# Method for detection of angular orientation in aircrafts

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: array of aircraft condition vectors are expanded, estimate values of air speeds are defined for corresponding values of aircraft condition vector, varying estimate values of wind speed and wind direction, quality of decision made on wind parametres is assessed, results of calculations are compared with the threshold value, which defines a priori specified accuracy of wind parametres evaluation, when threshold conditions are met during the next iteration, the wind parametres are values corresponding to these conditions, and based on navigation triangle of speeds they calculate values of air speed and course angle, found parametres of wind are used in the next cycle of measurements as average values of limited sample of estimated wind parametres.

EFFECT: expansion of its application field due to more complete accounting of aircraft flight parametres under conditions of destabilising factors effect, for instance wind.

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The inventive method relates to the field of satellite navigation and can be used to determine the angular position of objects in space and on the plane.

The known method of the angular orientation of the object in the radionavigation signals spacecraft (options) (see U.S. Pat. EN 2122217, IPC 6 G01S 5/20, publ. in bull. No. 32, 1998). The method is based on the signals from S SPACECRAFT) two or more antenna-receiving devices arranged in parallel one or two axes of the object, the selection signal with a Doppler frequency, the determination of the attack phase for a period of time of measurement during the time interval estimation produce m measurements of phase shifts between pairs of antenna-receiving devices, and the angular position of the object is determined by solving a system of equations.

The disadvantages of the method-analogue and its variants is the need to ensure the immobility of the aircraft (object) during the measurements and the significant time. In addition, analogues inherent disadvantage of limiting the scope of their application due to incompleteness of the measured parameters, for example when measuring track angle does not take into account the drift angle of the object.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed method is the angular orientation of the objects on signals SC global is aviatsionnyi satellite systems,
described in the book Usershave, Ali, Nevanac and other Network satellite navigation system. / Under. edit Wasserchemie. - M.: Radio and communication, 1993, s-219. The method is based on the signals from the AC global navigation satellite systems, converting high-frequency signals into electrical signals, intermediate frequency, sampling and quantization, the formation of these two sequences of samples by decomposition into quadrature components, comparing the received signals P_{c}with a given threshold of P_{then}when performing threshold conditions, P_{c}>R_{then}deciding on the detection signals CA global navigation satellite system, the execution frequency and phase locked loop detected signals, the selection of the navigation message KA global navigation satellite systems and their demodulation, the assessment of navigation parameters and the calculation of the state vector of the aircraftwhere X, Y, Z - coordinates of the location of the aircraft at time t, V_{X}V_{Y}V_{Z}- values describing vectorcharacterizing the value of the track angleand ground speed V of the aircraft.

Prototype method allows the signals SC global is local navigation satellite systems accurately measure the main parameters of the orientation of the aircraft (3D coordinates, the ground speed vector). The method is well-established and widely used in practice in products "Grotto", "Skipper-KN", HUNG CH-3002 and others (see Usershave, Ali, Nevanac and other Network satellite navigation system. / Under. edit Wasserchemie - M.: Radio and communication, 1993, pp.261-275). Basic, widespread in practice, a product that implements this method is radionavigation (see U-blox: http://www.u-blox.com/customersuppoort/antaris4_doc.html).

The disadvantage of the prototype is limited scope due to the incompleteness of the measured parameters necessary for use in various measurement systems based on mobile objects, in particular on aircraft. The latter may include positioning system emitters. This is because on the aircraft (in the air) are affected by wind and other disturbances that affect the parameters of their flight (heading angle, pitch, roll), exposing their variations, which in turn reduces the completeness and accuracy of the measuring systems of the estimates.

The purpose of the proposed technical solution is the extension of the application area, due to a more complete and objective measurement of the parameters of the flight of aircraft in terms of who is Astia them disturbing factors (wind load).

