Method of nondestructive check of railway rails in process of rolling stock traveling and device for its realisation

FIELD: metering equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of instrument making. Device for contactless collection of information on internal defects of rail at any depth of their location inside rail comprises SHF generator, detector, indicator, antenna, serially connected low pass filter, signal amplifier, analog-digital converter, storage device and neural computer. SHF generator is represented by autodyne transceiver, which is connected to antenna and detector input, and output of neural computer is connected to indicator. In process of rolling stock motion vibrating surface of rail is radiated with electromagnetic waves of SHF range, reflecting from which, SHF electromagnetic waves are received by transceiving antenna. Phase detection is used to extract signal that contains information on parametres of rail vibration, which is compared to reference signals stored in device memory. In order to make decision on defects in rail, comparison circuit is used on the basis of neural computer algorithm.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of monitoring.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of instrumentation and can be used for diagnostics of technical condition of rails on a railway transportation.

Existing methods for testing of rails on a railway transport based on the use of ultrasound (see non-Destructive testing of rails in their operation and repair / Akhurik, Bpowmon, Hagrp. - M.: Transport, 1983, - 318 C.). Use of shadow, mirror, shadow, pulse-echo methods.

The main disadvantages of ultrasonic rail flaw detection method are the low speed and the efficiency of control, the need to ensure good physical contact between the controlled material and the piezoelectric transducer by using the liquid ("wet method"), false registration of defects (especially vulnerable to false factors mobile devices - cars, cars, electronics), plus the presence of the human factor (psychophysical condition, qualification and skills of operators) during testing. A significant drawback of the "wet" ultrasonic inspection are high maintenance costs. Piezoelectric transducers during testing abraded or damaged. By design, they are not recoverable.

Known contactless method nerazrushayu the control rails in motion, for example, eddy-current control method for measuring the wear of the side surface of the rail head (patent RF №2236971 C2, 2002.07.16). To implement this method utilizes a device that is installed in the car-potenzmitel with a running truck. After installing the unsprung frame of the undercarriage of the car-potenzmittel sensors in its original position and power up the device the generator voltage begins to produce a high-frequency voltage, which with its output simultaneously to the input of the wear side surface of the rail head. In this issue of the electromagnetic field interacts with controlled rail, creating in the surface region of the rail head eddy currents, the density of which depends on the geometrical shape and dimensions of the rail head. Electromagnetic field eddy current effect on the sensor, inducing in it proportional to these currents EMF resulting from the outputs of the sensor shows a corresponding output voltage, the value of which allows to judge about the defects in the rail head. This method allows us to control at any speed. Its main drawback is the limited ability to identify defects in the depth of the rail. Logged defects at a depth of no more than 6-8 mm

Also known acoustic JV the property of the fault detection of railway track in the process of the motion by rail (patent RF №2126339 C1, 1999). How is that in rails transmit an acoustic signal and then receive the reflected signal of the piezoelectric transducers mounted on bearings on the shaft of the pair of wheels. The transmission and reception of signals are carried out alternately. This method makes it possible to control the movement, however, the disadvantage of it is that it does not preclude direct physical contact with the piezoelectric receiver and requires additional expensive equipment for excitation of ultrasound in the rail segment.

A device for measuring vibration (RF patent No. 2025669, 1991), containing connected in series microwave generator, a detector connected to the indicator and the antenna. The disadvantage of this device is the low sensitivity of the meter, due to its design.

Closest to the claimed method is a method that is used in the vibration meter (patent RF №2082114 C1, 1997.06.20), namely, that between the antenna and the vibrating surface of the object of control is established a standing microwave electromagnetic wave, the parameters of which are judged on the amount of vibration of the test object. The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of its implementation for the inspection of rails in motion.

Closest to savla is the PTO device is a device for measuring vibration (RF patent 2082114 C1, 1997.06.20), which contains a microwave generator, a detector connected to the indicator and the antenna in the form of a circular waveguide. The disadvantage of this device is that when it is used for control in driving at high speed, the average distance between the antenna and the object of control (rail) remains unchanged, so you can choose the maximum sensitivity of the method by choosing the optimal distance between the antenna and the object of control is not possible.

The basis of the invention is a contactless information about the internal rail defects at any depth of their location inside of the rail, as well as improving the performance of the control.

The problem is solved in that in the method of non-destructive testing of rails during movement of the rolling stock on which the rail effect of microwave electromagnetic field and retrieve information about its defects, according to the invention, the SHF electromagnetic field perform automatic transceiver and from a mixture of incident and reflected microwave electromagnetic field by phase demodulation get information parameters, which are judged on integral defects in rails.

The problem is solved in that the device for implementing the method nerazrushayu the control rails during movement of the rolling stock, includes a microwave generator, a detector, an indicator, and antenna, according to the invention, further comprises connected in series lowpass filter, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital Converter, a storage device and neurocomputer, the microwave generators used automatic transceiver, which is connected to the antenna and to the input of the detector, and the output of the neurocomputer is connected to the indicator.

Acoustic oscillations arising in the rail during movement of the rolling stock, spreading inside rail, undergo multiple reflections from discontinuities and edges of rail fragment, interfere with each other and reach the surface of the rail, causing it to vibrate accordingly. Moreover, the vibration parameters in the frequency spectrum and time structure will be different from the regular fluctuations inherent in serviceable condition track.

Figure 1 presents a block diagram of an apparatus for implementing the proposed method, which contains consistently connected open transceiver antenna 1, automatic transceiver 2, a phase detector 3, a lowpass filter (LPF) 4, the signal amplifier 5, an analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 6, operative memory (RAM) 7, a hardware and software processing unit of the signal (it is acomputer) 8 and the indicator 9. This device is installed on the frame of the bogie rolling stock.

