Method of cultivation and device for its realisation
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of soil with spherical disks installed at attack angle, peripheral part of surface of which is arranged as wavy for provision of smoothly repeating variations of angle of attack of disks to the left and to the right from initial value of angle of attack of disks. Device comprises spherical disks arranged at the angle of attack and having cutting edge. Peripheral part of each spherical disk surface is arranged as wavy. Wave of disk, starting from cutting edge, is made as decreasing to disk centre with transition into sphere.
EFFECT: such technology and structural design make it possible to improve quality of cultivation with reduction of process energy intensity and improve efficiency of tiller disks operation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
The present invention relates to tillage technologies using disk tillage machinery, which can make the main tillage, harrowing, shelling, and other operations.
Working body in such guns are spherical disks, which can be cut or round (without cut).
Spherical disks are installed on the frame of the gun front rows in the direction of the labor movement during the cultivation, battery on a common shaft or on a stand-alone racks.
Depending on the type of work the disks selected for the diameter and give them the angle of attack α, which characterizes the magnitude of the rotation of the disk from the direction and angle β, which characterizes the inclination of the blade to the vertical plane. The angle of attack of the disc α is a variable and depends on the physico-mechanical properties of soil such as moisture content, density, hardness, paternalist soil, as well as from the preceding processing, terrain and so on. The stronger the soil, thus must be greater than the angle α. The maximum value of the angle α in the real conditions of the technological process is 35°, minimum 5°. The angle β promotes better penetration of the disc into the soil and depends on the radius of curvature of the disk. Basically it is a constant and is 10...20°.
Known methods pocoo is abode, using spherical disks that are installed in rows on the frame of the tillage tools and having the angle of attack α and the angle of inclination of the blade to the vertical plane β.
Plow-lumiline disk (see St-in utility model No. 147977, AV 7/00 from 23.02.2000) contains a frame, wheels, regulator of angle of attack. Disk drives are installed in rows on stand-alone racks, and control the angle of attack of disks in the series made in the form of a lever rigidly connected with the stand drive and articulated with a traverse parallel to the beam with racks of disks and screw pair, providing longitudinal movement of the bar.
Implemented a way, this device has the disadvantage that changes in the physico-mechanical properties of soils under cultivation can be so significant that you want permanent change of attack angle. Exhibited the same pre-recorded at the beginning of the cultivation, the angle of attack of all the disks does not provide optimality conditions for this parameter and therefore as tillage is reduced.
There is a method of cultivation that is implemented in the device (see A.S. USSR №1491357, AV 21/08 from 23.03.87). Implemented in the way the discs also have a mechanism for adjusting the attack angle, which when adjusting rotates the disks total number of synchronously. The attack angle is set to start work tillage is rude and rigidly fixed. In harrow the drive is missing angle of inclination of the blade to the vertical plane β.
The disadvantage of the implemented method is that changing the properties of the soil along the length of the stroke may not correspond to a fixed value of the set of attack angle α, which reduces the quality of the soil.
There is a method of cultivation (see U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2185044, AV 21/08 from 04.07.2000) prototype, implemented in the device. The method also implements a mechanism for adjusting the angle of attack of the spherical disks on a stand-alone racks harrows, mounted on the transverse beams of the frame. The disks have the angle to the vertical plane β. The disadvantage of this method is that the adjustment of the angle of attack of drives connected on one thrust, turning all the drives in the number of synchronously at the same angle of attack, which is firmly fixed. Further, the angle of attack can be changed only when the stop operation of the machine. The harrow must be raised above the surface of the soil so that the disks have not touched it and then reconfigure your attack angle.
Obviously, the change of physico-mechanical properties of the soil, which is observed even on the same field that requires constant adjustment of the attack angle, which is almost the specified device is not feasible.
Fixed and the same angle of attack of all the disks p and the change of soil properties leads to disajustment harrows, that reduces the quality of the soil.
The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality of cultivation.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that carry out the coordination of the variability of the soil properties and the variability of the angle of attack of disk tools. This is achieved by performing a spherical disk wavy.