In the inventive method, this objective is achieved in that in the known method the angular orientation of the objects on signals KA global navigation satellite systems, including the reception of radio signals from the SPACECRAFT global navigation satellite systems, converting high-frequency signals into electrical signals, intermediate frequency, sampling and quantization, the formation of these two sequences of samples by decomposition into quadrature components, comparing the received signals R_{with}with a given threshold

P_{then}when the condition P_{c}>R_{then}the decision about the detection signals CA global navigation satellite system, execution frequency and phase locked loop detected signals, the tracking delay of the signals, the selection of the navigation message KA global navigation satellite systems and their demodulation, the assessment of navigation parameters and the calculation of the state vector of the aircraftwhere X, Y, Z - coordinates of the location of the aircraft at time t, V_{X}V_{Y}V_{Z}- values describing vectorcharacterizing the value of the track angle β and the travel speed V of the aircraft, form an array of I state vectors of lettel the apparatus
i=10, 11, ..., I, the capacity of which I is determined by the required accuracy of measurement and course angle of the aircraft α and depends on the geometry of the route of his flight. Determine the estimated value of the air speed of the aircraft...,for the corresponding state vectorsin accordance with the expression

where V_{i}- i-e is ground speed, β_{i}- the i-th value of the track angle, U_{l}- l-e an estimate of wind speed, l=1, 2, ..., L, δ_{k}- k-e estimated wind direction, k=1, 2, ..., K. the quality of the decision about the wind parameters in accordance with the expression

whererespectively the maximum and minimum estimated values of air velocity from a set offor wind parameters U_{l}and δ_{k}. The calculation results f(U_{1},δ_{k}) is compared with a threshold value of f_{ass}(U,δ)determining a priori given accuracy of the estimation of wind parameters U and δ. Failure to meet the threshold conditions, the wind parameters U and δ assigns the next value and repeat the procedure for computing the set of estimated values of the air velocity. When run on another is terachi threshold conditions, f_{
ass}(U,δ)>f(U_{c},δ_{d}for wind parameters take the values U_{c}and δ_{d}. On the basis of the navigation triangle of velocities calculated values of air velocity(U_{c},δ_{d}and course angle α in accordance with the expressions:

,

,

and found the wind parameters U_{c}and δ_{d}use in the next cycle of measurement and course angle α as averagesandlimited samples {U} and {δ} are the estimated parameters of the wind.

Thanks to a new set of features in the claimed method in a given time interval is achieved a more complete record of the information on the angular parameters of the aircraft, which allowed to determine its heading angle α. The method is based on the assumption of the constancy of the measurement interval the speed and direction of wind on the flight altitude of the aircraft and its flight path non-linear.

The inventive method is illustrated by drawings on which is shown:

figure 1 - the navigation triangle of velocities;

figure 2 is a variant of the generalized block diagram of a device that implements the inventive method;

figure 3 - block diagram of the block estimates of air velocity aircraft is;

figure 4 is a structural block circuit diagram of the determination of the air velocity(U,δ) and course angle α;

figure 5 - algorithm block estimates of air velocities

figure 6 - the algorithm of the evaluation unit of the wind parameters U_{l}and δ_{k};

figure 7 - algorithm definition block air speed(U,δ) and course angle α;

on Fig - the results of the evaluation of precision performance of the proposed method for different conditions of measurement;

figure 9 - the dependence of the measurement accuracy and course anglefrom massive state vectors of the aircraft I for different measurement conditions;

figure 10 - evaluation of the viability of the selected criterion f(U_{l},δ_{k}).

Most of the existing consumer navigation systems intended for determining the spatial coordinates {X,Y,Z}_{j}, velocity vector (track angle β_{j}and ground speed V_{j}), the current time t_{j}and other navigation parameters in the reception and processing of radio signals KA GNSS (see Usershave, Ali, Nevanac and other Network satellite navigation system. Ed. Wasserchemie. - M.: Radio and communication, 1993, pp.261-275; Product Campana: http://www.teknol.ru/products/aviation/companav2). However, for some practical use the ical problems requires knowledge of the angles of roll,
pitch and course angle α of the aircraft. This issue is relevant when performing various types of measurements from aircraft (radio, electromagnetic, photography and others). However, the known methods do not allow to measure the drift angle γ=β-α (see figure 1) object, and hence the directional angle α.

