Control method of differentials of multi-driving wheeled machines

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building field, particularly to control methods of differentials' blocking of multi-driving wheeled machines. Control method of differential' blocking of multi-driving wheeled machines consists in interlocking of interaxle differentials for particular intervals at achievement of threshold valuation of miscoordinations of kinematic parametres of connected by them driving wheels and deblocking of differentials. Additionally deblocking of interaxle differentials is implemented at achievement of miscoordinations of kinematic parametres of driving wheels lower the values, defined by formula.

EFFECT: there is achieved effectiveness increase of running system and tractive properties of wheeled machine.

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The invention relates to the field of engineering, in particular to methods lock control differential-drive wheeled vehicles. Can be used for designing control systems distribution of traction on the drive wheels-drive cars, as well as in research and testing of wheeled vehicles.

Known methods of operation control differentials, which consists in locking differentials when reaching mismatches kinematic parameters, in particular the frequency of rotation of the drive elements associated with these differentials wheels at certain intervals [Vantsevich CENTURIES, Vysotsky, MS, Gilles LG Mobile transport vehicles: Interaction with the environment. - Minsk: Belarusian Nauka, 1998. - 303 S.].

This method is implemented in the design of electronic control system of the distribution of tractive effort "Auto-lock" company "International" [Disel and Turbine Progress. New Axle Lock System and Front Driving Axle. - 1979. - 21 p.] management mode of operation of the center differential. It helps to eliminate slippage of individual bridges-drive wheeled vehicles in bad weather and adverse towing conditions and as a result increase their maneuverability and traction and speed properties.

The disadvantage of this method is that is does not take into account the effect of locking differentials on the handling of the car, which in curvilinear motion multi drive wheel of the machine can be significant. In the implementation of this method in curvilinear motion can significantly degrade handling and active safety of vehicles.

A known method of controlling the differential-drive wheeled vehicles, which consists in locking differentials for certain periods of time when the threshold mismatches kinematic parameters associated with these differentials wheels, unlocking differentials after certain intervals of their locks or unlocks all at the same time when the threshold values of controllability [Vantsevich CENTURIES, Vysotsky, MS, Zakrevsky ROAD Management differential-drive wheeled vehicles. / Research center of problems of mechanics of machines of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus. - Minsk, 1994. - 22 S.].

This method of control allows to exclude differential slippage of individual axles and wheels-drive wheeled vehicles in bad weather and adverse road-coupling conditions with the aim of increasing their permeability and traction-speed performance and to ensure a satisfactory controllability, characterized by a threshold value of its index.

The disadvantage of this is th way is narrow operating range of the system of regulating the distribution of traction, limited conditions ensuring satisfactory controllability multi drive wheel of the machine.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed solution is the method of controlling the differential-drive wheeled vehicles, which consists in locking differentials for certain periods of time when the threshold mismatches kinematic parameters associated with them wheels and unlocking differentials after certain periods of time or when the threshold values of controllability. And unlocking differentials when the threshold values of the controllability carried out individually in a sequence determined by the influence of the differential lock on the control wheel of the machine, since mitaliene differential lock, which has the greatest effect on the controllability of the wheeled vehicle [BY 10163 C1, 2007]. This method was adopted as a prototype.

This method of control differentials can significantly extend the operating range of the system of regulating the distribution of tractive effort to improve patency and traction-speed performance while ensuring the required controllability wheel-drive cars.

The disadvantage of e is th way like the previous, is that at the moment of unlocking differentials carried out after a certain period of time after they were blocked, ignored state road-coupling conditions under the wheels in motion the wheel of the machine in adverse road-coupling conditions leads to the re-reduction of traction force and the efficiency of the running system.

The present invention is to increase the efficiency of the drive system and traction properties of a wheeled vehicle by taking into account the current road-coupling conditions under the driving wheels at the time of unlocking differentials and eliminate separate slipping axles when driving wheeled vehicle in bad road-coupling conditions.