The spherical wave drive smoothly changes set him in advance on the tillage tool, for example, disc harrow angle of attack to the left and to the right from the original values in the mode of repeating deviations, providing the desired range of angles of attack of the disc, which is set in the disk geometry of the wave, and the wave disk, starting from the cutting edge of the disk, decreasing toward the center of the disk, moves in its scope.
In more detail, the invention will be described below on the disk harrow in which the disks are spherical peripheral portion of the surface of which is made wavy and waviness of this part decreases toward the center of the sphere and enters the sphere.
Figure 1 presents a schematic drawing of a disk harrow with a spherical disks.
Figure 2 presents a schematic drawing wavy spherical disc (side view).
Figure 3 presents a variant wavy spherical disk.
Harrow on figure 1 consists of a frame is 1 with the transverse beams 2, which on a stand-alone racks (not shown in figure 1) have spherical disks 3, having a different angle of attack α.
Spherical disc 2 contains a sphere with 4 fixing holes 5 and repeated around the perimeter of the disk wave 6, which is closer to the center of the disk decreases in amplitude and length and enters the spherical surface without wavy bend.
Peripheral bottom point b, C, D a repeating wave form 6 mechanical plane of the disk, which is installed to the line of direction of movement of the harrow F at an angle of attack α=15°.
Figure 3 wave disc made in the form of "eight" when viewed from the side. Possible performance and other types of waves. Asking the geometry of the wave, it is possible to provide any change of angle of attack.
Works harrow with a spherical disks of figure 1 as follows.
It is known that in any field there are moist lowland dry, solid elevations, soils with a high content of clay or sand, with varying amounts of crop residues, etc.
It is known that for each case, required for drives his angle of attack α, which is theoretically and practically difficult to find. As practice shows, the range of angles of attack 5...35° covers all cases the variability of the soil properties.
It is obvious that the harrow disks should cover this range of angles α. In this case, the AE grinding of soil and crop residues will be most effective. However, in this case, all the harrow disks (see figure 1) or the group must have its own angle of attack α and with some given resolution to close the range 5...35°. At each discrete angle α must be a few dozen disks. This harrow will have large dimensions and weight.
To determine the number of disks required for each specific angle of attack, to carry out the necessary balancing lateral forces harrows, which will inevitably make the turn and yaw harrows that will lead to marriage in cultivation, in known devices is almost impossible.
Configure all disks, harrows on some average angle of attack reduces the quality of tillage. In addition to determine this angle is also difficult, as even for a single field to determine the average physical and mechanical variability of soil impossible. The proposed invention consists in the following. Making spherical wavy disc, when the disc spins, during cultivation, the wave will change the current value of the angle of attack α in advance a specified range, for example 5...35°. By cultivating tool, such as a disc harrow, a certain amount of wavy spherical disks, where each wave replaces the number of disks is greater than the number of disks with some discrete angle α at any point in time to ensure that within this range the number of disks required, working effectively is the real variability of soil properties. This requires a parametric number of disks, which are given for different diameters of their radii of the sphere, the number of waves and the range of angles α.
It is clear that wave drive (convex and concave part) decreases from the periphery to the center in the form of a wedge, which fades into the field.
When the reduction of the wave decreases in amplitude and wavelength, while smoothly changes the angle of attack waves α, that is, each nipped to the center of the disk wave is a smoothly changing the value of the angle of attack of the disc. This cannot be achieved by a simple set of ordinary spherical disks with a discrete change their angle of attack on the tillage tool, as it will require a very large number of disks.
In the proposed method, each wave is equal to an infinite set of ordinary spherical disks with their location at different angle of attack α in both directions from the original values (see figure 2).
Wavy discs, rotating asynchronously, at any time provide the averaged range of angles of attack, which corresponds to the average range of values of physico-mechanical properties of soil. Thus, is a constant and simultaneous coordination of the range of elevation is attack α with a range of different soil properties, and enhance the quality of cultivation.