Implementation of the proposed method consists in the following. At the first stage receive signals from the KA GNSS located within the footprint of the band 1570-1625 MHz. To solve the navigation task, you must take the signals from at least four SATELLITES. On this basis must be provided with multi-channel (4 to 12 channels or more) signals. Next, all receiving channels are converting high-frequency signals into electrical signals, intermediate frequency, sampling and quantization. The value of the intermediate frequency is determined by the characteristics of the analog-to-digital Converter, and when this takes place, the tendency of constant increase its value. The sampling interval is chosen according to theorem samples (see Introduction to digital filtering. Under. edit Reborner and Aconstantinou. - M.: Mir, 1976, p.26-27).

Most of the signal processing algorithms designed to work with complex signals. For the transition from real to complex signals is remaneat quadrature conversion signal.
In the light of the digital signals of all n channels, where n=4, 5, ..., N, form the 2n sample sequence I_{n}and Q_{n}(two on each channel), shifted relative to each other by 90 degrees. The latter are the basis for the search signal SC for the delay, frequency and phase of the signal and the selection of the navigation message.

In the next step, search, and detection signals. Due to the fact that at the first stage perform multi-channel reception, the search signals for multiple satellites, it is advisable to carry out in parallel. The search procedure signals for each satellite is a sequential view of possible values of the delay and Doppler frequency offset signal. The decision about the signal reception in the search process is carried out when performing the threshold conditionswhere R_{then}the threshold level selected from a given probability of correct detection.

Spacecraft GNSS use signals phase manipulation, such as BPSK, which can only be taken coherently (see Grigoriev V.A. messaging on foreign information networks. - L.: YOU, 1989, p.98-102). Coherent detection is to compare photomanipulating signal with the reference voltage U_{op}(t), which si the Chrono and phase with the carrier and is obtained by conventional processing of the received signal.
Therefore, to receive information messages from SPACECRAFT provide frequency-lock loop (at an intermediate stage in the transition from the mode frequency search mode continuous tracking phase), phase-lock loop and the tracking delay of the signal (see Usershave, Ali, Nevanac and other Network satellite navigation system. Ed. Wasserchemie. - M.: Radio and communication, 1993, s-198). To highlight the navigation messages to smooth out the noise and remove the modulation bigvoice code.

Evaluate the navigation parameters of the aircraftusing signals from all satellites in view. Here X, Y, Z - coordinates of the location of the aircraft at time t; V_{X}V_{Y}V_{Z}- values describing vectorcharacterizing the value of the track angle β and the travel speed V of the aircraft. While grades are assigned according to the method of least squares. For this purpose, use data about the SPACECRAFT coordinates at the time of the calculation. The latter determine when processing ephemeris information, which is available to the consumer after decoding the navigation message.

To measure the course angle α of the aircraft is necessary to determine the parameters of the wind (U - with the speed of movement of air masses relative to the surface of the earth and wind direction δ). To this end form an array of Ii=10, 11, ..., I. the Capacity of the array I is determined by the required accuracy of measurement U and δ (angle α) and depends on the geometry of the flight path of the aircraft.

As the optimum is the movement of an aircraft with a constant speed in a circle. To simplify calculations, it is advisable compact intervals of time, for example 1 second, measuring the current value of the state vector

In the next step, determine the estimated value of the air speed of the aircraftfor the corresponding i-th state vectorwhen the variation of the wind parameters U and δ in accordance with the expression

where V_{i}- i-e is ground speed, β_{i}- i-e is the track angle, U_{l}- l-e an estimate of wind speed, l=1, 2, ..., L, δ_{k}- k-e estimated wind direction, k=1, 2, ..., K. the measurement Resolution of the parameters U_{l}and δ_{k}is determined by the required accuracy of the measurement of wind ΔU and Δδ, and hence the course angle Δα.