The solution of this problem is achieved in the method of controlling the differential-drive wheeled vehicles, which consists in locking the inter-axle differential for a certain period of time when the threshold value mismatches kinematic parameters associated with them wheels and unlocking differentials, and according to the technical solution of unlocking the center differential is carried out at the reduction of misalignments kinematic parameters of the wheels associated with them leading axle is below the threshold value, determined from the expression:

where Δδs- threshold mismatches kinematic parameters of wheel axles;

rj1and rj2is the radius of the rolling external and internal with respect to the center of rotation of the wheels of the j-th driving axle, respectively, m;

νj1and νj2- speed rolling of external and internal with respect to the center of rotation of the wheels of the j-th driving axle, respectively, when driving wheeled vehicle on the supporting surface with a stable road-coupling conditions with a maximum speed up to which the control of the differential, m/s;

j - serial number drive axle from among the associated respective center differential.

The inventive method improves the efficiency of the propulsion system drive wheeled vehicles due to the implementation unlock the differentials after certain periods of time only after passing the driving wheels plots support surface with poor road-coupling conditions, prevent re-split slippage and errors of kinematic parameters axles when passing through the same area of the support surface with poor road-coupling conditions.

The invention is illustrated by figures. Figure 1-3 p is estaline graphical dependence of coefficients of slippage of drive wheels from the time the motion of wheeled vehicles 1, 2, 3 respectively on surfaces in good condition with areas with poor road-coupling conditions. Figure 4-6 shows the graphical dependence of indicators of efficiency of running systems of wheeled vehicles 1, 2, 3, respectively, from the time the motion on surfaces with poor road-coupling conditions.

An example implementation of the method. The inventive method was estimated by the calculation method as the algorithm of functioning of the electronic system traction control off-road wheeled vehicle MZKT-79091 total weight of 43.5 t with the wheel formula 8×8 and tires 1500×600-635 built on the control of differential drive axles.

For computer simulation of the movement of off-road vehicle MZKT-79091 had made a mathematical model of motion of a wheeled 8×8 using equations Appel [Vysotsky M. R., Dubovik D.A. Mathematical modeling curvilinear motion of wheeled vehicles. // The Bulletin of the Belarusian-Russian University. - 2008. No. 2. - P.6-15.].

The simulation was carried out on the most likely for driving off-road wheeled vehicles ground support surface in a satisfactory condition (with the friction wheels with the support surface to 0.6 and the coefficient of rolling resistance of the wheels 0,03) [Platonov V.F. On noprivacy cars. - 2nd ed., overtime and extra - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989. - 312 p] with a speed of 1 m/S.

As a support surface with poor road-coupling conditions when evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed method took three consecutive area of the support surface with different ways of changing the values of the friction wheels of different sides of the support surface from 0.6 to 0.1 total length of over 30 m

For comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed method was carried out modeling of three-wheeled vehicles with the same mass, geometrical and other parameters close to the parameters of the off-road vehicle MZKT-79091, but with different drive wheels.

In the car 1 was simulated simple symmetric differential drive axles and wheels.

In the car 2 was simulated simple symmetric differential drive axles and wheels with the control center differential in accordance with the method adopted as a prototype. In this example, the blocking managed differentials in cars 2 was carried out for the period of time equal to 21 C.

In the car 3 was simulated simple symmetric differential drive axles and wheels with management differentials in accordance with the claimed method.

As a threshold mismatches kinematic parameters of the wheel axles to lock the inter-axle differentials machines 2 and 3 in this example has been taken against slippage of their wheels. The numerical value of the threshold values of slippage was taken as greater than or equal to the ratio of the coefficients of slippage of the wheels dsj1 and dsj2 axles, providing movement off-road vehicle MZKT-79091 on a support surface with a stable road-coupling conditions with a differential drive axles without locking the inter-axle differentials, and amounted to 4.62.

