide with them, always require closing the current cap, if it is open, or save a closed state.

The allocation process can continue until all the buckets when you run the distribution will not be filled until the entire ballast hopper wagons will not be spent until the process will not be interrupted due to a detected failure in the system or until the operator stops the process for any reason. The ballast may be supplied first from the front hopper cars with advancing feed back as expenditure of ballast in the front cars. If the hopper car is not running, the car just bypassed during processing, although it may be necessary to close the computer network through the "inactive" car. In whom it is possible some buckets, especially near the end of the girder distribution will not be completely filled. Thus, it is desirable to store data representing the final state of any empty buckets for the future run distribution. Can also be desirable to store the data of the final status of all buckets and hopper cars for accounting and reporting.

The present invention involves many methods and apparatus for determining the location where you want to distribute the ballast along the railroad, and for laying ballast, where necessary. For example, can be used internal measuring system using a gyroscope to stabilize and one or more accelerometers to determine the direct and angular momenta. The inertial system can be complemented by the use of various positioning technologies to improve the overall accuracy and reliability.

Due to the positioning error must from time to time to recover. You can use different methods and technologies.

One embodiment of involves the use of fixed track marks the distance in miles that are typically installed along the railway at intervals of one mile or less. One way to use the limit of characters is clicking on what oratorum or check other ways of achieving each limit sign. In this case, the controller may recalibrate distance and to calculate the speed of the railway vehicle. The controller can open the cover of the ballast hoppers, achieved when the location of the site allocation, and leave them open long enough to cover the entire length of each section of the distribution before the cover will be closed. Alternatively, you can use visual recognition, such as a camera, storing images Railways, to determine the achievement of the known locations by comparing the current image with stored images of known locations.

Can also be used in laser technology. The laser beams reflected from the known limit of control points, can be taken and used to calculate the distances to the reference points and, thus, the current location of the train. Speed can be calculated based on the delay of the reflected signal and the frequency shift. These data can be used by the controller for opening and closing lids ballast hatches properly for laying ballast on parts of the distribution.

Can be used by police radar equipment, and it can give an advantage in many variants of PR is changing. Radar signal directed to the directional control point may be taken after discovery and used to determine the distance to the checkpoint and speed of trains using known techniques, which are widely used in police application forms.

Another possible option is to use radio frequency technology using active or passive devices. The radio train can transmit RF signals travel devices that send a response signal back to an onboard transmitter. Thus, the controller receives the location data and speed and uses for laying ballast on parts of the distribution. The active device in paragraphs easements require external or battery power, enabling them to function effectively at ranges up to one mile or more. Passive line devices can use the energy from the signals that they receive, and inexpensive, but the range was much more limited.

The magnetic sensor unit on Board the train can detect the presence of magnets placed along the railroad in known locations, or natural changes in the earth's magnetic field at known locations. In both cases, through the I magnetic detection time when the train reaches a known location can be determined the location of the train relative to the plots of the distribution. By measuring the time between successive locations that are detected by a magnetic method, known current speed trains, which can control manhole cover ballast hoppers.

The present invention also provides a heat detection to detect your current location and speed of trains. Thermal sensor on Board of the train to determine the current thermal characteristics of the land along the railroad tracks and compare them with known thermal profile to determine the current location of the train. Can also be used objects along the railroad in known locations, which can be detected by thermal method. Stationary objects, such as motors, lights, signals crossing and other road structures can be detected, when the train passes them by.

The condition of the ballast along the railway track can be defined when defining a profile using laser, radar or other tool to create contour plots when the exploration vehicle moves along the rail track. The current profile can in order to compare with the nominal profile to determine when the plot has a lack of ballast, and the locations and quantities of the missing ballast. The controller can use this information to control the ballast covers hatches so to correct this deficiency.

The present invention also provides for the combining operations gain exploration results and then laying ballast, where necessary, in a separate operation. In this regard, the operator ballast trains can record the time of the meeting of land distribution and to signal its location, as well as the need for ballast on this site. In this case, the controller dynamically adjusts quickly work cover ballast hatch for laying the proper amount of ballast at each site, where lack of ballast.

According to the invention, it is also possible to use techniques of aerophotogrammetry using images from artificial satellites, or photogrammetry with manned or unmanned aircraft.

Other objectives and advantages of the present invention will be understood when reading the following description in conjunction with the attached drawings on which is shown to illustrate some embodiments of the present invention.

The drawings constitute part of this about is isane, include typical embodiments of the present invention and illustrate various objects and features.

A brief description of several views of drawings

The present invention is described below in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, which depict the following:

figure 1 depicts a schematic view of the railway system of the distribution of ballast, representing a variant of implementation of the present invention, shown in an embodiment in the railway carriage;

figure 2 - schematic view of a subsystem of a hydraulic actuator for actuating caps ballast hatches distribution system ballast;

figure 3 is a perspective view of the ballast hopper wagon adapted for use according to the present invention;

figure 4 is an enlarged partial perspective view of the control mechanism of the release of ballast, including the cover of the ballast hatch and hydraulic drive for her;

5 is a partial schematic view showing principal components of an alternative position control subsystem for use according to the present invention;

6 is a block diagram showing principal components of the logical control unit of the car, installed in each hopper wagon corresponding to the right is briteney;

7, 8 and 9 are interconnected block flow diagrams showing relevant parts of the basic control functions of the control unit of the car, installed in each hopper wagon corresponding to the present invention;

figure 10 is a block diagram of the sequence of operations showing the principal functions of the exploration program railroad tracks corresponding to the present invention;

11 is a block diagram of the sequence of operations showing the principal functions of the program Declaration of the ballast train corresponding to the present invention;

Fig is a block diagram of the sequence of operations showing the principal features of the method of controlling the distribution of the ballast corresponding to the present invention;

Fig is a block diagram of the sequence of operations, showing more detail than Fig tracked principal functions and actions taken according to the method of controlling the distribution of the ballast corresponding to the present invention;

Fig diagram of a ballast train for use in the practical use of the distribution system ballast corresponding to the present invention;

Fig diagram of the railroad tracks and plots a distribution intended for the reception of ballast according to the present invention, and areas neraspredeleniya who do not take such a ballast;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention with the use of track marks and detect them manually to obtain data about the location and speed;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of this

the invention with the use of stored visual images and visual recognition device for receiving location data and speed;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention using travel control points and laser technology to obtain data on the location and speed;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention using radar technology to obtain data on the location and speed;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention with the use of on-Board and track radio-frequency transmitters to obtain data about the location and speed;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention using magnetic technology comparison with benchmark data for location and speed;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention using heat detection technologies to obtain data about the location and the IC is to grow;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention, which uses the device profile definition to get the current profile of the ballast along the railroad for comparison with the control profile of the ballast to detect areas with a lack of ballast;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention using data aerophotogrammetry using images obtained by artificial Earth satellites for intelligence state railway;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention using manned aircraft to obtain data aerophotogrammetry;

Fig diagram of a variant of implementation of the present invention with the use of unmanned aircraft to obtain data aerophotogrammetry; and

Fig diagram of the inertial system and its components, which can be used in accordance with the present invention.

Detailed description of the invention

The following describes the detailed embodiments of the present invention, however, it should be understood that the described embodiments of the present invention show only an example of implementation of the invention, which may be embodied in various forms. Thus, described here is specific structural and functional details should not be interpreted as limiting, but only as a basis for the claims and as a representative basis for the specialist in the art for various use cases of the present invention in virtually any appropriately detailed structure.