The degree to which the current values of the parameters U_{l}and δ_{k}true indicates the value of the function
whererespectively the maximum and minimum estimated values of air velocity from a set ofj=1, 2, ..., J; J=L·K. the Results of calculations

f(U_{l},δ_{k}) is compared with a threshold value of f_{ass}(U, δ)determining a priori given accuracy of the estimation of parameters U and δ. Failure to meet the threshold conditions, the wind parameters U and δ assigns the next value of U_{l+1}, δ_{k+1}and repeat the calculation procedure of a regular array of air velocities.

It should be noted that the search strategy min(U_{c}, δ_{d}) (enumeration of values U_{c}and δ_{d}may be different and in the framework of the method is not considered (see Garn, Tarn. Handbook of mathematics for scientists and engineers. Definitions, theorems, formulas. Ed. fifth. Ed. Iguatemi. - M.: Nauka, 1984, s-367).

If any abnormal situation, when iterating over all values of U_{l}and δ_{k}threshold conditions remained unfulfilled, determine the minimum of the found values f(U_{l},δ_{k}). Next to wind parameters in the interval {U_{l-1}U_{l+1}} and {δ_{k-1}, δ_{k+1}} reduce its discrete step changes, such as Δ_{U}/10 and Δ_{δ}/10 and in accordance with (1) form a new array of the evaluation value is s air velocity
. In the absence of a positive result recording new array state vectors of the aircrafti=10, 11, ..., I, and again begin the process of finding α.

In the case of a run on the next iteration threshold conditions, f_{ass}(U,δ)>f(U_{c},δ_{d}for wind parameters take the values U_{c}and δ_{d}.

The choice of values of f(U_{l},δ_{k}) as a criterion to determine the true current values of parameters of the wind is based on the constancy of the air speed at different track angles β. In General, as an estimate of the dispersion of values in a group you can use the standard deviation (RMS). In the proposed method, this estimate is replaced by the more simple - the difference of the maximum and minimum values of. Use this assessment is justified by the fact that the number of discrete values of the assumed air speedis limited to the value J=K·L (see expression 1). The positive side of this is a significant gain in reducing the time spent on decision-making about the wind parameters U and δ, and the simulation results (see figure 10), it follows that both RMS and f(U_{l},δ_{k}are wealthy (curves 2 and 1, respectively).

Forth in the offer is the procedure on the basis of the navigation triangle of velocities (see
1) calculate the value of the air speed(U_{c}, δ_{d}on the basis of theorem of cosines

In turn, the value of the course angle α of the aircraft is determined from the expression:

The parameters of the wind U_{c}and δ_{d}use in the next cycle of measurement and course angle α as averagesandlimited samples {U} and {δ} are the estimated parameters of the wind.

Figure 2 shows the generalized block diagram of embodiments of the proposed method the angular orientation of the aircraft. The device contains radionavigation 1, memory block 3, block estimates airspeed 4, the generator of the wind parameters 6, the evaluation unit of the wind parameters 7, block determine air speed and course angle 9, the first 2, the second 5 and third 8 input installation bus and output bus 10, the clock generator 11.

The device is based on experimentally obtained (Il-18, SM) measurements, which show that over 15-30 minutes wind speed U and direction of δ on the flight altitude of the aircraft changes little. The conclusion from this is that the measurement interval is 10-30 seconds values U and δ m is should be considered permanent. On the other hand, when performing various types of measurements on Board the aircraft route of flight, as a rule, different from linear.