Threshold mismatches kinematic parameters of the wheel axles to unlock the center differential machine 3 was calculated in accordance with expression (1):

where Δδs=- 1.25-value threshold mismatches kinematic parameters of wheel axles adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method in this example;

rj1=0,69 m and rj2=0,69 m - the rolling radii of the outer and inner with respect to the center of rotation of the wheels of the i-th axle, respectively;

νj1=5,49 m/s and νj2=4,51 m/s - speed rolling of external and internal with respect to the center of rotation of the wheels of the i-th leading what about the bridge, respectively, when driving wheeled vehicle on the supporting surface with a stable road-coupling conditions with a maximum speed of to which the control of the differentials. In this example, the maximum speed, which is controlled by the differential off-road vehicle MZKT-79091, was taken equal to 5 m/s;

j - serial number drive axle from among the associated respective center differential.

The studies were established graphic dependences of coefficients slippage dsj1 and dsj2 wheels cars 1, 2, 3, respectively, of the time of motion along the bearing surfaces of the satisfactory condition of land with poor road-coupling conditions (Fig.1-3).

Dependency analysis in figure 1 shows that when the multi drive wheel of the machine 1 with a simple symmetric differential drive section support surface, with poor road-coupling terms is separate the slipping wheels. The values of the coefficients slippage dsj1 and dsj2 the leading wheels of the vehicle 1 is changed from a value equal to 0,0124...0,0134, when driving along a ground support surface satisfactory to the values 0,099...0,1096 when the passage area of the support surface with poor road-coupling conditions. The greatest increase in the values of the coefficients slippage correspond to the wheels of the first and second driving axles with a lower normal load.

From figure 2 it follows that separate slip axles in a multi drive wheel vehicle 2 is running differentials in accordance with the method adopted in the prototype is limited by the threshold value set in the software of the electronic control unit traction control.

If you get wheels drive axle on plot bearing surface with poor road-coupling terms of the values of their coefficients of slippage, increase to range from 0,0839 to 0,0973. Upon reaching relationships slippage threshold is locking center differential front leading truck, the wheels of the third and fourth axles - axle differential rear of the leading truck. Implementation in the future within 21 with locked drive axles limiting factors slippage dsj1 and dsj2 wheel axles to 0,0218...0,0237 and positive impact on the increase of permeability and traction-speed performance off-road wheeled vehicles in relation to off-road wheeled machine with a simple differential drive.

After 21 seconds after locking the inter-axle differentials front and rear of the trolley in accordance with the method adopted as a prototype, is unlocking is not based on the current condition of the road-coupling conditions under the driving wheels of the vehicle 2. Subsequent unlocking differentials during the continued movement of the wheels of the machine supporting surface with poor road-coupling conditions leads to a re-increase of the coefficients of slippage of the wheels of the first and third axles, occurrence of misalignment of the kinematic parameters of the wheel axles and, as consequence, to decrease the level of implementation of the reference terrain and traction-speed characteristics of the machine. When reaching the relations of the coefficients of slippage of the wheels of the first and second axles, the third and fourth axles threshold 4,62 is repeated blocking of the relevant inter-axle differentials front and rear driving trucks on the following finite period of time. Thus the method adopted as a prototype, leads to the unlocking of the drive wheels when driving in bad road-coupling conditions and increase the likelihood of loss wheeled machine mobility.

Based on figure 3 indicate that the machine 3 management differentials in accordance with the inventive method a separate slip or misalignment of other kinematic parameters wheels is realized only at the beginning of the motion the wheel of the machine supporting surface with poor road towing us what conditions. Separate slip occurs only at the moment of establishing the presence area of the support surface with poor road-coupling conditions under the wheels.