This wavy surface areas of the disk can be performed, for example, only on the amount of immersion of the disc in the soil. Let us illustrate this by the following example. Depth of tillage depends on the mode of operation of disc plough, harrows or lumilikha and can be 5-20 see
Wave disk are located on the surface of a sphere with a wedge of rays radiating from the center of the sphere to its periphery. The wedge can be done and it will be truncated to go on the field at different distances from its center and having a trapezoid shape.
The truncated wedge can move into the sphere at a distance of 5-20 cm from the working edge of the disk and is converted into a line.
Thus, various design waviness, namely the full truncated wedge and the wedge gives the drive a lot of new positive qualities on a predictable range of angle of attack, turnover and crumbling soil.
The working edge of the disc has a wavy shape by performing a peripheral part of the surface of the spherical disk wavy. Due to the fact that all harrow effectively covers the entire range of angles of attack, then at any point in time, it will be in an optimal and efficient manner, ensure the achievement of the technical result, that is, improving the quality of cultivation.
This harrow for acquiring the no new qualities. Harrow becomes universal. There is no need to configure the harrow.
Due to the asynchronicity of occurrence on different disks from different angles of attack, and hence different lateral forces that deploy the harrow force absorb each other. Is the compensation of the forces leading to buchenau and yaw of the machine during operation. Asking the geometry of the wave, its period and amplitude, it is possible to ensure that any change in the angle of attack of the disc α, its smooth change by the beam within a predetermined angle, for example, from left to right and back through the original value, that is, through the line, which initially exhibited disk. This work disk of figure 2 is as follows.
Let the disk is initially set at the low points of the wave, C, D as in the plane under the angle of attack α=15° to the direction of movement. When the depth in the soil and the rotation of the disk around its axis on the plot a1the angle α1will be 5°. On the site of a2the angle α2will be 30° on the site and3the angle α3will be 5° on the site of a4the angle α4will be 30°. Thus, each wave drive may have a different range of angles of attack, which depends on the curvature of the wave. This curvature can be performed, for example, the radius R1(see figure 2) and all the waves drive the same. When the rotation of the disk and its work in the soil, the angle of attack α b the children vary in the range 5...30°. However, the curvature of the wave may be different and the angles will be different. The drive will be determined by the waveform and the number of repeated changes of angle of attack to the left and to the right of the initial value during one rotation of each disk is equal to the number of waves on the disk.
Work disk in figure 3 differs in that the angle of attack of the disc will occur more slowly, which will contribute to better treatment soil layer.
Described and claimed tillage method and device for its implementation ensures the achievement of the technical result, namely: improving the quality of tillage increases the efficiency of disk tillage tools, which becomes universal, simplified maintenance.
1. The method of processing soil, including soil treatment established under the angle of attack of the spherical disks, characterized in that the tillage implement of the spherical disks, peripheral part of the surface which is made wavy to ensure a smooth repetitive changes the attack angle to the left and to the right from the original values of the attack angle.
2. A device for the treatment of soil containing mounted at an angle of attack of the spherical disks, having a cutting edge, wherein the peripheral part of the surface of each the spherical disk is made wavy, the wave disk, starting with a cutting edge made of diminishing toward the center of the disk with the transition into the sphere.
SUBSTANCE: method includes introduction of vermicompost into soil, spraying of soil with aqueous solution of humin preparation, preplant cultivation, joint planting of eastern goat's rue with single-year ryegrass. Prior to sowing, seeds of eastern goat's rue are treated with rizotorfin - 0.5 kg per hectare norm of seeds and aqueous solution of humin acids salts with concentration of 0.075%. Joint sowing of seeds is carried out as follows: 18÷20 kg/ha of eastern goat's rue and 8÷10 kg/ha of single-year ryegrass. Vegetating plants are sprayed twice with water solution of humane acids salts with concentration of 0.004÷0.006%: in phase "6÷8 leaves " and in phase of "budding - start of blooming".
EFFECT: method makes it possible to prevent overgrowing of pasture and to produce high-quality fodder with preservation of landscape ecology, and also to increase fertility of soil.