During the movement of rolling stock vibrating surface of the rail is irradiated by electromagnetic waves in the microwave range, for example 10ggts. The electromagnetic wave radiated by transmitting antenna 1 which receives the signal of a given frequency from the automatic transceiver 2. Radiated by the transmitting antenna 1 of the electromagnetic wave penetrates into the surface layer of the rail to a depth limited by the skin layer. On the metal surface electromagnetic wave is modulated by the vibration parameters in the rail and preslusas back into space, is registered transceiver antenna 1 and fed to the input of automatic transceiver 2. The signal is then fed to the input of the phase detector 3, where by the phase detection is the information about the vibration of rail surface of the parameters of the differential signal between the incident and reflected signals. Difference frequency is

FP=2π·(fG·fP), where

fGthe frequency of the irradiating microwave electromagnetic waves;

fPthe frequency of the reflected microwave electromagnetic waves.

The principal is the modulation of the phase parameter of the reflected microwave electromagnetic waves, since the phase of the electromagnetic waves directly which transfers information about the features of the defect rail, enclosed in its vibration during movement of the rolling stock. The phase shift of the reflected signal arising due to the vibration of the rail, is estimated as

where

Δr(Ω) is the amplitude of vibration of the rail, depending on their frequency Ω;

λ - the length of the irradiating microwave electromagnetic waves.

At small values of Δφ reflected microwave electromagnetic wave will have an amplitude modulation index corresponding to Δφ. For this reason, the information parameter of the defect can be identified as using phase, and using the amplitude detection. However, the phase parameter is more sensitive to the composition of the spectrum of a vibrating surface of the rail, which allows for more clearly identify the defects.

The signal transmitting-receiving antenna describes how

where

Um- signal amplitude;

ω is the operating frequency of the microwave electromagnetic waves

λ - the length of the irradiating microwave electromagnetic waves;

Δr is the amplitude of vibration of the rail;

φ0- the initial phase of the microwave electromagnetic waves.

From the output of the phase detector 3, the signal at the low pass filter 4, the output of which is fed to the input of the signal amplifier 5 and amplified, is fed to the input of analog-to-digital Converter 6, which is converted into digital form, after che is about digitally stored operational storage device RAM 7. Of the RAM 7, the turn signals are read and fed to the multi-input port of a hardware-software unit signal processing (neurocomputer) 8, which is implemented on the basis of the microcontroller. Software processing and interpretation of the useful signal using student neurocomputer algorithm (for example, Fusselman Neurocomputer technique: theory and practice /Per. s angl./ - M.: Mir, 1992. - 240 S.).

At this stage, the direct detection and identification of the type of defect in the welded joint.

Part of the neurocomputer is a memory module in which the digitally stored reference weight signals which are the result of "learning" this neurocomputer during the experimental work, resulting in a computer database of typical defects in the rail. Accordingly, the more memory is information about the different shapes and sizes of the defects, the more accurate qualitative assessment can be obtained about the state of the control object according to the input signal. The decision by the neurocomputer for each specific defect is not based on a single comparison, and on the basis of comparative analysis of the input signal and the statistical data obtained empirically and stored in the embedded memory module (such as module-based Flash memory).

For th is would be to make a decision about the defective condition of the rail, you need to determine correlation correlation signal samples stored in the memory module of a neurocomputer. Comparison of the signals is based neurocomputer algorithm. The result is displayed on the indicator 9.

The proposed method differs from known is completely non-invasive and, thanks to radar method of registration, provides control in motion at high speed. The device for implementing the inventive method may be mounted on the frame of the truck any standard vehicle is a locomotive, carriage, rail cars, etc. in Addition, there is no need to use equipment for excitation of ultrasonic vibrations in the rail, which reduces the cost of the devices used to implement the proposed method of control.

1. The method of non-destructive testing of rails during movement of the rolling stock on which the rail effect of microwave electromagnetic field and retrieve information about its defects, characterized in that the SHF electromagnetic field perform automatic transceiver, and from a mixture of incident and reflected microwave electromagnetic field by phase demodulation get information parameters, they will judge the defects in the rail.

2. The device OS is enforced method non-destructive testing of rails during movement of the rolling stock, includes a microwave generator, a detector, an indicator, and the antenna, characterized in that it further comprises connected in series lowpass filter, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital Converter, a storage device and neurocomputer, the microwave generators used automatic transceiver, which is connected with the antenna and the input of the detector, and the output of the neurocomputer is connected to the indicator.



 

Same patents:

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2 dwg

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3 cl, 4 dwg

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6 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; permanent way testing facilities.

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4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; track maintenance.

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4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; permanent way.

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EFFECT: improved safety of traffic, enlarged functional capabilities of device.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

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EFFECT: simple design of device, low cost.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; permanent way.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of checking and forecasting condition of rail track. According to proposed method, running course of body of track-testing car is measured by means of inertia navigational system installed under pivot of test bogie, and running hunting angle of test bogie relative to body is measured by means of angular displacement transducer. Then, using axle box-rail transducers, distance from flanges of corresponding wheels of bogie to rail heads are measured. Basing on obtained information , running courses of rail lines are calculated as running course of body minus running hunting angle of test bogie relative to body minus running angle of parallel misalignment of flanges of wheelsets of test bogie and heads of rail lines. Then running values of horizontal irregularities of rail lines are found as product of bogie base by deflection of running course of rail lines from running averaged courses of rail lines on bogie base calculated from courses of rail lines. Running radii of curvature of rail lines are found by dividing bogie base by measured increment of course angles of rail lines on bogie base.

EFFECT: provision of chordless (single point) method of checking leveling of rail lines.

3 dwg

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