As shown in more detail in the drawings, reference character 2 is indicated as a whole railway system of laying ballast, which is the embodiment of the present invention. System 2 is also called here the distribution system ballast. Not stopping on the generalized applicability of useful applications of the system 2, it is shown installed on the ballast train 3 (Fig, including many ballast hopper cars 4 to perform operations distribution of ballast.

The system 2 can typically include on-Board subsystem 8 positioning subsystem 10 hydraulic drive mechanism 12 of the release of the ballast (figure 4), the inertial system 14, a receiver 16 global positioning system and the system 18 of the transmitter/sensor.

On-Board subsystem 8 positioning (figure 2) mounted on a railroad car and works with 18 of the transmitter/sensor that receives location data and speed. The system 18 may include multiple types of devices, which will be described in more detail.

The system 18 is connected with rawsumer computer 20, which receives the data signals to the positioning system 18, processes them, and mates with the subsystem 10 of the drive. The control computer 20, also referred to here as the controller of the head of the train, can represent, for example, just an ordinary desktop personal computer or a portable personal computer, preferably with typical capabilities of currently available computers of this type.

The controller 20 includes a circuit 21 decoder, which receives the control signals directed to certain hydraulic actuators or nodes 32 of the piston and cylinder in the subsystem 10 of the drive. The output signals from the decoder 21 are received in the relay block 26 with multiple relays corresponding to the respective components of the subsystem 10 of the hydraulic actuator and United with them. Subsystem 8 positioning connected with suitable on-Board power source 22, which may be used solar panel of photovoltaic cells for recharging or as an additional source. Alternatively, the power source 22 may be a conventional charging the DC bus used in conventional trains to supply the electrical subsystems of the railway wagons.

Subsystem 10 of the hydraulic actuator (2) includes many solenoid is 28, each of which is connected with the corresponding relay relay block 26 and provides them in action. Each solenoid 28 actuates the corresponding hydraulic valve 30. The valves 30 are moved between extended and retracted by the provisions of the solenoids 28, causing the working fluid under pressure is directed to the nodes 32 of the piston and cylinder appropriate for their extension and retraction. Nodes 32 of the piston and cylinder can contain double-track hydraulic units, pneumatic units or any other suitable actuator. With the valve 30 through a suitable pump 36 with the driving motor and the tool 38 control pressure is connected to the reservoir 34 to the working fluid.

The release mechanism 12 of the ballast (figure 4) includes four nodes 40 covers unloading hatches bins (can be used up to eight)that are installed on the lower side of the hopper car 4 and located on two (or four) on each side. Ballast hopper car 4 includes front and rear hoppers 41 (3), each with left and right discharge chute 42 with the inner and outer covers. Node 40 covers unloading hatches hopper is installed on each unloading chute 42 and adjusts the flow rate of the ballast 44 (Fig). Nodes 40 covers unloading hatches bins release ballast 44 in the lateral direction and adapted to sent what I release inside (towards the middle of the railway track between the rails 5) or outward (toward the outer edges of the rail track 5). A more detailed description of the construction and operation of nodes 40 covers unloading hatches bins are shown in U.S. patent No. 5657700, which is included here by reference. As shown in figure 4, each node 40 covers the discharge hatch hopper is driven by a respective hydraulic actuator 32 for selective direction of flow of the ballast 44.

As will be described in more detail below, the engine 8 pre-programmed positioning of the various data corresponding to the system 2 of logistics. For example, the operation of the release mechanism 12 release of ballast can be programmed to run at specific locations. Thus, the ballast 44 can be laid on a certain section of railway track 5 by entering the respective coordinates of the railroad tracks and programming subsystem 8 positioning for opening nodes 40 covers unloading hatches bins in the desired direction and with the desired duration. Data received by the system 18 and used the onboard subsystem 8 positioning can provide relatively accurate information regarding the location of the hopper car 4.

Figure 5 shows a system 102 for managing the distribution of the ballast using the adsystem 104 positioning. Subsystem 104 positioning can include any suitable means for measuring the path of a vehicle such as a railway carriage 4, and/or determine its location on the railway 5 or some other path.

Subsystem 104 includes positioning the computer 106, which can be connected with a transmitter or sensor 108 for detecting marks 110 location. For example, the marks 110 location can be a fixed travel of the control points located along the railroad tracks 5, resulting in the device 108 outputs a signal to the computer 106, when a railway carriage 4 is located near the corresponding token 110 location. Subsystem 104 positioning in an alternative embodiment may include an image sensor such as a camera 116, which is optically or visually detects image 112 in the right-of-way. The computer 106 may be associated with the subsystem 10, a hydraulic actuator, as described above, to control the release of ballast 44 relative to the detected location.

System material or the distribution of ballast described above, principally aimed at the management actions on the distribution of material of the same railway carriage in the control computer of the coordinate position is available. The distribution of ballast in one car or several cars may find some application in the course of relatively small operations, such as maintenance of small scale. However, the technical maintenance of railway tracks is often a company on a very large scale, with hundreds and thousands of miles of railway tracks on a periodic basis. The present invention can be adapted to such large-scale operations, technical maintenance of railway tracks.

Figure 6-15 shows a variant of execution system 201 distribution of the ballast corresponding to the present invention. As shown in Fig and 15, the system 201 includes a ballast train 3, including the locomotive 203, the carriage 204 control (if necessary) and lots of ballast hopper cars 4 described above, located on the railway 5. Typical ballast train 3 can include up to 100 hopper cars. The system 201 includes a main computer or controller 205 of the head of the train, many blocks 207 control of the car, the detector 209 location and network 211 connecting the controller 205 with blocks 207 control of the car. The detector 209 is connected to the controller 205, and provides the spatial reference ballast train 3. As shown in Fig, the system 201 is adapted to have the monitor and co-ordinate the distribution of ballast 44 (shown by hatching on Fig) on the sections 217 distribution and prevent the distribution of ballast 44 on sites 219 neraspredeleniya in accordance with the locations, detected by the detector 209.

The detector 209 generates positioning data, such as coordinates in latitude and longitude format, which can then be processed by the controller 205.

The controller 205 may be a personal computer desktop or portable type. For use as a controller 205 adequate currently available personal computers based on processors Pentium III (Intel) or AMD (American Micro Devices) or better, although they are not specifically required.

The network 211 may be a computer network of any suitable type, which provides communication between the controller blocks 205 and 207 control of the car and possibly the receiver of the global positioning system. In system 201 network 211, preferably, component-based Lontalk, and Neuron and protocols Echelon Corporation of Palo Alto, Calif. The network 211 may be a network of relatively low performance, because it requires the transmission of only control commands with a small density data, reports, etc. In the alternative, for use in the system 201 may be suitable network and communication protocols other types.

Figure 6 shows additional details of block 207 control of the car. Unit 207 includes a controller 222, which may include a microprocessor or microcontroller in addition to the other logical the civil components and circuits. The controller 222 is connected to the parallel interface bus 211 network. The controller 222 is connected through relay Tx discrete self-declared assessment, which activates the input sensor signals to neighboring cars. The controller 222 is also connected through an input/output relay contact logic 228 hydraulic valves 230, which control the operation of the sets of front and rear left and right hydraulic actuators 32, which actuate the cover 40 covers the ballast hoppers. Input/output relay contact logic 228 may also receive input signals from sensors 232 on the carriage 4, such as input signals from the relay discrete self-declared assessment, switches the state of the caps, switches hydraulic pressure and the like (not shown). As shown, the controller 222 of the control unit of the car connected through input/output relay contact logic 228 relays 224 and 226 of the car, also called relay discrete self-declared assessment, and may be selectively shorted relays 224 and 226 for a purpose which will be further detailed below.