2 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes sowing and harvesting. Sowing of winter and spring crop seed is done along with shoots of the same winter crop. At the same time seeds of crops in regular or encrusted form separately or in mixture are embedded into soil with disk ploughshares, or separately in encrusted form are sown with broadcaster along shoots. At the same time straw is thrown in process of harvesting, or crops is left after combing. In method they use sowing machine without compactors of "СЗП-3.6" type or spreader of "ПШ-21.6" type or spreader on speed chassis with tyres of extremely low pressure of "РОСА-05" type.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to produce harvests of winter and spring crops in one year without fertilisers and other chemical substances and to extend link of crop rotation without main and preplant treatment of soil.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: in method main treatment of soil is carried out without bed turnover for the depth of 0.12-0.15 m, preplant treatment of upper layer by bed milling for the depth of 0.08-0.12 m, area surface is smoothened, mineral fertilisers are superficially introduced - N30P60K60 in kg d.v./ha. Chemical substances are introduced to fight weed plants, devil's grass seeds are sown to the depth of 0.02-0.03 m with norm of (3.0-3.5)×106 pieces of germinable seeds/ha. Pre- and post-planting smoothening is carried out, as well as additional fertilising in the next year in frozen-thawed soil with nitrogen fertiliser with norm of 30-40 kg d.v./ha. Stubble is combed out, upper soil layer is mulched. Area is flooded with flood water with norm of 2000-2500 m3/ha, weed plants are removed by mowing of crop at cutting height of 0.10-0.15 m, at cut height of 0.06-0.08 m mowing is done with grass height of 0.6-0.7 m of pure sowing in spreading, grass is raked in a swath, and is removed for hay. In period of autumn tillering, mineral fertilizers N30-45P40-60K40-60 are introduced in kg d.v./ha, at the third year of plants life nitrogen fertilisers are introduced in March into frozen-thawed soil with norm of 30-45 kg d.v./ha. Stubble is removed in the third decade of March - the first decade of April, and upper layer of soil is mulched, area is flooded with flood water with norm of 2500-3500 m3/ha. In the third decade of July harvesting is carried out by means of separate combining, as well as devil's grass ears thrashing in phase of waxy ripeness of seeds. At the same time at the third year of plants life in the third decade of March after removal of stubble at the angle of 10-50° in direction of sowing with pitch of 0.3-0.5 m, slots are cut with width of 4-6 mm for depth of 0.10-0.16 m.
EFFECT: method provides for improved seed productivity of devil's grass on irrigation-developed estuaries watered by means of flooding.
SUBSTANCE: method includes autumn arrangement of planting holes with linear placement. Each hole is made with diametre of 0.2-0.6 m with depth of 1.2-1.5 m. Prevernal plantation of 800-900 grafts is carried out on one hectare of pasture. At the same time each graft from saxaul rootstock with age of 9-11 years is formed with length of 1.2-1.5 m and diametre of 15-35 mm with number of alar buds of 8-12 pcs per 1 m of graft length. In process of plantation, at least one of alar buds on graft is located higher than level of pasture day surface. In case there are no natural precipitations in autumn-winter-spring period, cavity of each hole is filled with water of volume of 0.03-0.42 m3.
EFFECT: method makes it possible, at the third - fourth years of black saxaul plantations life, to produce seed material in linear plantations with mechanised process of seeds collection, and to establish stable phytocenosis around each treelike saxaul.
