Device to control vortex street generated by aircraft control surface elongated element

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device to control vortex street comprises control device (8) mounted on clamping element (11) of elongated element (5) and on control surface (4) so that its base (12) comes in contact with front edge (6) of its aforesaid control surface. Said control device (8) features triangular shape in the plane perpendicular to its lengthwise axis and having two adjacent sides forming lateral surfaces interconnected by rounded edge. Aircraft incorporates vortex street control device.

EFFECT: reduced drag.

6 cl, 6 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a device for controlling at least one vortex track formed on the side zones of vacuum forming a lifting force on the surface of the aircraft mentioned vortex path forms at least one elongated element, which is installed under the form of a lifting force on the surface.

More specifically, although not exclusively, the present invention is applied to the flow of fluid along the side of the zone of rarefaction wing aircraft, which are equipped with elongated items, such as jet engines, containers, refueling in the air or military equipment, such as missiles. More specifically, the goal is to control the vortex track position of the aircraft, close to stall conditions, in order to improve the maximum lift that the wing design of the aircraft may be in the presence of one or more elongated elements such as mentioned above.

The documents US-3744745 and US-4685643 open device management turbulent followed, which are intended to influence the vortex track formed on the wing of the aircraft nacelle of a jet engine mounted under the wing. These traditional control devices contain at least one agent to control the situation, which is linked directly to the gondola, on its one side. This management tool remote from the front edge of the respective wing and located upstream of this front edge. In addition, it is a traditional management tool has an elongated shape, its longitudinal axis is essentially parallel to the local flow of fluid, and its located upstream end is perhaps sharpened.

Traditional management tool such as this creates additional turbulence, designed to control the vortex path.

This additional turbulence must therefore move insofar as it moves along the length of the wing, if you want it to be able to influence mentioned vortex track, which you control. At the present time, because the distance between the management tool and the above-mentioned vortex trail is relatively high, it is difficult to find an appropriate position for the mentioned controls on the gondola, in order to bring additional turbulence accurately to the vortex track. In addition, the trajectory of this additional turbulence usually varies according to the speed of the plane and its angle of attack.

Hence, in order to obtain additional turbulence great power that SP is really be able to influence mentioned vortex track regardless of the situation, management tool described in the above documents, has the shape of a flat plate is very small thickness. It is known that the management tool, which has very sharp edges (as is the case with this plate), forms a powerful additional turbulence and, as a rule, does this regardless of the angle of attack of the aircraft. Due to recent features traditional management tool, however, has the disadvantage of forming additional turbulence at low angles of attack of the aircraft, especially in cruise flight, and this leads, in particular, to an undesirable increase in aerodynamic resistance during this phase of flight.

As a result, the conventional control device of the aforementioned type is not entirely satisfactory.

The present invention relates to a control device on the side of a zone of rarefaction forming a lifting force on the surface of the aircraft to control at least one vortex path formed by at least one oblong element, which is installed under this form of lifting force surface partially protruding over the front edge of the aforementioned forming a lifting force on the surface (more precisely, the wing of the plane) in the direction against the flow, which device eliminates the abovementioned what's shortcomings.

To achieve this result, according to the invention the said device containing at least one management tool:

which is arranged at the level of the mentioned elongated element; and

which has an elongated shape, its longitudinal axis is essentially parallel to the local flow of fluid, and its located upstream (with respect to the fluid flow) the end is sharpened,

characterized by the fact that the said means of control:

- made (completely) in the form of a tip, which is triangular as viewed from the side, and when viewed from above;

arranged on the locking element (defined below)used to secure the elongated element, and forming a lifting force on the surface so that the substrate is referred to the tip (which is it located downstream end) brought into contact with the front edge of the referred form of the lifting force of the surface; and

- has a shape which is essentially triangular in a plane perpendicular to the aforementioned longitudinal axis, and which has a first side intended to enter into contact with said locking element, and two adjacent sides forming the side surfaces connected the bottom with the other rounded edge.

Thus, through the invention:

since the Foundation of the management tools provided in contact with the front edge forming a lifting force on the surface, additional turbulence formed by the management tool, naturally passes directly over the face area of vacuum forming a lifting force on the surface, where the vortex tracks that you want to manage,

as mentioned management tool has a triangular shape with two adjacent side surfaces, the local flow on the elongated element affects the management tool through one of the side surfaces, which have very large positive local angles of attack, causing the formation of additional turbulence viscous origin (at low speeds), as defined below; and

as a management tool has a rounded edge between the two side surfaces, said the management tool can do local fluid flow in the cruise phase of flight, i.e. when the local angle of attack on the controller that are small and are in the range of, for example, between -5° and +5°, thus avoiding any branch of the border layer in such conditions of flight.