The controller 222 of the control unit of the car is programmed to perform some automatic functions, such as security, when the controller 222 causes the closing of the respective lid 40 covers the ballast hoppers after the expiration of BP is like waiting, during which does not accept the data controller 222 from the controller 205 of the head of the train. This is a safety feature that causes the interruption of the distribution of ballast or prevent initiation of the distribution of ballast in the event of loss of communication control.

7, 8 and 9 shows the principal functions 233 software controller 222 of the control unit of the car. 7 shows a circuit 234 "security" hopper wagon, when the block 222 control of the car waiting for any command from the controller 205 at step 236, within two seconds before timeout connection at step 238. If the command is not accepted, all of the cover 40 covers the ballast hoppers are closed at step 240, at step 242 can be controlled by caps 40 manually, and the process control returns to the standby function on the stage 236 through the point X of the input. If they are taken before the 5 seconds timeout at step 238, the controller 222 of the control unit of the car can handle the command to cover the step 244, the command relay is deactivated discrete self-declared assessment or relay carriage on stage 245, the command circuit relay discrete self-declared assessment at step 246, the command identifying a given car on the step 247, the index command specified carriage on stage 249, given the response command neural identification at step 250, the command lighthouse con the roller head of the train at step 251, command query neural identification at step 252, the command status requested carriage on stage 253 or command data requested carriage on stage 254. Although the team 244-254 shown sequentially, the controller 222 of the control unit of the car just waiting for one of the commands and processes it. In addition, for convenience of graphical image are given points X, Y and Z join or log in.

As shown in Fig.7, each time the relay 224 or 226 discrete self-declared assessment closed, activates the sensor input signals discrete self-declared assessment of the neighboring cars. Command 249 index of the carriage is used to set the serial position of the carriage 4 in the ballast train 3. Command 251 beacon controller head of the train in the normal state is sent periodically to all blocks 207 control of the car with an interval of less than two-second interval time-out for security to maintain the existing conditions of all functions. Thus, if the block 207 control of the car does not accept other commands, he will periodically receive commands 251 beacon controller head of the train. The other function unit 233 control of the car or are self-explanatory or will be indicated in more detail below.

Figure 10 shows the method 260 intelligence railroad tracks to obtain the coordinate position of sections 217 which is hraneniya and sections 219 non-proliferation in the exploration of the railway track 5. The method 260 may be, for example, using small vehicles, such as Well-Rail that moves by rail 5 by means of the location sensor and the computer, such as on-Board sensor 209 and the controller 205 of the head of the train. The method 260 receives location data at step 262 from the sensor 209 and updates the location data at step 264 at intervals of 100 milliseconds, defined round timer at step 266. At any time limit the master or another operator, leading the exploration, can switch to indicate changes from the state allocation to the state of neraspredeleniya at step 268. The method 260 continues until a command is received to terminate the intelligence of the operator at step 270. At this point, the collected geographical coordinates are saved in the data file intelligence railroad tracks at step 272.

For the most part way 260 intelligence can gather all the location data to perform girder distribution of ballast. In some circumstances it may be necessary to carry out part of the exploration on foot to indicate the start and end locations of sites and distribution sites neraspredeleniya. In addition, it may be necessary to designate some areas that are unsuitable for distribution is allaste using system 201. For example, if you might need multiple transitions from a state allocation to the state of neraspredeleniya, may lack the time to implement the cycle of operation of hydraulic actuators 32 due to the delay of the working fluid. In such circumstances it may be necessary to distribute the ballast on this site using more conventional technologies.

To control a separate lid 40 covers the ballast hoppers cars 4 controller 205 of the head of the train must "know" the position of each of the cover 40 relative to a reference point 215 and to be able to have a dialogue or to communicate with each hydraulic actuator 32. The system 201 includes a method 280 (11) Declaration of trains to request blocks 207 control of the car to determine the order of coupling of the carriages 4 and their orientation in the directions of forward and backward. The method 280 first involves the collection of neural identification numbers on stage 282 by passing the query command neural identification at step 252 (Fig.9). The first block 207 control of the car, which should answer, is injected into the mode of receipt of data specified by the command 250 neural identification (Fig.9). The program 282 collection is repeated until no more will be accepted answers. Thanks to the program 282, the controller 205 of the head of the train is able to identify all the carriages 4 in which the work units 207 control of the car.

Then activated the circuit 284 sequence/orientation cars. In the circuit 284 sequentially open the front of the relay 224 discrete self-declared assessment and rear relay 226 discrete self-declared assessment, is carried out to check for any meeting of blocks 207 control of the car and install any corresponding control units of the car in the absence of reaction. At step 286 is passed to the command selected control units of the car to open their front relay 224 discrete self-declared assessment. At step 288 command all control units in the car on the answer. Any control unit of the car, which responds by closing its front relay 224 discrete self-declared assessment, is defined as deployed. At step 290, the carriage 4 with the corresponding unit 207 control of the car is assigned the starting point for the Declaration and as detailed on the orientation and installed in the absence of reaction. At step 294 is controlled meet all control units of the car. If he is responsible, the carriage 4 with a reactive unit 207 control of the car is determined at step 296, as oriented forward, his neural identification is stored as the designation oriented forward of the carriage 4, and meets the control unit of the car is set to be a lack of reaction. At step 298 check if all blocks 207 in the management of the car have not been identified and the orientation of their cars defined 4, circuit 284 returns the process control to step 286. The operation of the circuit 284 is repeated until all the blocks 207 control of the car that were identified at step 282, will not be treated in relation to their sequential order and orientation. When this occurs at step 298, the Declaration data is stored as a data file Declaration on the stage 302.

On Fig shows the principal functions of the control system 201 for managing the distribution of ballast 44 along the railway path 5. In system 201 scout the length of railway track divided into sections railway or "buckets". The size of the buckets arbitrary; however, in a typical embodiment, the system 201 buckets equal segments of length one foot of the railroad tracks. It should be noted that the cover 40 ballast manholes of the type used in accordance with the present invention, can be opened inwards or outwards, or in both directions simultaneously. Thus, if you want to distribute the ballast between the rails, and with the outer sides of the rails, it is necessary to monitor the activity in relation to two parallel sets of buckets, i.e. the inner bucket and external buckets. However, in some cases maintenance, especially when subsequent steps include the rise of rails and sleepers for laying of ballast required in order to distribute it only from outside of rails. To illustrate the system 201 will be described with regard to one set of buckets.

In method 310 control the distribution of the ballast shown in Fig, the device 315 training and initialization processing of the ladle takes the file 317 data exploration railway path and file 319 data Declaration ballast trains. File 319 data Declaration is initialized with the average consumption of the ballast through the open ballast hatches on the stage 321 and the initial cargo 323 ballast in bunkers. At step 315 the initialization processing of the bucket is also accepted from the user a member of the target value 325 bucket, which in fact can be deduced from the input number of tons per mile. Target value : 325 bucket represents the number of ballast at the foot of the railway track, which should be placed in areas 217 distribution. The buckets on the sections 219 neraspredeleniya initialization considered as complete, whereas the buckets on the sections 217 distribution during initialization are considered as empty or with other suitable value, if the data inherited from the previous run distribution of ballast. The process takes the current data 327 geographical coordinates from the sensor. The distance to each cover 40 ballast hatches is determined relative to a reference point of the train, coinciding with ananimation 209.