2 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in method main treatment of soil is carried out without turnover of soil, milling, smoothening of surface, surface introduction of fertilisers, preplant watering by overhead irrigation with norm of 200-250 m3/ha. Seeds are embedded at the depth of 2-3 cm. Post-planting smoothening is carried out, weeds are suppressed by introduction of herbicides 2.4-D or butyl ether, nitrogen additional fertilizing at the 2nd year of plants life of 45 kg d.v./ha, harrowing, vegetation watering to maintain threshold of humidity at 70% HB. Grass is mown for hay in 2 and 3 decades of May at height of cut 0.06-0.08 m. In case of moisture in soil reduces, vegetation watering with norm of 500-600 m3/ha in layer of 0-0.6 m. Hay is brought in. At the 3rd year of plants life in period of spring sprout-making, nitrogen is introduced in dose of 45-60 kg d.v./ha. Upper layer of soil is mulched in the first decade of April by furrowing, and stubble is removed. Seeds of ribbon grass are collected in phase of their waxy ripeness, as well as seeds of awnles brome, meadow fescure grass and briny couch grass - in phase of complete ripeness. At the 2 and 3 years of plant life, vertical cutting of meadow grass rootstock is carried out in direction of rectangular site diagonal, and in case of vegetation watering cutting is carried out parallel to another diagonal, each cutting is done by knives with thickness of 6-8 mm for depth of 0.15-0.18 m with pitch of 0.4-0.5 m.
EFFECT: method provides for production of seed material of meadow grass of estuary ecotype at the third year of plant life.
SUBSTANCE: in method on prepared and dyked section with area of 20-30 ha, main treatment of soil is carried out without bed turnover at the depth of 0.12-0.15 m for watering with flood water. Milling of the upper layer performed for depth of 0.08 - 0.12 m to obtain agronomically precious soil fractions. Surface of section is smoothened, preplant compaction is carried out. Seeds of Beckman's grass are sown to the depth of 0.5 cm with norm of (0.5-1.0)×106 pieces of germinable seeds per ha. Soil is smoothed, next year N30-45 is introduced in kg d.v./ha in frozen-thawed soil. Watering with flooding is done in April with norm of 2500-3500 m3/ha. Herbicides are introduced for sowing of plants, weed plants are mown at the height of 0.10-0.15 m. At the 3rd year of plants life, mineral fertilisers are introduced into frozen-thawed soil, N30-45P40-60K40-60 in kg d.v./ha. After layer drawoff, additionally nitrogen fertilisers are introduced with dose of 45-60 kg d.v./ha or in phase of tillering - shooting. Flooding with flood water of site is done with norm of 3500-4000 m3/ha, blossom clusters of Beckman's grass are mown in phase of waxy ripeness at the cut height of 0.08-0.10 m, and seeds of Beckman's grass are removed at maximum possible height of cut. Prior to flooding of dyked site with flood water at the 3rd year of plant life, across crops they cut vertical slots with width of 8-12 mm at the depth of 0.18-0.22 m with pitch of 0.4-0.7 m.
EFFECT: method provides for increased seed productivity of Beckman's grass seeds for 32-44%.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to agricultural machine building, in particular to wide-cut sectional soil-cultivating machines, which are put into working and transport positions. Implement comprises hitch frame equipped with drag bar and brackets for installation of middle and extreme frames in transport position in front part and support wheels in back part, sections of working elements, central, two middle and two extreme frames, which are hingedly connected to each other, with central frame, with hitch frame and controlled by hydraulic cylinders through brackets rigidly fixed on frames and hitch frame. Each pair from extreme and middle frames with central frame is hingedly joined by means of two parallel installed four-link hinged mechanisms. The first crank of mentioned mechanism is created by bracket of central frame, upper and lower connecting rods connected to brackets of middle and extreme frames. Lower connecting rod by stem and base of hydraulic cylinder is additionally connected to bracket of central frame. Each section of working elements has shaft with set of working elements, bearing supports on shaft ends are mounted with the possibility of dismantling on longitudinal plates, which are mutually coupled by pair of transverse bars. In the middle of each transverse bar of section there is a bush welded-in, which by means of axis is mounted in bush on transverse bar of either central frame or middle frame or extreme frame. Coupling of coaxial bushes on transverse bars of working elements section and any frame by means of axis create a pendulum suspension, angular swaying of which is limited with limiter of working elements section rotation. Each frame is created with a pair of transverse bars, ends of which are coupled by longitudinal plates, having U-shaped cuts in upper part for matching in working position with lower connecting rods of four-link hinged mechanisms.
EFFECT: improved operational reliability and expanded scope of performed technological operations.