Using radionavigation 1 (see GARMIN user Manual

GPS60/GPS60MP/GPSMAP60. Garmin International, Inc. 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A. Path Number 190-00330-00 Rev. ) Generates a set of state vectorscoming to the group of information inputs of the memory block 3. The capacity of the array I set on the first bus 2 and depends on the required accuracy of measurement and course angle of the aircraft α and the degree of nonlinearity of the route of his flight. The simulation results (see Fig.9) and practical tests showed that the value of I for different conditions must comply with I≥10. Under the action of pulses of the synchronization unit 11, and the output unit 3 to the first group of information inputs of unit 4 sequentially receives values of ground speed V_{i}and track angle β_{i}, i=10, 11, ..., I. For the second group of information inputs of unit 4 sequentially receives the estimated values of the speed and direction of the wind U_{l}and δ_{k}respectively from the outputs of the block 6. It should be noted that each i-value travel options V_{i}and β_{i}in turn are associated with the possible values of U_{l}and δ_{k}, l=1, 2, ..., L, k=1, 2, ..., K. In the block is 4 by entering the values of V_{
i}that β_{i}U_{l}, δ_{k}carry out the calculation of the evaluation values of the air velocityin accordance with (1). The second installation bus 5 is designed for input at the initial stage in block 6 a priori known information (if available) about the wind parameters {U_{max}U_{min}}, {δ_{max}, δ_{min}}that finally allows to drastically reduce the time spent on finding U_{c}and δ_{d}in block 7.

The evaluation unit of the wind parameters 7 is designed to generate L·K arrays estimates of air velocitiesfor all values of U_{l}and δ_{k}where l=1, 2, ..., L, k=1, 2, ..., K. In the case of discrete parameter K in 1° K=360. Next, block 7 in each j-th arraydetermine the maximum and minimum values ofrespectively. Find the difference between these quantitiesFound the value of f(U_{l},δ_{k}) is compared with the threshold level f_{ass}(U,δ), which is entered in block 7 on the third installation bus 8. In block 7 carry out the search and comparison of the values f(U_{l},δ_{k}) with the threshold level until the condition f_{ass}(U, δ)>f(U_{c}, δ_{d}). In this case, the information output unit parameter estimation wind 7 form calc is installed with precision the values of the parameters U_{
c}and δ_{d}that arrives at the second group of information inputs of the block determine air speed and course angle 9 and the bus 5 block 6. The latter will allow you to use the values of U_{c}and δ_{d}in the next cycle of measurement and course angle α as averagesandlimited samples {U} and {δ} are the estimated parameters of the wind generated by the block 6.

In the function block 9 includes the calculation of the parameters α and (U_{c}, δ_{d}on the basis of block 1 of the values of V and β (coming to the first group of information inputs) in combination with the data U_{c}and δ_{d}unit 7, coming to the second group of information inputs. The calculation of α and (U_{c},δ_{d}) is carried out in accordance with the expressions 2 and 3. The timing of these operations provide pulses of block 11.

The implementation of the block 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 11 well-known. Memory block 3 provides storage array from the I state vectorscan be implemented in integrated circuit memory devices. Large integrated circuit memory devices: a Handbook. / Ajugoides, Nowbeen, Wii and others / edited Aeuginosa. - M.: Radio and communication, 1990, 288 S.).

Block estimates of air velocity 4 is calculated for the I values in accordance with expression 1. Figure 3 presents an embodiment of the block 4. It contains the first and second blocks calculate sin-functions 12 and 13, respectively, the first and second blocks calculate the cos-functions 14 and 15, respectively, first, second, third and fourth multipliers 16, 17, 18, and 19, respectively, the first and second blocks subtracting 20 and 21, respectively, the first and second device squaring 22 and 24, respectively, the first adder 23, the first device taking the square root of 25. Using named blocks with corresponding connections are implemented by calculating estimated values of air velocityin accordance with (1). All elements are easily implemented in discrete logic 1533 series. The timing of these operations provide pulses of block 11.

Generator wind parameter 6 is used to alternately forming the whole spectrum of possible values U_{l}and δ_{k}. Can be implemented on the basis of a persistent storage device, such as chips KM or 541 series.