Shows how 310 control the distribution of ballast initiating circuit 330 controls the distribution of ballast at step 330 at intervals of 100 milliseconds or components of a tenth of a second, as shown in step 332 expectations. During each cycle 330, the controller 205 of the head of the train determines at step 334 control the location of the railroad tracks on the basis of the location data, checks the status of all caps 40 ballast hatches at step 336, checks the state of the buckets at step 338, which may influence verifiable currently cover 40, updates on stage 340 all state data caps or through the preservation of existing conditions or state changes as necessary in accordance with the detected or calculated conditions, updates on stage 342 all the data about the state of the buckets, which are passed when adding ballast 44. Circuit 330 management continues to work until the test at step 346 determines that the last bucket is passed ballast train 3, and in this paragraph on the stage 348 management process 310 control the distribution of ballast is terminated.

On Fig shows additional details of the circuit 330 controls the distribution of the ballast. As part of determining the current location on the railway track at step 322 timer at step 350 determines romantiqueo bucket, which corresponds to the reference point 215 of the train, and at step 352 determines the number of buckets, passed after the last cycle. Steps 350 and 352 allow us to determine the speed of the train and succession of sets of buckets associated with each inspection hatch (Fig). The method 310 is directed to the sets of buckets, the state of fullness which will be affected by the current status or potential status of the cover 40 ballast hatch, check at the moment.

Inspect the actual condition of the lid in step 354 determines is open at the moment, each cover 40 ballast hatch or closed. Depending on the particular state of the current cap 40 circuit 330 will be included in the circuit 356 closed cover or circuit 358 lid is open.

If the current cover is closed, the circuit 356 closed the lid on the stage 360 checks with the pre-emption of state set the following buckets. Following a group in front of the bucket is a bucket located at such a distance before the current cap, which is identified when the speed of the train and, if known to the response delay of the actuator 32 state change cover "in the moment" will apply to such located in front of the buckets. Circuit 356 can take into account the following front bucket, as this may require the processing interval and the velocity of the train. The group may also contain one bucket. Circuit 356 calculates at step 362, whether current or actual controlled filling of the bucket plus the predicted filling when opening the current cap is less than the target filling of the bucket. If so, the current cover 40 is opened at step 364, and if not, it remains closed at step 366. All buckets in the following ahead of the group are processed until the check at step 368 determines that the last bucket is processed. After this circuit 356 moves to the next cover on stage 370.

If the cover is determined at step 354 is open, the state of filling of a group of buckets that will be taking ballast from the currently open hatch in the current cycle timer is updated at step 372. After that, the circuit 358 open cover to some extent similar to the circuit 356 closed the lid and includes checking the fill on the stage 376, which determines less whether the actual filling ahead of buckets than the target population. If not, then there is a target value at this time is exceeded, the current cover 40 is closed at step 378. If the test filling phase 376 gives a positive result, the door remains open at step 380. The control circuit proactively shuts down at step 382, when the latter is located in front of the bucket for the current cover 40 on the run. Then the circuit 358 moves to the next cover on the step 384. After checking the last cap on the stage comes 386 step 388 of waiting for the next timer tick.

The circuit 358 open cover admits a overflow buckets. In practice, the technical maintenance of railway tracks, it is preferable to have insufficient ballast. However, very desirable to distribute the ballast in the zone 219 neraspredeleniya, which may be a railway crossing. Such a case may present a hazard to traffic. For this reason, the buckets in the areas neraspredeleniya always cause the closing of the current cap 40 at step 378.

Validation logic circuit 356 is closed cover is designed to call the opening of many covers 40 ballast covers how this is supposed to quickly complete the necessary buckets. It is advisable to maximize the number of filled buckets in the system 201, than to partially fill more buckets.

When the ballast hoppers 41 exhausted, the process of processing bypasses, and activated more posterior bins 41. Thus, the process of distributing the ballast goes from the front of the hoppers 41 to a more rear bunkers.

It should be understood that although shown here and described certain forms of implementation of the present invention, it is not limited to a particular the forms or device parts described and shown.

On Fig shows a variant that represents one technique for determining the current location and speed of trains. Along the railway track in a known points there are many fixed limit 400 characters. Travel marks 400 may be signs indicate the distance in miles, which are usually located along the Railways at intervals of one mile or less in some cases). Aboard the train is a button 402 input or the input device of another type, and it can be pressed or activated otherwise the operator in visually determining that the train reached one of 400 characters. Every time the train 402 reaches one of the signs of 400, the button 402 is clicked and it creates a signal for the controller 205 of the head of the train each time it is pressed. Because the location of the fixed signs are 400 known, the controller of the head of the train, thus, is supplied with information concerning the location of the train on the railway. In addition, the controller of the head of the train counts the time between successive clicks on the button 402 and uses this information to calculate the speed of the train. The controller then head of the train activates the system laying ballast for opening and closing of lids 40 ballast hatches so to release the ballast on the railway is oragne canvas where necessary, as described above.

Thus, the marks 40 distance in miles detect visually and manually give the signal using the button 402 to the controller 205 of the head of the train so that the controller of the head of the train actuates a control system for opening doors ballast hatches, occurs when land distribution, and closing covers the end section of the distribution.

According to the system shown in Fig, record and preserve some amount of stored visual images 404 known locations along the railway. Saved images are served in the camera 406 or other visual sensor on Board the train. When the train moves along the rail, the camera receives the current visual image and compares them with stored images 404. When there is a match between the current image and the stored image, as shown by blocks 406, 408 and 410, the controller 205 of the head of the train signal, and he thus begins to request the current location of the train. In addition, the controller 205 of the head of the train can calculate the speed of the train by counting the time between successive matches with the stored images. The controller then head of the train controls the laying of ballast by opening the Deposit covers ballast covers the areas of distribution and closing of lids ballast hatches after overcoming plots of the distribution.

On Fig shown a modified system in which used on-Board laser 412 for information about the distance and speed of the train. Along the railroad tracks in known locations distributed at a distance from each other series of reflectors 414. The laser generates laser beams 416. When these rays are caught by one of the reflectors 414 reflected return beam 418 back to the laser 412. Reverse signals 418 decoded suitable circuit 420 decoding using the time delay between the transmitted and return signals and frequency shift to determine the current distance to each reflector 414 and the speed of the train. This information about the location and speed of the train is given circuit 420 to the controller 205 of the head of the train. The controller 205 of the head of the train then moves the ballast cover hatches so to get the required amount of ballast in the areas of distribution of the ballast and interrupt distribution once they have reached the end of each section of the distribution.

On Fig schematically shows an alternative system in which used airborne radar device 422, which may be a device of a type commonly used on roads and other police organizations. Along the path in fixed and known locations of the base is t, the number of control points 424. The radar unit 422 transmits radar signals 426. These signals are recorded as the response signals 428 control points 424 and received radar device 422. For the controller 205 of the head of the train can be used suitable interface 430. Radar device 422 uses the reflected signal 428 to determine the current location and speed of trains, and this information is relayed to the controller 205 of the head of the train through the interface 430. The controller then head of the train controls the covers of hatches for ballast laying of ballast in the areas of distribution, as described above.

As shown in Fig, the train may be equipped with an airborne radio relay 432. Along the railroad tracks in known locations can be travel wireless repeaters 434. Side repeater 432 transmits RF signals 436 query. When one of the signals 436 adopted path relay 434, the relay sends a radio frequency response signal 438 onboard relay 432. The response signals 438 can be used by the relay 432 to determine the current location of the train and its speed. The on-Board radio transmitter transmits the location information and speed controller 205 of the head of the train so that the controller of the head of the train who can manage ballast covers hatches so, to put the ballast in a quantity sufficient to replenish the missing number in each segment of the distribution.