As a result, the control according to izaberete the s generates additional turbulence viscous origin, when there are a large angle of attack relative to its main axis, that is, when the wing design of the aircraft is close to stall conditions. In the context of the present invention viscous turbulence should be understood to indicate the turbulence, developing from a singular point of zero wall friction on the wall, the initial axis which is perpendicular to the wall. It is more viscous turbulence is added to and stabilizes the wing span of the vortex path discharged elongated element. This stabilization allows to maintain a system of vortices close to the design of the wing and parallel to the axis of the elongated element. By contrast, it is more turbulence is not formed, when the management tool (which has a rather triangular shape with two adjacent side surfaces connected by a rounded edge than the form of a flat plate) is located at small angles of attack, that is under attack angles, which correspond to the position in the air of the aircraft during cruise phase of flight.

The control device according to the invention, therefore, provides for eliminating the aforementioned drawbacks. Of course, the above situation and especially the form controls are characteristics that are essential for its effectiveness.

In one concrete is m the embodiment, the above-mentioned management tool, when examined from above, has a triangular shape, in which, on the one hand, the length L of the side, which is turned to the locking element and, on the other hand, the length oflthe other side in contact with the forming of the lifting force of the surface satisfy the following relationship:

L≥l≥L/10.

In addition, in one of the preferred embodiments mentioned management tool contains two controls, which are located one on each side of the locking element.

It should be noted that in the context of the present invention mentioned locking element can be:

any of the mentioned elongated element (e.g., gondola turboprop engine or container refueling in the air)when the latter is fixed directly under the form of a lifting force on the surface,

any support (for example, the engine pylon or support for the outer suspension)providing the aforementioned oblong element (for example, a jet engine or a payload) to be fixed under the said forming a lifting force on the surface.

In addition, in the context of the present invention mentioned forming a lifting force on the surface can conform to any surface of the aircraft, to which I contributed in providing the latest lifting force, and in particular, of course, the plane's wings, which form the structure of its wings.

The accompanying drawings facilitate an understanding of how it can be implemented in the invention. In these drawings, reference numbers, which are identical, denote elements that are similar.

Figure 1 - diagram of the control device according to the invention, in the working position;

2 is a diagram of control means of the control device according to the invention.

Figa, 3B, and 3C is a schematic illustration of various cross-sections along the longitudinal axis of the controls shown in figure 2.

4 is a schematic top view of the control means of the control device according to the invention.

The device 1 according to the invention, schematically represented in figure 1, is designed to control the vortex track 2, which takes place on the side of the 3 zones of vacuum forming a lifting force on the surface 4 of the aircraft (not illustrated), in particular on the side of a zone of rarefaction of the wing. This vortex track 2 is formed in the usual way (essentially, at high angles of attack) oblong element 5 established under this form of lifting force surface 4 and protruding in the direction against the flow (in the direction E of the local fluid flow), at least partially, the front edge mentioned forming a lifting force on the surface 4. Mentioned elongated element 5, in particular, can be a jet engine, a container refueling in the air or combat load, such as that of a rocket.

More precisely, the objective device 1 according to the invention is to control the vortex track 2 for the position of the aircraft, close to stall conditions, i.e. for the local angle of attack α (which is defined between the longitudinal axis 5A of the oblong element 5 and the vector 7 airspeed), which is large, for example greater than 12°, in order to improve the maximum lift force, which form a lifting force on the surface 4 can form when there is an oblong element 5.

To do this, the above mentioned control device 1 is of the type containing at least one tool 8 control, which is fastened on the mentioned elongated element 5 and has an elongated shape, its longitudinal axis 8A is essentially parallel to the local flow of the fluid (arrow E), and its located upstream end 9 is sharpened. This means 8 controls can create additional turbulence 10 defined below.

According to the invention the said means 8 controls, also represented in figure 2:

- made entirely in the form of edges (or arrows), the cat who PoE is triangular as viewed from the side, and when viewed from above;

- mounted on the locking element 11 (defined below) for fastening elongated element 5, and the lifting force on the forming surface 4 so that the base 12 of the above mentioned tip (which is it located downstream end in the direction E of the local fluid flow) is shown in contact with the front edge of the 6 mentioned forming a lifting force on the surface 4; and

- has a shape which is essentially triangular in a plane perpendicular to the aforementioned longitudinal axis 8A, and which has a first side 13, which is designed to enter into contact with the said locking element 11, and two adjacent sides forming the side surfaces 14 and 15. These side surfaces 14 and 15 are connected by a rounded edge 16 and create a large angle, preferably greater than 270°. This is depicted in figa, 3B and 3C, which correspond to cross-sections through the above mentioned means 8 controls, perpendicular to its longitudinal axis 8A on the respective lines A-A, B-B and C-C cross-section shown in figure 2, spaced along the aforementioned longitudinal axis 8A.

In addition to increasing the size of the triangular forms Figa-3C clearly indicates that the tool 8 management made entirely in the form of a tip.