The evaluation unit of the wind parameters, in accordance with its functional purpose consists of random access memory for storing L·K arrays of dimension I of the evaluation values of the air velocity units of finding the maximum and minimum C is achene
accordingly, the unit for computing the difference between said values of f(U_{l},δ_{k}), Comparer f(U_{l},δ_{k}) with the threshold level

f_{ass}(U, δ). Implementation of all these blocks is known in the literature and does not cause difficulties (see Ed E. reference manual for RF circuit design: Circuits, blocks, 50 Ohm equipment. TRANS. with it. World, 1990, - 256 S.).

Unit determine air speed and course angle 9 can be implemented in accordance with figure 4. It contains the third computing unit sin-function 26, the third computing unit cos-functions 27, third and fourth devices squaring 28 and 29, respectively, of the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth multipliers 30, 32, 33 and 36 respectively, the divider 31, the second adder 34, the computing unit arcsin-function 35, third and fourth blocks of the subtractor 37 and 38, respectively, the second device extracting the square root 39. Using named blocks with corresponding connections are implemented calculation of wind speed (expression 2) and course angle (expression 3). Implementation of all elements of the unit 9 well-known and extensively described in the literature.

The clock generator 11 provides synchronous operation of all elements of the device. The block 11 is known (see Digital radio receiving system: a Handbook. / Miyazaki, Rbbase and others - M.: Radio and communication, 1990).

Implementation added operations in the proposed method (blocks 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 11) the discrete elements involves significant time spent on their implementation, significant dimensions, weight and energy consumption. In this regard, these blocks should be implemented on the signal processor TMS320c6416 (see TMS320c6416: http://focus/ti/com/docs/prod/folders/print/TMS320c6416.html). The algorithms of blocks 4, 7 and 9 shown in figure 5, 6 and 7, respectively.

Performed modeling to determine the accuracy characteristics of the proposed method. Under the value of N(µ, σ^{2}further let us understand normally distributed random value with mean µ and variance σ^{2}. For each corner of the fly-θ° of the aircraft performed M=1000 trials. It is supposed that in all cases the aircraft was moving with constant velocity V~N(110,40) meters per second and the radius of the circled R=15000 m In each trial were selected average values of wind direction(equiprobably from a set 0, 1, 2, ..., 360°) and the wind speed At~N(10,30) meters per second. Wondered measurement error track angle Δβ and ground speed ΔV. In each trial were built I points covered by computing I=2πRθ/360V. True track anglewas on the point number i, i=1, 2, ..., I. Identify alelis wind speed
and direction of the windmeasured track angle. From the navigation triangle (see figure 1) was calculated heading angle α_{i}true ground speedand the measured ground speed. Next, on the obtained at all points of one test path velocities {V_{i}} and travel angles {β_{i}}, i=1, 2, ..., I, the proposed method was the wind parameters and directional anglesat all points i, i=1, 2, ..., I (see expression 2 and 3). The error in determining the course anglein each m-th test, m=1, 2, ..., M, was defined as

The result of simulation for each corner of the fly θ is the average value of errors of determination of the course angle

.

On Fig presents the simulation results for different conditions of testing. The first curve on Fig meets the following initial data: measurement error track angle Δβ=0.1 degree^{2}the error in the measurement of ground speed ΔV=0,2 (m/s)^{2}the wind direction Δδ=3 C^{2}.

The second curve on Fig meets the following initial data: measurement error ground speed ΔV=0,2 (m/s)^{2}the variance of the wind speed ΔU=0 and dis is the version of wind direction Δδ=0.

The results were presented at Fig indicate that at constant wind (curve No. 2) potential accuracy and course angle is 1°. The latter is achieved when the angle of flight θ=5°. When non-wind (curve No. 1) accuracy of the proposed method is slightly lower, is 2°, and is achieved when the angle of flight θ=15°.