Travel repeaters 434 can be either active or passive devices. If the relays 434 are active devices, they require a battery or external power source for operation. Such devices can be effective at ranges in excess of one mile. Using passive repeaters 434 gives the advantage that they are inexpensive and do not require an external power source. To transmit response signals 438 passive repeaters can use the radiated power received by using signals 436 query. However, the range of such passive devices typically ranges from 15 to 50 feet for reliable operation.

On Fig shows a system in which use magnetic technique to determine the location and speed of trains. The train is the sensor 440, sensitive to changes in magnetic field environment. Along the railroad or the railroad tracks in known locations can be located magnets 442 so that the sensor gives a signal to the controller 205 of the head of the train every time the train meets one of the magnets 442. Thus, the controller of the head on the exhibition tracks the location of the train due to signals from the sensor 440 and can calculate the speed of the train with respect to time between successive signals. In this case, the controller of the head of the train controls the ballast covers hatches, as described above, for laying ballast on parts of the distribution in the proper amounts.

Instead, the sensor 440 can sense changes in the magnetic field of the Earth at known locations along the railroad. A sensor of this type requires a high sensitivity for interpreting changes in the Earth's magnetic field sufficient to obtain credible information about the location. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the influence of the rotation of the Earth caused by the Moon's gravitational perturbations along with other minor disturbances that may occur. However, this system has the advantage that there is no need for placing a magnetic media, or other travel means along the railroad.

You can also use the technology of thermal sensitivity. On Fig shows a system in which to train a heat sensor 444. The sensor 444 may be supplied with a control temperature profile along the railway. When the train moves by rail, the sensor 444 reads the current temperature profile along the railway, as shown by the reference position 446. By comparing the current temperature profile with the reference profile, Yes the chick 444 may identify the current location of the train and give information about the location of the controller 205 of the head of the train. The controller of the head of the train can calculate the speed of the train taking into account the time required to move between different known locations along the railway.

Alternatively, the sensor 444 may operate using artificial heat units located along the railway. For example, in a known location along the railroad can be located fuel engine 448. To determine the location of the train sensor 444 may also work using lanterns 450 street lighting, signals 452 crossings, road signs 454 and a variety of other equipment in the right-of-way, power plants or buildings in known locations. To determine the location of the train can also be detected particularly heat-absorbing surface 458 along the railroad.

Plots of the distribution of ballast indicated with an integrated global positioning system, as described, and the inertial system 14 serves as a backup system for global positioning system. As shown in Fig, inertial system 14 includes a fiber optic gyroscope 600 series accelerometers 602 of sensors 604 and Doppler sensors 606. Inertial system 14 serves as a backup system for a system of global positioning is the education and gives the latitude and longitude in situations when the signal of the global positioning system is not accepted, for example, when the train is in the tunnel.

Fiber-optic gyroscope 600 detects changes of course using the well-known gyroscopic technologies and devices. Accelerometers 602 operate to detect changes in acceleration and deceleration. The sensors 604 roll to detect changes in the vertical position relatively perpendicular to the rails on which the train travels. Doppler sensor 606 is a wireless means for determining the ground speed of the train.

These sensors and/or systems can be used together in various combinations or separately and independently for accurate and repetitive plots indicate the distribution along the railway and management of laying ballast on parts of the distribution.

The present invention also provides a unique method and apparatus for exploration of the railroad tracks. As shown in Fig, this technology intelligence involves the use of control terrain profile along the railroad. To get the control profile 460 location you can use the device for determining the profile, such as a laser or radar. Control profile 460 represents the ideal condition of the ballast. Exploration vehicles at the e tool moves along a railway track, contains the device 462 to determine the profile, which may represent a device such as a laser or radar. The device 462 to determine the profile defines a profile of the current state of 464 ballast and returns this information to the controller 205 of the head of the train. The current state of the ballast can match suitable software with a control profile to determine the location of each plot distribution in which not enough ballast, and the magnitude of the lack of ballast in each segment of the distribution. Thus, through intelligence can be defined the location of each plot distribution and stored in order to train for distributing ballast could then move on railroad tracks and put the ballast in the right quantities to replenish the lack of ballast in each segment of the distribution.

The present invention also provides for manual system laying ballast, in which exploration and stacking are performed "on the fly". In this type of system, a group of coupled railroad cars moving along the railroad tracks. A trained operator on Board the train visually defines an area with a lack of ballast, is approaching train, as well as site location and magnitude of the lack of ballast. Then operator sends a signal to the controller 205 of the head of the train on the approximation of the area of distribution and provides information about the location and the magnitude of the lack of ballast. The controller then operates in the manner described above for opening or partial opening, at least one of the caps ballast hatches when reaching the location of the site of neraspredeleniya to release ballast with a flow rate sufficient to replenish the shortage of ballast on the site distribution. When reaching the end of the segment allocation the cover is closed to interrupt the laying ballast on the pillow railroad tracks.

Since using this technology exploration and styling combined, can be significantly saved time and reduced costs. Typically, however, will require staff with a relatively high level of training to ensure the accuracy of the detection areas of distribution/neraspredeleniya and needs in the flow during installation. This system is used most widely in the areas of distribution with low risk, such as areas where there are no areas of neraspredeleniya.

On Fig-26 shown embodiments of the invention, in which use aerophotogrammetry. According to the variants of the invention, identifying the areas of railway, where there is a lack of ballast carried out by obtaining images of the railway track with the high resolution aircraft.

As shown in IG, the satellite 500 use high-tech means of photogrammetry, with sufficient resolution to ensure recognition of the characteristics of the railroad tracks. For example, the satellite 500 may be used a known technology for imaging to determine the location of the famous landmark 502. In a known location or at a certain distance from a ground reference point 502 may be gridded 504 differential global positioning system. Thus, it is possible to accurately identify the location of areas of distribution and neraspredeleniya, as well as other elements of the state Railways, such as the location of the equipment, bridges, crossings, etc. Updates images can be determined by the speed of an orbiting satellite or speed cameras for satellites in geostationary orbit. There can be limitations due to clouds or other atmospheric conditions, but even at that satellite images can be used as an effective backup tool, backup other means of exploration, including surface exploration.

Ballast train 506 that includes one or more rail cars, which are used for distribution of ballast, as described above, moves along the rail the canvas 508. Train 506 receives the information from the global positioning system from a group of satellites 510 global positioning system and correction information from a differential global positioning system as a possible Supplement.

Images taken from the top companion 500, with information indicating the location of the image may be directly transmitted ballast train 506, and the on-Board computer of the train 506 may automatically recognize railway track and needs for the railroad using image recognition.

In an alternative embodiment, video information can be transmitted to a base station (not shown), which may be more complete analysis of information. Then the base station can transmit the analyzed information to the train, which is used to distribute ballast.

Thus, the ballast train 506 is supplied accurate and reliable information on the locations of the plots of the distribution of ballast, on which there is a lack of ballast. Train 506 can then release the ballast in the areas neraspredeleniya when rail cars that carry ballast, moving sections of neraspredeleniya. Video information received by the satellite 500, can be used to determine the amount of ballast is, which must be laid to replenish the shortage at each site where there is a lack of ballast. Therefore, the required amount of ballast is available in appropriate locations to replenish any shortfall that exists along the railroad 508.