At the entrance wheels on plot bearing surface with poor road-coupling conditions at the machine 3, and the machine 2 increases the odds of slippage of the wheels first, and then the third driving axle and the occurrence of mismatches kinematic parameters of major bridges. Upon reaching the error kinematic parameters axles threshold value corresponding to the ratio of coefficients slippage equal to 4.62, blocking, respectively, inter-axle differentials front and rear driving trucks. The resulting increase in the odds of slippage of the wheels of the first drive axle is limited to the range of values from 0,0839 to 0,0973 when determining the area of the support surface with poor road-coupling conditions under the leading wheels of the vehicle to lock controlled differentials. The maximum values of the coefficients slippage upon further movement of the section of the support surface with poor road-coupling conditions to complete its passage is restricted to values 0,0218...0,0237. Unlocking the center differential does not occur, because the values of massoglia any wheels connect their axles in a given interval of time, proving the passage of wheeled machine section support surface, with poor road-coupling conditions exceed a threshold value Δδs.

Thus implements the control differential-drive wheeled vehicles in accordance with the claimed method, which eliminates repeated occurrence of separate slippage, and unlocking the drive wheel axles overcoming site support surface with poor road-coupling conditions. This provides a wheeled machine with a high level of implementation of the supporting terrain and traction-speed performance and reduces the risk of losing her mobility.

As an indicator of the efficiency of running a multi drive system of a wheeled machine was used the following metric, its structure corresponds to the requirements of efficiency:

where ηrsα_the indicator of efficiency of running systems of wheeled vehicles [Vysotsky M. R., Dubovik D.A. efficiency of running systems of wheeled vehicles. // Reports of NAS of Belarus. - 2007. - T, No. 2. - S-94];

N- power spent running system on the implementation of the movement of the machine in the direction set by the driver turning the steering wheel, W;

N kthe power transmitted by the driving system, W;

Nkαj1and Nkαj2- power consumed respectively the left and right wheels of the j-th bridge on the implementation of the movement of the machine in the direction set by the driver turning the steering wheel (the indices 1 and 2 refer respectively to the left and right wheel axle), W;

Nkj1and Nkj2- power connected respectively to the left and right wheel of the j-th bridge, W;

n is the number of axles of a wheeled machine.

To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method let us consider the dependence of the change of the index ηrsα(2) from the time the motion multi drive wheel vehicle on the supporting surface with the area with poor road-coupling conditions, is shown in figure 4-6.

Analysis based on figure 4 shows that multi drive wheel of the machine 1 with a simple symmetric differential drive axles and wheels index ηrsαat movement on a support surface in a satisfactory condition is 0,987. Overcoming site support surface with poor road-coupling conditions index ηrsαreduced to the range of values 0,9737...0,9742. The decrease in ηrsαon 0,0128...0,0133 explained by the increase in slippage of drive wheels moving at the appropriate time on the plot of the reference surface is STI with reduced friction.

The multi drive wheel vehicle 2 is running differentials in accordance with the method adopted as a prototype, the decrease in efficiency ηrsαhappens repeatedly. The decrease in efficiency occurs when the wheels of the first and third axles of the beginning of the section support surface, with poor road-coupling conditions, as well as when moving on land with poor road-coupling conditions whenever unlocking differentials after a time, they were blocked (figure 5). The decrease in ηrsαthe machine 2 is limited by the locking differentials, axles, which is carried out when the threshold relations of the coefficients of slippage, the size of their wheels. The decrease in ηrsαthe machine 2 is to 0,9747 and 0,9742 when getting wheels respectively of the first and third axles to an area with poor road-coupling conditions.

When driving a multi drive wheel of the machine 3 (6) management differentials in accordance with the inventive method the decrease in ηrsαdue to the split of slippage of drive wheels to a value numerically equal to 0,9747, occurs only at the entrance to the area of the support surface with poor road-coupling conditions is I. Upon reaching relationship coefficients slippage of driving wheels of the first and second axles threshold value, equal to 4.62, locking center differential front of the truck. Upon reaching relationship coefficients slippage of driving wheels of the third and fourth axles threshold value, equal to 4.62, locking center differential rear of the truck. Further movement of the machine 3 on the plot with bad road-coupling is provided with locked center differential front and rear of the truck. Moreover, in contrast to machine 2 machine 3 unlocking differentials is not after specified periods of time after they were blocked, and after the specified periods of time while reducing errors of kinematic parameters of wheel axles values lower than the threshold value Δδsthat is a characteristic of overcoming the machine area of the support surface with poor road-coupling conditions. In the prevent reduction in the efficiency of the drive axles due to unlock the center differential while driving wheel of the machine supporting surface with poor road-coupling conditions.