3 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, land reclamation and development. The method involves loosening the topsoil, fertiliser application and placement in the soil. Before using the fertiliser is packed in resilient round capsules with holes. The capsules with fertiliser are applied in the soil in rows, at a depth between 8 and 15 cm, at the rate of 20-60 capsules per a square metre. Each of the capsules has multiple holes with the size between 1 and 4 mm. The size of each capsule is between 30 and 60 mm.
EFFECT: the method enables to reduce land reclamation time, prevent prompt precipitation scavenging of the land improving fertiliser out of the soil as well as reduce material costs.
3 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes sowing rice seeds with their placement in soil at the depth 2.5-3 cm. After that fields are flooded with water for 3-5 days for seed soaking. Then water is drained for period of seed germination. After that re-flooding of fields with water is carried out.
EFFECT: method insures dense shoots and reduces decree of rice layering, which allows to increase rice yield and its harvesting.
SUBSTANCE: in claimed method sowing of spring and winter crops is carried out separately with patch 18-22 cm wide between with the distance between patches of one crop 23-27 cm or in each patch with mixture of crops seeds. Sowing is carried out by sowing and cultivating machine of "С3С-2.1П" or "Ob'-4" type. During harvesting straw is scattered about or stalks are left after combing.
EFFECT: application of claimed invention will allow to reduce expenditures on soil preparation and sowing, using lower standard quantity of seed per hectare, increase grain crop productivity and resistance of growing crops to layering, accelerate crop ripening, reduce contamination of crops with weeds.
3 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: disk working element is arranged in the form of spherical disk installed on axis with cutting edge along periphery. Interrupted peripheral cutting edge is formed by cuts. On front face of each cut there is a cutting edge with bore on internal surface of disk with transition of bore to external surface of disk. Transition of cutting edge bores on frontal face is arranged at the border of thinned part of external disk surface.
EFFECT: such structural design makes it possible to provide for complete cutting of vegetative mass and roots of weed plants and to prevent their hanging over back side of cut.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural engineering. The working element is in form of a spherical disc with a cutting edge and is fixed on an axle in form of a polyhedron. The spherical disc is made of two parts. The attachment part of the disc has the shape of a spherical segment with an opening in the centre below the size of the polyhedron of the axle. The working part of the disc is in form of a spherical layer with a cutting edge on the larger diametre. The spherical layer of the working part of the disc is interfaced with spherical segment of the attachment part by mounting shoulders and mating faces. The shoulders and mating faces are mutually fixed by fasteners.
EFFECT: such a design allows or longer service life of the disc.
FIELD: agricultural industry.
SUBSTANCE: unit of the present invention includes a flat disc furnished with a mounting hole made at its centre, and teeth. The teeth are made in the form of loosely installed axle-mounted small-sized flat discs arranged on either side symmetrically to the main disc. The small-sized discs vary in diameters, with one half of the discs having diameter twice that of the other half of the discs. The said small-sized discs are positioned equidistant from one another in an alternate arrangement. The distance from the small-sized discs to the main disc is half as much as that from large-sized discs. All discs are journaled at their axes so as to rotate on roller bearings. Both sides of the flat disc feature one additional concave disc. The concave disc features small-sized discs axes rigidly mounted thereon. The concave discs have diameter 10-15% smaller than that of the main disc and are furnished with grooves along their blade edge. The aforesaid grooves are positioned equidistant at each of the discs, with spaces between grooves differing from one disc to another, i.e. distance between grooves made at one of the discs constitutes a 'golden ratio' - 1.6 - with respect to that at the other disc. The flat disc is also furnished with grooves, the distance between them making half the smaller distance between grooves at the concave disc. The flat disc teeth are oppositely inclined in an alternate manner at an acute angle relative to the vertical direction. All discs are rigidly and symmetrically mounted onto a double bushing arranged in the central mounting hole. The concave discs are rigidly fastened by their inner concave surface to the bushing flanges inner surface. The central disc is mounted onto the middle of the same bushing. Blade edges of all the small-sized discs are aligned with that of the concave discs. Additionally, each of the small-sized discs axes features two rigidly mounted discs separated by distance sleeves, with one of said discs being flat and the other concave, both having the same diameter. Note that a concave disc is arranged between flat ones.