As shown in Fig, aerophotogrammetry can also be used with the use of manned aircraft, such as aircraft 520 rotor (or aircraft with a fixed wing, if necessary). Manned aircraft 520 receives data from the global positioning system and uses differential global positioning system grid 522, which may be on a fixed terrestrial reference 524 or at a certain distance from him. Aircraft 520 receives photogrammetric data in real time using photographic images grid 522 differential global positioning system. Image analysis and data location can be carried on Board an aircraft using image recognition along with the modifications made by the operator, or other technologies, if necessary. Thus, manned laitat the local unit 520 determines the location of the distribution of ballast, where there is a lack of ballast. This information can be transmitted, as shown by the reference position 526, train 528 for distributing ballast, moving on the rail track 530. Alternatively, information can be transmitted from the aircraft 520 to the ground station, which then transmits the information of the ballast train 528.

Using this technology ballast train 520 can lay the ballast of cars in each segment of the distribution, where there is a lack of ballast, and in each case can be determined the exact amount of ballast.

To collect data intelligence you can use other methods of photogrammetry, including by using the remote or unmanned aircraft, such as the device 540 shown in Fig. The use of unmanned aerial vehicle (or tools with remote control) provides a detailed observation of the state Railways without the need for aircraft with a large payload required for manned aircraft. Drone 540 (or tool with remote control) can take the information system global positioning or corrective information differential system CH the ball positioning. The use of technologies of sight and orientation allows unmanned aerial apparatus 540 to compare this information with graphic images obtained by cameras aboard apparatus 540. To establish reference points can be used previously collected data, and can also be used grid 542 differential global positioning system. On unmanned aircraft 540 use the means of accumulation of multicomponent data to achieve its goal of data collection for both Sunny and rainy weather. Among the technologies that can be used may be a laser, lidar, infrared, radar and photogrammetry. The use of these technologies allows operation at any time of the day and always in addition to extreme conditions.

Drone 540 (or tool with remote control) can be sent to the exploration of railway with the launcher, which can be platform truck 544 or a railroad car that is part of a ballast train 546. Flight apparatus 540 is controlled by the onboard computer, ballast trains, or other land vehicle such as a truck 540 or other ground base. The device 540 and eat stored on-Board geographic information and equipment automated flight control, which provides full autonomy of data collection. It can also track-ground system to change the course of a flight or control of crisis situations.

The device 540 receives the visible image, which give information concerning the locations of the plots of the distribution of ballast along the railway line 548, in such a way that the ballast train 546 can lay the necessary ballast on each plot the distribution of ballast, as described above. It is assumed that the information relating to the locations of the plots of the distribution of ballast, and the image obtained by the apparatus 540, will be transmitted directly to the train, as shown by the reference position 550. Information can be analysed and used to train 546 for accurate laying of ballast.

The drone 540 may be returned by sending it to landing using the specified sequence of landing. Can also be fit with a direct management with launch vehicle 544 or other launch platform.

From the above it will be clear that the present invention is well adapted to achieve the above mentioned results and goals along with other benefits that PTS is visible and which are inherent to the structure.

It will be understood that certain features and subcombinations useful and can be used regardless of other signs and subcombination. It is provided by the claims and includes within its scope.

As can be accomplished many ways of carrying out the invention without departing from its scope, it should be understood that all described here and shown in the accompanying drawings should be considered illustrative rather than restrictive sense.

1. Laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations containing the following stages: the movement by rail of a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast; providing a controller for opening and closing the cover of the ballast hatch; installation of multiple control characters along the railway at fixed locations; visual determination of the achievement of the railway car of each of the control symbols; manual feed signal to the controller whenever the visual detection of achieving railway carriage control character for supply controller new current data month is omolojeniya; actuation of the controller to open the cover of the ballast current upon reaching the railway carriage plot distribution and closing of the cover ballast hatch when reaching the railway car end section of the distribution, thus putting the ballast in each segment of the distribution.

2. Laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations containing the following stages: the movement by rail of a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast; the preservation of visual images of famous locations along the railway; providing a device for creating a visual image for the current visual images when moving railway carriage by rail; a comparison of the current visual image with the stored visual images to determine the current location of a railroad car whenever accordance current visual image stored visual image; using the current location of a railroad car for otkriven who I am and closing cover ballast hatch for laying ballast from a railroad car in each segment of the distribution of the ballast when it passes a railway carriage.

3. Laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations containing the following stages: moving along the blade of a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast; reading well-known thermal characteristics along the railroad to determine the current location of a railroad car on railroad tracks; use the current location of the train carriage to effect the opening and closing cover ballast hatch for laying ballast from a railroad car for each segment of the distribution of the ballast when it passes a railway carriage.

4. Device for laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations using a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, and the device comprises means for receiving the Oia visual images on a railroad car, designed to produce visual images along the railroad when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, means for comparing the visual images obtained by the means for obtaining visual images, with the control of visual images representing a selected location along the railroad, and means for opening the cover of the ballast hatch when the achievement of one of the known locations based on a comparison of visual images with the control of visual images and, otherwise, to close the cover of the ballast hatch.

5. Device for laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations using a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, and said device includes a thermal sensor located on a railroad car to read the known thermal characteristics of the fabric to determine the current location of the train carriage on the rail, and means for otkryvayuschij ballast hatch when the current location of a railroad car to one of the known locations and, otherwise, close the lid ballast hatch.

6. Device for laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations using a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the release of ballast when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, and said device includes encoder means wheel, gyro, located on a railroad car, interacting with coded vehicle wheel to determine the current location of the train carriage on the rail, and means for opening the cover of the ballast hatch when the current location of a railroad car to one of the known locations and, otherwise, to close the cover of the ballast hatch.

7. Device for laying ballast on the railroad, with plots of the distribution of the ballast with the lack of ballast at known locations using a railroad car containing the ballast and has a ballast cover hatch that can open to release the ballast onto the canvas and to close to prevent the issue is and ballast when the movement of a railroad car, by rail, moreover, the specified device contains a receiver of global positioning system located on the railway carriage and determining the location of a railroad car in the global positioning system, inertial system that includes a gyroscope located on a railroad car, and acting as a backup system for the receiver of the global positioning system to determine the current location of a railroad car on the railroad with the inability of the receiver of the global positioning system to determine the location of a railroad car in the global positioning system, and means for opening the cover of the ballast hatch when the current location of a railroad car to one of the known locations and, otherwise, to close the cover of the ballast hatch.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics, navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making and can be used in space navigation systems to determine aircraft position coordinates. To this end, artificial Earth satellites (AES) are used as celestial reference points. Note here that zenith angle of AES being fixed is measured to be referenced to central zenith angle, aircraft position coordinates are determined from measured and referenced angle and AES coordinates.

EFFECT: higher accuracy.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics, navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to celestial guidance systems designed to determine stabilised elevation angle and relative bearing to celestial reference point that allow define heading indication and position. Proposed system comprises triads of accelerometers, sighting device with non-stabilised elevation angle and relative bearing transducers, swinging angle primary definition unit, direct conversion unit with three inputs and two outputs and inversion unit with two inputs, as well as Fourier analyser with two inputs and adder. Aforesaid accelerometers are connected to the 1st input of Fourier analyser and swinging angle primary definition unit with its output connected with direct conversion unit. Angle transducers are connected to second inputs of 2nd inputs of conversion and inversion units. Appropriate inputs and outputs of conversion and inversion units are connected so that swinging angle refinement closed loop is formed. Inversion unit output is connected to the 2nd input of Fourier analyser and, via adder, with Fourier analyser output to make a correction generation loop. The 1st output of direct conversion unit makes the output of the entire system.

EFFECT: reduced amount of sensitive components maintaining preset error in defining heading indication and position correction.