Thus, the practical realization of the development of otango method improves the efficiency of the running system, reference terrain and traction and speed properties of all-drive wheeled vehicles by taking into account the current road-coupling conditions and exceptions multiple separate slipping axles when driving in bad road-coupling conditions.

The method of controlling the differential-drive wheeled vehicles, which consists in locking the inter-axle differential for a certain period of time when the threshold value mismatches kinematic parameters associated with them wheels and unlocking differentials, characterized in that the unlocking of the center differential is carried out at the reduction of misalignments kinematic parameters of the wheels associated with them axles below the threshold values determined from the expression:

where Δδs- threshold mismatches kinematic parameters of wheel axles;
rj1and rj2is the radius of the rolling external and internal with respect to the center of rotation of the wheels of the j-th driving axle, respectively, m;
vj1and vj2- speed rolling of external and internal with respect to the center of rotation of the wheels of the j-th driving axle, respectively, when driving wheeled vehicle on the supporting surface with a stable road-coupling conditions the maximum speed, to which the control of the differential, m/s;
j - serial number drive axle from the number associated with the relevant inter-axle differential.



 

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FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: wheel planetary gearbox consists of driving bevel gear (1), installed at semi-axis (2), driven bevel gear (3), installed at the axle splines (4), cone satellites (5), installed at cross pins (6). Pins (6) are installed in the mating holes of internal body (7) and external body (8). Bodies (7, 8) are mutually connected by bolts (9). A deepening for thin-wall sleeve (10) is provided at the bodies' mating location, at bodies' external surface. Sleeve (10) is installed flush to the external surface of bodies. Circular grooves are made in the deepenings of bodies (7, 8) from different side of cross pins (6). O-rings (11) are installed in the circular grooves. The internal surface of thin-wall sleeve (10) interacts with O-rings (11).

EFFECT: simplification of sealing of mated surfaces of internal and external bodies; maintaining the overall dimensions of gearbox; ensuring sufficient strength the tho gearbox.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanic.

SUBSTANCE: the self-blocking differential contains a power-driven shell with lids, in which half shaft elements are placed coaxially and connected with the half shaft. The half shaft elements, on their external surface, have spiral grooves with a semi-circular cross-section, the direction of which is reverse to that of the spiral, rolling elements (balls) filling the closed channels in the power-driven shell, in chains. The closed channels contain working grooves open for inserting ball segments into the spiral grooves. The longitudinal bypass channels and the side return channels are formed by slots in the lids and cuts around the perimeter of the distribution washers installed on the half shaft elements. The distribution washers have a diameter equal to the working groove dimension.

EFFECT: increases reliability of self-blocking differential.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; transmissions of wheeled vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed differential lock control system contains fluid medium supply source with reducing 7, three-position distributor 11, two-chamber cylinder consisting of control space A of lock-up clutch 4 formed by its housing and movable partition 34, and additional diaphragm chamber 6 having its control space Б arranged coaxially and in series relative to control space of lock-up clutch 4. Movable partition 34 is connected with pressure disk 29 by means of rod 30 rigidly connected by one end with pressure disk 29. Rod 30 interacts with diaphragm 32 of additional diaphragm chamber 6, and it passes in its middle part through central part of movable partition 34, being rigidly connected with support plate 33 interacting with partition 34. Space Б of additional diaphragm chamber 6 communicates with three-position distributor 11 selectively communicating said spaces with drain main line 14 and reducing regulated valve 7.

EFFECT: increased capacity owing to automatic reduction of locking at cornering of vehicle and decreased skidding of leading wheel.

2 dwg

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