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of soil processing due to improved plowing efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: work tool consists of disk with assembling aperture in center and circular cutting edge around periphery, and of teeth. Spherical disks of smaller diameter are arranged symmetrically on both sides of a flat disk. All disks are pivotally set on a bushing which is journaled in the central aperture. Teeth are made in form of small disks and consist of one spherical and one flat dick of the same diameter. Tooth disks are arranged in pairs symmetrically around circumference of bigger spherical disks so, that axes of all pairs of smaller disks are rigidly fixed in spherical disks. Disks on axes are pivotally mounted up to a stop. The stop is rigidly fixed on axes of pair disks in such a way, that working edges of smaller disks do not contact surfaces of spherical disks. The smaller disks are arranged alternately: first - flat disk, then spherical, or vice versa and also with alternation of pairs. Diameters of smaller pair disks differ from the neighbour pair by the "golden section" - 1.61 times; these pairs are arranged also alternating with smaller ones. Each successive axial distance of each pair from the plane of cutting edges of spherical disks differs from the preceding one by the golden section" - 1.61 times.
EFFECT: upgraded quality of tillage due to increased efficiency of process of tilling and mixing soil.
SUBSTANCE: disc shovel is made as a concave disc with a toothed profile. The disc is mounted with the convexity up and fixed on a support. The support is placed in the centre of the disc. The disc is set rigidly on the axis. The support consists of three parts connected by hinges to each other. The hinges axes are perpendicular to each other. The hinges are fitted with spiral-band springs. The springs are rigidly fixed at the top on the opposite sides of the upper and middle parts of the disc support above the hinges for holding the support parts in operation position. Teeth tips form three rows placed at different heights. The upper row is placed at the distance equal to 2/3 of the specified tilling depth, the second - at that of 1/2 of the specified tilling depth and the third row - at that of 1/4 of the specified tilling depth. The rows teeth are of different length. Teeth with tips forming the second row are considered as basic ones and the length of each second tooth in this row accounts for the "golden section 1.61" of the basic tooth. Length of the upper row teeth amounts to 0.8 of the basic tooth length and these teeth are set horizontally at the level of junction of two adjacent teeth from the lower row next but one with the same pitch. Tips of all teeth are fitted with detachable bits made from wear-resistant material.
EFFECT: improving quality of stony soil tillage without damaging the toothed surface of the shovel.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agricultural mechanical engineering and can be used tilling operations. The disk shovel is made in the form of the spherical disk established by camber upwards and fixed on a support which is located in the centre of the disk. The disk contour has the form of gear. The support is made from two upper and bottom parts, connected pivotally. The upper part of the support is supplied with two symmetrically located ribbon springs. The springs are fixed rigidly from two opposite sides of the upper part of the support, and the spring part is adjoined to corresponding planes of the bottom part of the support below the hinge for keeping in working position. The disk on the bottom part of the support is fixed pivotally with possibility of free rotation around vertical axis. Disk teeth are executed in such a manner that one tooth has length twice more than the next tooth. Teeth are located in different planes, two-leveled, with equal step and with alternate sequence. Such constructive performance allows increasing quality of tilling operations.
EFFECT: improved quality of tilling operations.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, presowing soil tillage for cultivation of cereal, industrial, fodder, garden, berry and vegetable crops.