1 dwg

FIELD: instrument making.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making and can be used aboard aircraft to add to flight safety via determination of wind shear, strength and time. To this end, proposed device comprises wind shear measurement unit 1 with its one of inputs-outputs 2 connected, via comparator 3, with input 4 of integrated panel 5 outputting recommendations on go-around. Second output 6 is connected with input 7 of integration unit 8. The latter is connected, via input 12 of unit 13, with aforesaid integrated panel 14 outputting data on change in decision-making altitude. Device comprises also acceleration transducers. Transducer 15 represents X-axis acceleration transducer and transducers 16 and 17 make Y-axis acceleration transducers with their outputs connected with the input of unit 1 designed to compute acceleration caused by wind shear.

EFFECT: expanded performances.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics; computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to traffic control and involves sending navigation instructions to a vehicle with a monitor which displays a map. According to the disclosed method, an electronic speed map of the road network of a residential area is made, where the said map, which is stored in a central station computer, shows the average traffic speed on each road. A road graph is made on the said map. Data of the road graph are corrected based on information on changes of road signs. Actual values of average speed on at least one segment of the road graph are sent from computers in the vehicles over a radio channel with given periodicity to the computer at the central station, and average traffic speed is determined from the said values. Further, deviation of actual values of average speed from model speed on the segment of the road graph are subtracted, and "jam" and "anti-jam" files are made from the said deviations. Taking into account these files and the weight of right and left turns, the model electronic speed map of the road network of the residential area is corrected. The recommended optimal route is determined taking into account specified parametres of the electronic speed map of the road network of the residential area, which is received by a subscriber from the central station with possibility of displaying the said routes on the said map on a monitor and displaying current position of the vehicle.

EFFECT: more accurate determination of a time-optimal route for a vehicle.

3 cl

FIELD: physics; navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making particularly to aircraft navigation devices. To achieve the given result, the device includes a unit of inertial initial information sensors, a three-component magnetometre, an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC), a computer, a reference voltage source, an analogue inverter, a signaling device, three control channels, a protection device and an analogue switch. The device also includes a test-control of the magnetometre by applying direct voltage across its input from the reference voltage source. The magnetometre changes its output signal, from the value of which working capacity of the device is determined.

EFFECT: increased reliability.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics; navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making and can be used in aircraft navigation systems. The technical outcome is widening of functional capabilities. To achieve this outcome, the device includes a unit of initial information sensors, an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC), a computer, an alternating voltage source, a decoder, conversion channels, a register, a digital-to-analogue converter (DAC) and a power amplifier.

EFFECT: device enables converting digital information on the current values of angles of position of the aircraft to analogue signals, proportional to their sine or cosine.

1 dwg

FIELD: aerospace engineering.

SUBSTANCE: astrohardware and Earth sounding hardware data is used to accurately determine spacecraft orbit and coordinates and orient it. Sounding data, apart from its designed purpose, is subjected to additional processing to be made in separate frames of the Earth image. This allows determining direction to the Earth center ("to plot local vertical"), correct current spacecraft coordinates and its orientation. Coordinates derived from combination of the Earth sounding area frames on one and several orbital passes are processed together to produce orbit parametres. Orbit parametre estimations are used for navigation-ballistic computations effected aboard the spacecraft till updating at another flight path. Note here that to do with aforesaid tasks, spacecraft needs no usual navigation data from ground appliances or satellite navigation systems, e.g. GLONASS. It does not required special means of orientation relative to the Earth centre (or horizon), say, infrared vertical. Model analyses have shown good chances of providing high accuracy in spacecraft current orientation and coordinate data on high-elliptical or geo-stationary orbit.

EFFECT: expanded operating performances in independent pilotless operation.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics; navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to navigation equipment of vehicles. The proposed navigation device can display directions on a display, receive a video signal from a camera and display a combination of the image from the camera and directions on the display. The device, which is a portable navigation device, includes a built-in camera. The device can provide an option from the menu which enables the user to regulate relative position of the displayed image from the camera with respect to the directions.

EFFECT: using the proposed device, instructions which can be quickly and easily interpreted are displayed for the user.

15 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: physics; navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to navigation instrument making. The set problem is solved by that, conditions are created in which substantial connection appears and is used on a section of a ballistic trajectory between error models of inertial measurement modules when solving the problem of orientation and navigation. This connection appears and can be used in providing the following conditions: presence of fast rotation around a longitudinal axis and coning motion of precession of the control object about the centre of mass or only rotation of the object around a longitudinal axis on a ballistic trajectory; placing a unit of accelerometres of inertial measurement modules and a reception antenna for the satellite navigation system at a certain distance (basically on a transverse axis) from the centre of mass of the control object; solving the problem of orientation and navigation in the inertial measurement modules at the point of placing the unit of accelerometres at high frequency - approximately an order higher than frequency of rotation of the control object (due to necessity of generation of dynamic components in navigation parametres without distortions); formation of measured values of primary navigation parametres in the reception apparatus of the satellite navigation system where the reception antenna is placed using tracking measuring devices with bandwidth greater than the frequency of rotation of the control object. Also values of primary navigation parametres are calculated in the computer of the inertial measurement modules and these values are also used in the feedback in the reception apparatus of the satellite navigation system for narrowing the frequency band in tracking systems of carrier frequency and code delay.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and noise immunity of integrated systems of orientation and navigation (ISON), which have inertial measurement modules (IMM) on "rough" micromechanical gyroscopes and a miniature reception apparatus of satellite navigation systems (RA SNS), in generating orientation parametres of control objects (CO) on a section of its ballistic trajectory for a long period of time, ie provision for stationary character and limited level of errors of integrated systems of orientation and navigation in solving the problem of orientation of a control object on a ballistic trajectory, as well as high level of noise immunity.

6 dwg

FIELD: physics; navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to navigation satellite corrected inertial navigation and gyrostabilisation systems for sea objects and can be used on ships and other vessels in a wide range of navigating conditions. The inertial-satellite navigation, orientation and stabilisation system has a gyrostabilised platform in a triaxial cardan suspension with angle sensors, on which are mounted three rate integrating gyroscopes and three accelerometres, digital device, corrector, where outputs of the angle sensors for rotation of the rings of the cardan suspension and outputs of the accelerometres of the gyrostabilised platform are connected to inputs of the digital device, one of the outputs of which is connected to the input of the gyrostabilised platform, and the other to the corrector. The inertial-satellite navigation system is fitted with a control console which generates system control signals, and the system is also fitted with an accelerated correction unit, the input of which receives current values of coordinates of navigation satellites used, generated by the satellite receiving device and current device values of parametres of orientation of the gyrostabilised platform, a channel switch for standard and accelerated correction, where outputs of the correctors are connected to inputs of the switch, outputs of which are connected to the digital device.

EFFECT: determination of course error from coordinate data of only two satellites of a satellite navigation system and current device parametres of orientation of an object, generated by an inertial navigation system.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: railway subgrade analysis comprises preliminary processing of available data to disclose abnormal sections and select control drilling points and additional geo-radiolocation profiles. Geo-radiolocation analysis allows isolating layers with different dielectric factors. Drilling is performed in not only within disclosed abnormal zones but also on every kilometre of analysed section. Track bed is manually drilled to obtain data on broken stone layer properties, particle sizes and lithology, mechanical grading, moisture content, density and soil solid-to-liquid ratio. Data obtained are interpreted to plot them onto exaggerated longitudinal track section.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of analysis, reduced railway repair costs, repair materials savings.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to appliances intended for testing diamond switches in conditions corresponding to their operating conditions. Test stand comprises a track section making a tested specimen with its head accommodating a smaller-than-normal-size diamond switch and a rolling body that, given the normal force applied thereon, rolls on over the track section diamond switch profile.