Thus, due to izobreteny is:

since the base means 12 8 management is provided in contact with the front edge 6 forming a lifting force on the surface 4, the secondary winding 10, is formed by means of 8 control, naturally passes directly over the front side 3 of the vacuum forming of the lifting force of the surface 4, where the vortex track 2, which is operated by,

as mentioned, the tool 8 has a triangular shape with two adjacent side surfaces 14 and 15, the local flow on the elongated element 5 acts on the tool 8 control through one of the side surfaces, which have very large positive local angles of attack, for example the angles in excess of 20°, causing the formation of additional turbulence 10 with a viscous core (at low speeds) over means 8 control due to a very pronounced curvature mentioned means 8 controls the direction perpendicular to this longitudinal axis 8A. This additional turbulence 10 interacts stabilizing way with vortex track 2, as hereinafter defined; and

- because the tool 8 has a rounded edge 16 between the two side surfaces 14 and 15, the said means 8 controls to avoid local fluid flow in the cruise phase of flight, i.e. when the local angles the same on the controller, are small and are in the range, for example between -5° and +5°, thus avoiding any branch of the border layer in such conditions of flight.

As a result, the tool 8, the control device 1 according to the invention generates additional turbulence 10 of viscous origin, when there is large angle of attack relative to its main axis 8A, that is, when the wing design of the aircraft is close to stall conditions. In the context of the present invention viscous turbulence should be understood to indicate the turbulence, developing from a singular point of zero wall friction on the wall, the initial axis which is perpendicular to the wall. It is more viscous turbulence 10 is added to and stabilizes the wing span of the vortex track 2 with elongated element 5. This stabilization allows to maintain a system of vortices close to forming a lifting force on the surface 4 and parallel to the axis 5A of the oblong element 5. In contrast to additional turbulence 10 is not formed when the tool 8 control is located at small angles of attack, i.e. at angles of attack, which correspond to the position in the air of the aircraft during cruise phase of flight. In this case, the longitudinal axis 8A tools 8 management focused on the flow of air p is current.

It should be noted that the said fixing element 11 can be:

any of the mentioned elongated element 5 (for example, the gondola turboprop engine or container refueling in the air)when the latter is fixed directly under the form of a lifting force on the surface 4, as shown in the example of figure 1, 3A, 3B, and 3C;

any support (for example, the engine pylon or support for the outer suspension)providing the aforementioned oblong element (for example, a jet engine or a payload) to be fixed under the said forming a lifting force on the surface.

In one particular embodiment, the said means 8 has, on the one hand, the length L of the side 17, which is converted (when examined above) to the locking element 11, and on the other hand, the length oflhand 12 in contact with the forming of the lifting force of the surface 4, which satisfy the following relationship:

L≥l≥L/10.

Moreover, in the preferred embodiment, which was not represented in the drawings, the said device 1 control contains two tools 8 management, which are arranged one on each side of the oblong element 5, in order to be able to manage two eddy tracks 2, spans the data on the front side 3 of the vacuum forming of the lifting force of the surface 4 on each side of said elongated element 5, as illustrated in figure 1.

1. The device-side control (3 zone) vacuum forming a lifting force on the surface (4) of the aircraft to control at least one vortex track (2)formed by at least one oblong element (5), which is installed under the form of a lifting force on the surface (4), partially protruding over the front edge (6) mentioned forming a lifting force on the surface (4) in the direction against the flow, the said device (1) contains at least one means (8) control:
which is arranged at the level of the mentioned elongated element (5); and
which has an elongated shape, its longitudinal axis (8A) is essentially parallel to the local flow (E) of the fluid, and its located upstream end (9) is sharp, in which the said means (8) control:
made in the shape of the tip, which is triangular as viewed from the side, and when viewed from above;
arranged on the locking element (11), used for fastening elongated element (5)and forming a lifting force on the surface (4) in such a way that the base (12) mentioned tip, which is consistent with its being downstream end brought into contact with the front edge (6) mentioned formiruya the lifting force of the surface (4); and
has a shape which is essentially triangular in a plane perpendicular to the aforementioned longitudinal axis (8A), and which has a first side (13)intended to enter into contact with said fixing element (11), and two adjacent sides (14, 15)forming the lateral surface of the mentioned side surfaces (14, 15) are connected to one another rounded edge (16).

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the said means (8) management, when examined from above, has a triangular shape in which one side length L side (17), which is converted to the fixing element (11), and on the other hand, the length l side (12) in contact with forming a lifting force on the surface (4) satisfy the following relation: L≥l≥L/10.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains two tools (8) management, which are located one on each side of the locking element (11).

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the said fixing element (11) corresponds to the aforementioned oblong element (5)which is fixed directly below mentioned form a lifting force on the surface (4).

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the said fixing element corresponds to the pole, providing the aforementioned elongated element is able to be fixed under the said forming a lifting force on the surface.

6. The aircraft is equipped with at least one forming a lifting force on the surface that contains the device (1) control according to claim 1.



 

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