Figure 9 shows the dependence of the measurement accuracy and course angle of the aircraftthe number of points covered by calculation (massive state vectors of the aircraft (I). The results show that at constant wind (curve No. 2) potential measurement accuracy1° in the proposed method is achieved when the volume of the array of state vectors I=10. When non-wind (Δβ=0.1 degree^{2}, V=0,2 (m/s)^{2}, ΔU=3 m^{2}, Δδ=3 C^{2}) measuring accuracy2° is achieved when the volume of the array of state vectors I=30.

Figure 10 shows the simulation results consistency of the truthfulness of the wind parameters, U_{c}and δ_{d}on the accuracy of the set air speed

{B(U, β)_{i}}, i=1, 2, ..., I. Performed 1000 trials, the angle of the fly-in was 10 degrees. The wind speed is assumed truth U=U_{East}a direction ve the RA δ=δ_{
East}+Δδ, where Δδ∈[-180...180] degrees. Other initial data similar to the above address. Curve No. 1 figure 10 reflects the evaluation of the selected criterion σ_{B}=max{B(U,β)_{i}}-min{B(U,β)_{i}}, i=1, 2, ..., I, and the second curve corresponds to the RMS. The latter is obtained in accordance with the expression

,

where. From a consideration of figure 10, we can conclude that the selected in the present method the evaluation of effectiveness is wealthy and unbiased (see Garn, Tarn. Handbook of mathematics for scientists and engineers. Definitions, theorems, formulas. The fifth edition. - M.: Nauka, 1984, s-618).

Made practical testing of the proposed method, which gave good results (measurement errorsfor different conditions were 1.5-3°).

As an additional positive effect it should be noted the ease of implementation of the proposed method (no additional antenna system measures the phase difference of the signals in the antenna elements, and so forth).

The method of determining the angular orientation of the aircraft, including the reception of radio signals from the SPACECRAFT) global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), converting high-frequency signals into electrical signals intermediate cha is toty,
the discretization and quantization, the formation of these two sequences of samples by decomposition into quadrature components, comparing the received signals R_{with}with a given threshold

P_{then}when the condition R_{with}>R_{then}the decision about the detection signals KA GNSS, execution frequency and phase locked loop detected signals, the tracking delay of the signal, the selection of the navigation message KA GNSS and their demodulation, the assessment of navigation parameters and the calculation of the state vector of the aircraftwhere X, Y, Z - coordinates of the location of the aircraft at time t, V_{X}V_{Y}V_{Z}- values describing vectorcharacterizing the value of the track angle β and the travel speed V of the aircraft, characterized in that it further form an array of first state vector of the aircrafti=10, 11, ..., I, container I which is determined by the required accuracy of measurement and course angle α of the aircraft and depends on the geometry of the route of his flight, determine the estimated value of the air speed of the aircraft...,for appropriate values of vecto the States
in accordance with the expression

where V_{i}- i-e is ground speed, β_{i}- i-e is the track angle, U_{l}- l-e an estimate of wind speed, l=1, 2, ..., L, δ_{k}- k-e estimated wind direction, k=1, 2, ..., K, evaluate the quality of the decision about the wind parameters in accordance with the expressionwhereandrespectively the maximum and minimum estimated values of air velocity from a set offor wind parameters U_{l}and δ_{k}the calculation results f(U_{l},δ_{k}) is compared with a threshold value of f_{ass}(U,δ)determining a priori given accuracy of the estimation of wind parameters U and δ, failure to meet the threshold conditions, the wind parameters U and δ assigns the next value and repeat the procedure for computing the set of estimated values of air velocity, when executed on the next iteration threshold conditions, f_{ass}(U,δ)>f(U_{c},δ_{d}for wind parameters take the corresponding values of U_{c}and δ_{d}on the basis of the navigation triangle of velocities calculated values of air speed B(U_{with},δ_{d}and course angle and in accordance with the expressions

and found the wind parameters U_{c}and δ_{d}use in the next cycle of measurement and course angle α as the average values andandlimited samples {U} and {δ} are the estimated parameters of the wind.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for high precision measurement of coordinates of radio-frequency radiation sources which radiate continuous or quazi-continuous signals by means of flying vehicles. Method is based upon reception of signals from radio-frequency radiation sources at three flying vehicles, re-translation of signals to central processing board and calculation of coordinates of radio-frequency radiation sources from difference in radial velocities of flying vehicles. Signals being re-translated from flying vehicles are subject to additional mutual correlation processing. Difference in radial velocities is calculated on the base of measurement of compression factors determined by maximizing of mutual correlation function of signals re-translated from flying vehicles. Coordinates of radio-frequency radiation sources radiating wideband signals is provided.

