Aircraft wing tip

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft wing tip features sweepback of leading edge with wing lower surface formed by smooth continuation of wing lower surface generatrix. Leading edge of wing tip end is made straight and sharp with sweepback of 70° to 85° at the point of intersection of nonlinear leading edge of wing tip with continuation of the line of maximum wing thickness. Profiles chords parallel to wing symmetry plane form lower surface. Transition from wing with profile blunt nose to sharp one of wing tip rear end, over lower surface, is made smooth. Upper surface of wing tip is formed by continuation of wing upper surface to smoothly terminate at sharp leading edge.

EFFECT: improved aerodynamic properties.

8 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of aviation technology and can be used on the wings of the aircraft.

Famous wing tip of the aircraft, having arrow-shaped end of the aerodynamic surface, the bottom plane which is formed by the smooth continuation forming the bottom surface of the bearing surface (patent RF №2216480, IPC VS 3/10, 2001).

In the famous wing tip of the aircraft end end edge of the aerodynamic surface with ledge and profiles having a greater curvature in comparison with the end sections of the wing.

However, moderate sweep ledge limit the aerodynamic surface of the wing of the aircraft, close to the wing sweep does not increase the critical Mach number at high subsonic flight speeds. The same can be said about profiles limit the aerodynamic surface, the relative curvature which is larger than the original wing. Thus the value pagsasalaysay force on the front edge of the ledge because of its small scale may not be significant.

Thus, the famous ending of the bearing surface of the wing of the aircraft is not fully realized the possibility of increasing the critical Mach number and increasing aerodynamic quality on large dosvy the new flight speeds, while maintaining the load-bearing properties at high angles of attack.

An object of the invention is to increase the critical Mach number, improving the aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft at high subsonic speeds and load-bearing properties of the wing of the aircraft.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the wing tip of the aircraft, having arrow-shaped front edge of the scale, the lower surface of which is formed a smooth continuation of the generatrix of the lower wing surface, the front edge of the end portion of the ending from the point of intersection of the non-linear leading edge ending with a continuation of the line of maximum thickness of the wing is made straight and sharp with sweep 70-85 degrees, its lower surface formed by the chord of the profile, parallel to the plane of symmetry of the wing, and the transition on the lower surface of wing with a blunt toe profile to a sharp end portion ending made smooth, while the upper surface of the tail is formed by a continuation of the upper surface of the wing and smoothly closes on the sharp front edge of its end part.

The invention is illustrated by drawings and schedules.

Figure 1 shows the ending in the plan;

figure 2 shows a view along arrow a in figure 1;

figure 3 shows a section a-a in figure 1;

figure 4 - brings the e B-B in figure 1, which shows the vector diagram of the interaction of the end portion ending with a forced flow V∞;

figure 5 shows the dependence of the angle αpthe destruction of the vortex at the trailing edge of the wing from the sweep angle (χ);

figure 6 shows a plot of the ratio of the longitudinal moment mz(α), the position and the invention, the position b is known technical solution;

figure 7 shows a comparison of the critical Mach number (MCR.) depending on the maximum relative thickness of the profile (Cmax) of the proposed wingtips of the aircraft (position a) and a known ending (position b);

on Fig presents graphs comparing the drag coefficient (CX) depending on the Mach number (M) of the wingtips of the aircraft,

position - the invention, the position b is known technical solution.

Ending 1 wing 2 consists of the end portion of the ends 3 and the transition zone 4. The front edge 5 of the end portion ending made direct and acute angle sweep 70-85 degrees. Non-linear front edge 6 of the transition zone 4 smoothly mated with the front edge 5 at the point 7, which is the point of intersection with the line of maximum thickness of 8 wing 2.

The transition on the lower surface of the ending from 1 wing 2 with a blunt toe 9 profile 11 to 12 acute designed so that as HC the crease in the sweep of the leading edge 6 ending 1 to its maximum value at point 7, the radius of the sock 9 profile 11 decreases smoothly preserving, thus, the possibility of implementing pagsasalaysay force on the area of the transition zone with moderate sweep.

The upper surface of the d-cell 1 is formed by a continuation of the upper surface 13 of the wing 2, the bottom surface 14 of the end portion of the ends formed by the chords 15 profiles parallel to the plane of symmetry of the aircraft. The transition on the lower surface 16 in zone 4 between the wing 2 and the terminal part 3 ending made smooth.

The wingtips of the aircraft is based on the interaction with the field of vertical bevels near the end of the wing.

Due to the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the end portion ending occurs, the overflow stream from the bottom surface 14 of the end portion 3 ending on the top around the front edge 5 of the end portion 3 ending with velocity Vy (see figure 4), the angle to the local vertical bevel flow Δα (see figure 4) may, at 2-3 times the angle of attack.

When wrapping the end portion ending in a sharp leading edge 5 of the big sweep is detached thread is already at small angles of attack with the formation of the vortex 17.

For the wings, the minimum sweep angle of the leading edge, providing a stable cone over the vortex, is χ=70°. Increasing the sweep angle χ more than 85°, resulting in the further reduction of the scale of the end portion of the ending, becomes ineffective.

It is established that the trailing vortices 17 are the main source of inductive bevel flow, and consequently, the inductive resistance. The distance between the trailing vortices 17 determines the effective wing span (L). With the increase of the effective wing span at a constant effective area is increased wing span.

This reduces induced drag and therefore increases the maximum glide ratio Kmah.

The experimental data projection 19 axis 18 of the vortex 17 in the plane of the chord of the d-cell is located at a distance of 70-75% of poluraspada end portion ending 3.

During the conversion, for example, on the wing of the known technical solutions the distance between the axes 18 of trailing vortices 17 determining effective span (L), will differ from the geometrical scale (~0.5 to 1.0%)L. Thus, the wing tip of the aircraft allows to post the trailing vortices along the span.

From experiments it is known that for swept wings characteristic limit disruption of flow, accompanied by loss of lifting force of the wing, resulting in an unfavorable tendency of the aircraft to pitch up.

The stability of the vortex 17 and induced them under pressure on the upper poverhnostnoaguoe, as well as its load-bearing properties are maintained up to high angles of attack, until the destruction of the vortex (figure 5). In the delayed appearance of kairouseki moment Δα (6). In the invention implemented in a decrease of the maximum relative thickness of the profile ends, resulting in increased critical Mach number (7)that moves at high speeds the beginning of the growth wave resistance SHV (see Fig).

Reducing the maximum relative thickness of the profile endssimultaneously accompanied by an increase in the relative curvature of the middle line of the profile ends (figure 4) onand automatically implements the effect of the limb toe profile.

The use of the invention allows to increase the critical Mach number, to improve the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft at high subsonic speeds and load-bearing properties of the wing of the aircraft.

The wing tip of the aircraft, having arrow-shaped front edge of the scale, the lower surface of which is formed a smooth continuation of the generatrix of the lower wing surface, characterized in that the front edge of the end portion of the ending from the point of intersection of the non-linear leading edge ending with a continuation of the line of maximum thickness of the wing is made straight and sharp astrologically 70-85°, its lower surface formed by the chord of the profile, parallel to the plane of symmetry of the wing, and the transition on the lower surface of wing with a blunt toe profile to a sharp end portion ending made smooth, while the upper surface of the tail is formed by a continuation of the upper surface of the wing and gently closes on the sharp front edge of its end portion.



 

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