SUBSTANCE: tillage machine has frame, spherical disks mounted on frame in rows with the use of tines so that that their angle of attack may be adjusted, and roller. Bearing casing of each disk is positioned at its concave side, and tine is mounted on bearing casing. Each tine has rectilinear part and part bent toward disk concavity. Rectilinear part of tine is fixed on frame by means of sleeve whose lower part is cantilevered relative to frame, and bent part of tine is connected to tine bearing casing by means of attachment unit. Angle between axes of rectilinear and bent parts of tines is defined from formula β=arctg (D/2l)-β1, where D is diameter of disk, l is length of tine bent part, β1 is angle of inclination of disk to tine. Axis of rectilinear part of tine is arranged in single plane with lower point of disk edge. Roller is positioned at an angle to advancement direction and is pivotally mounted on frame so as to be readily dismantled, and axes of its pins are extending in horizontal plane. Each disk has detachable soil deforming devices mounted on frame. Said devices are fixed for rotation on tine and are made in the form of rods or needle disks which have diameter of about a quarter of diameter of spherical disk and are mounted on tine so as to be adjusted in horizontal and vertical plane relative to spherical disk. Sleeves for attachment of tines on frame comprise sealing members and have, in their upper part located above frame, washer and bolt for fixing tine relative to frame. Replaceable ring is positioned on disk pin for preventing pin from wear. Unit for attachment of tine to spherical disk comprises bearing casing positioned at concave side of spherical disk. Two brackets are rigidly fixed on bearing casing in spaced apart relation for accommodation of tine within said space. Lower end of tine abuts against bearing casing. Brackets and tine have fastening members for enabling rigid fixing of tine relative to disk to eliminate rotation thereof in vertical plane.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities of machine, increased tillage quality and enhanced reliability in operation.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering; soil-tilling implements.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hoe is made in form of spherical disk installed with convex upwards and secured on bracket arranged in center of disk. Disk is provided with toothed contour. Length of tooth is 0.1-0.3 of disk radius, and ratio of width of tooth space measured along chord of arc passing through middle part of tooth along its length to width of tooth is 0.8-1.6. Ring of toothed part and part of disk adjoining toothed part is made conical. Diameter of disk over ends of teeth is less than radius of disk sphere. Teeth are made asymmetrical, with short side ribs arranged radially and long ribs arranged tangentially.
EFFECT: reduced draft resistance, provision of self-cleaning of hoe from plant residues.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: disk battery has shaft with spherical disks put thereon, spacer bushings and self-setting bearing supports connected to frame through poles. Spacer bushings are made in the form of cylindrical compression springs arranged in successive alternation, beginning from any end, with left-hand and right-hand direction of coils. Poles are made in the form of arced rigid forks with straight portion at upper point which is attached to frame, and two axially aligned symmetrical cams. Width of cams is greater than projection of disk deflection. Each of disks is equipped with two-sided thrust roller bearing rigidly fixed in central opening of disk. Outer connection sizes of thrust roller bearing, outer diameters of cylindrical compression springs and outer diameters of arced fork cams are equal to one another. Additional thrust roller bearings are disposed between ends of arced fork cams and compression springs. Disks are put onto shaft with radial gaps equal to at least half the diameter of shaft.
EFFECT: improved quality of soil tillage by individual response of each disk to force occurring during soil tillage.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for tillage machines.
SUBSTANCE: tillage tool has flat disks with central mounting opening and annular circumferential cutting edge, and teeth provided on side surface. Teeth are made in the form of acutely sharpened small flat disks loosely put on shafts, which are rigidly and symmetrically attached to side surface of main disk at both sides thereof so that cutting edges of each small disk are arranged at the same level with cutting edge of main disk. Small disks have different diameters: half the disks have diameter twice the diameter of other half of the disks, said disks being arranged in alternation and at equal pitch with respect to one another. Small disks are spaced from main disk by distance half the distance of larger disks. All the disks are put on their respective shafts for rotation on roller bearings.
EFFECT: wider processing zone and provision for active tillage of soil by means of working tool.
SUBSTANCE: device contains disk and shellboard. The shellboard is mounted from concave side of disk by means of rack with possibility of change of its height of mounting and inclination to working surface of a disk. The shellboard is supplied by roller with possibility of touchdown with working surface of disk in the bottom part of the back surface. The roller is connected to the rack by means of the cylindrical hinge and a resilient member. Rotation axis of a roller is excentric.
EFFECT: possibility of evasion of falling of soil and plant residues between the disk and the shellboard and improvement quality of tillage.
2 cl, 3 dwg