EFFECT: probability to forecast service life of certain material for wheel/rail pairs and to define influence of geometrical linear variations, load size and cycles on results of model test series.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: transportation, physics.

SUBSTANCE: at least three electroacoustic transducers are installed so that their sounding lines are intersecting by pairs. Sounding plane is selected being parallel to rail generatix. Rail head is sounded by all pairs of electroacoustic transducers separately. Then all electroacoustic transducers are moved over mentioned plane, position of each of detected defect boundaries lines is saved, all lines are conjointly analysed and defect position and orientation in sounding plane is calculated.

EFFECT: reliable estimate of sizes, position and orientation of defect in rail head.

3 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: building, road works.

SUBSTANCE: the invention refers to area of a railway transportation and is intended for the supervisory control of a rail way. The method of supervisory control of a railway position consists in installation of device on a rail rut, measurement of the passed way, excess of rails, rail gage, registration of the obtained data and addition of values with distance between measuring elements. Installation of wheel pairs on a device frame on the one hand, is performed rigidly, and on the other hand, with possibility of swinging against a cross-section axis. A gauge is measured by installation of measuring elements on lateral surfaces of rails for measurement of distance to an inside face of rails against the frame. Measuring elements are fixed in whatever position. The wheel pairs are used in a control unit of position of a railway, one of which mounted rigidly on a device frame, and the other so that to swing against the cross-section axis fixed on a device frame. The lock elements and the additional detecting device of linear movement are included into the detecting device of measurement of a gauge. Detecting devices of measurement of a gauge are located on a frame from the interior of each rail and supplied with spring-actuated measuring elements capable of being fixed with the lock elements connected with detecting devices of measurement of a gauge.

EFFECT: increase in measurement accuracy, higher operation amenity, expansion of the cart functionality.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metrology and can be used for automated control of the rail deflection, for example, in straightening the rail prior to welding the seamless rails. The device incorporates a measuring platform accommodating three optical pickups to keep its front and rear ends and centre, and a measuring device connected to the said pickups. The device comprises also the strips optically contrast relative to the rail surface, arranged on the platform beneath the rail, and a mechanism shifting the rail relative to the immovable measuring platform. The optical pickups are shadow column instruments to record the rail shadow projection against the background of the contrast strip.

EFFECT: possibility of measuring vertical and horizontal rail deflection in straightening.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metrology and can be used for automated control of the rail deflection, for example, in straightening the rail prior to welding the seamless rails. The device incorporates a measuring platform accommodating three optical pickups to keep its front and rear ends and centre, and a measuring device connected to the said pickups. The device comprises also the strips optically contrast relative to the rail surface, arranged on the platform beneath the rail, and a mechanism shifting the rail relative to the immovable measuring platform. The optical pickups are shadow column instruments to record the rail shadow projection against the background of the contrast strip.

EFFECT: possibility of measuring vertical and horizontal rail deflection in straightening.

6 cl, 3 dwg

Force transducer // 2329176

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and devices intended to measure the rolling stock weight in operating conditions without stopping the said rolling stock and in inclined track automatic control systems. The force transducer incorporates a signal processing unit and a sensitive element fitted on the rail and made up of a passive and active parts moving relative to each other, the passive part being fitted directly on the rail while the active one being fitted on a rigid beam mounted on two hinged supports equidistant, along the rail, from the passive part. The aforesaid passive part represents a bush with an inner and outer threads and is fastened, by means of outer thread and nut, in the rail web hole, while the bush inner thread serves to locate a threaded stepwise rod made from a nonmagnetic material accommodating a magnetic material insert on its end face closer to the sensitive element active part. The said insert magnetisation vector is parallel to the measuring rail direction. The sensitive element active part incorporates a magnetic field intensity meter.

EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy.

2 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the equipment for measuring railway rails and wheels. The method of determination of the clearance between the railway wheel ridge (2) and rail head (1) includes attaching a pickup with its sensitive element directed towards the point of contact between the wheel and rail head to a crosswise beam (3) of the car truck. Simultaneously with the start of the car, the data coming the pickup on displacement of the wheel ridge relative to the rail head at a preset distance is continuously recorded. Then the pickup is removed from the car, the data carrier is removed from the pickup and the data obtained is processed using a computer programme to provided for a digital visual picture. On the picture thus obtained, a video image of a ruler with divisions is imposed to define the abode said clearance in divisions of the ruler. The said device has a case with a core, a pickup and light sources arranged on both sides of the pickup at an equal distance from it.

EFFECT: simpler design and smaller sizes of the device.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; track facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention relate to method of straightening railway track in plan, physical profile and level and to device for implementing the method and they can be used in scheduled preventive straightening out of track and finishing of track before handling over for operation after major repairs. According to proposed method, railway track is electronically marked out by fitting electronic marks on track axis on each hundred meter and kilometer mark, and scanners of said marks are installed on track measuring car on each track maintainer. Parameters of track rails in plan, physical profile and level are checked by electronic marks. Marks are uninterruptedly read out, their identification number are kept in memory and distance covered at moment of their detection is recorded. In process of calculations and corresponding shifts of track, data base of said electronic marks is formed containing information on location of each marks and distance between adjacent marks. Results of obtained calculations and data base of electronic marks are transmitted to dispatcher centers of track maintainers and further on to computers of said machines. Track is subjected to straightening out starting from set mark and continuously reading information from electronic marks and automatically correcting current index of program task in moment of detection of mark if measured distance from initial mark differs from Log value. Information on current calculated shifts of track is periodically renewed basing of subsequent passings of track measuring car and is transmitted to track maintainers. Invention increases capacity of machine maintenance of track, cuts down time taken for calculation of required straightening out of track, provides acceleration of total certification of geometrical parameters of rail track gauge geometry measuring device and improves quality of said device, provides automatic tie of readings of track maintainers to longitudinal coordinates of track owing to doubling of existing staking out with electronic marking out.

EFFECT: increased capacity of track maintainers.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; track machines.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manually operated devices for checking reliability of anchor fastenings of rail track. Proposed device includes lever with hook, support and force measuring unit and handle connected to end of lever. Said handle is made resilient, is provided with aperture and slot and is furnished with double-arm bar connected by middle part with handle under slot, and contact screw made for contact with first arm of double-arm bar and installed for shifting and fixing in cross bushing installed for turning and fixing in handle over slot. Force measuring unit is made in from of standard indicator whose housing is attached to handle in place of its connection with lever. Head is made for contact with second arm of double-arm bar. Hook is made in form of split hook turnable relative to end of lever and spring-loaded relative to lever to lever to catch crossmember of clamp. Support is made in from of stop turnable relative to lever for engagement with rolling surface and with side faces of rail head.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measuring force of pressing clamp to rail, reduced fatigue of operator.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: railway ballast distribution machine comprises a frame supporting an operator cab, a ballast picker made up of driving brush located across the machine and two conveyors. One of them is arranged inclined and the other is across the machine. The frame accommodates the conveyor to transfer ballast along the machine, unloading device with ballast accumulator located in the upper part of the unloading chutes and a conveyor located on the frame before the ballast accumulator along the machine working direction and a ballast setting device arranged under the frame. The receiving end of the conveyor to transfer ballast along the machine is located under unloading end of tilted conveyor. It is possible to set it vertically and have horizontal parts of loading and unloading ends zone. The unloading device is mounted on the frame with the possibility of moving along the machine by the drive and is located before the front track carrier along the machine working direction in the conveyor unloading end zone to transfer ballast along the machine. The ballast picker is located between the back track carrier along the machine working direction and ballast setting device.

EFFECT: increase of the machine efficiency, widening its technological possibilities and improvement of the operator's working conditions.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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