EFFECT: widened functional capabilities.

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for high precision measurement of coordinates of radio-frequency radiation sources which radiate continuous or quazi-continuous signals by means of flying vehicles. Method is based upon reception of signals from radio-frequency radiation sources at three flying vehicles, re-translation of signals to central processing board and calculation of coordinates of radio-frequency radiation sources from difference in radial velocities of flying vehicles. Signals being re-translated from flying vehicles are subject to additional mutual correlation processing. Difference in radial velocities is calculated on the base of measurement of compression factors determined by maximizing of mutual correlation function of signals re-translated from flying vehicles. Coordinates of radio-frequency radiation sources radiating wideband signals is provided.

EFFECT: widened functional capabilities.

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: array of aircraft condition vectors are expanded, estimate values of air speeds are defined for corresponding values of aircraft condition vector, varying estimate values of wind speed and wind direction, quality of decision made on wind parametres is assessed, results of calculations are compared with the threshold value, which defines a priori specified accuracy of wind parametres evaluation, when threshold conditions are met during the next iteration, the wind parametres are values corresponding to these conditions, and based on navigation triangle of speeds they calculate values of air speed and course angle, found parametres of wind are used in the next cycle of measurements as average values of limited sample of estimated wind parametres.

EFFECT: expansion of its application field due to more complete accounting of aircraft flight parametres under conditions of destabilising factors effect, for instance wind.

10 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to communication engineering and can be used to determine spatial coordinates of a fixed or mobile radio facility (RO) receiving radio signals. The technical result is high efficiency and simplification of corresponding radio systems. A driving RO transmits radio signals with given individual characteristics. The radio signals are received by serially numbered driven RO. The time of reception is recorded and radio signals identical to radio signals of the driving RO are emitted after a delay time given individually for each driven RO. A receiving RO receives radio signals of the driving and driven RO, generates a series from the plurality thereof and, based on the given coordinates of phase centres of antennae thereof and time of reception of radio signals taking into account overall delay time, coordinates of the phase centre of the antenna of the receiving RO are determined.

EFFECT: method does not require overall synchronisation of the plurality of radio facilities transmitting and receiving radio signals.

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to communication engineering and can be used to determine spatial coordinates of a fixed or mobile radio facility (RO) receiving radio signals. The technical result is high efficiency and simplification of corresponding radio systems. A driving RO transmits radio signals with given individual characteristics. The radio signals are received by serially numbered driven RO. The time of reception is recorded and radio signals with individual features given for each driven RO are emitted after a delay time given individually for each driven RO. A receiving RO receives radio signals of the driving and driven RO, generates a series from the plurality thereof and, based on the given coordinates of phase centres of antennae thereof and time of reception of radio signals taking into account overall delay time, coordinates of the phase centre of the antenna of the receiving RO are determined.

EFFECT: method does not require overall synchronisation of the plurality of radio facilities transmitting and receiving radio signals.

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to determine spatial coordinates of a stationary or mobile radio signal receiving radio facility (RO). A radio system (RS) comprises a ground radio signal transmitting system with N≥5 radio signal transmitting stations, coordinates of phase centres of antennae of which are known at the RO. The transmitting stations are configured for synchronised ordered transmission of radio signals in series, with given separate features and with given time delays between radio signals, which provide ordered arrival of radio signals at the RO, located at any point in a service area. Each RO comprises a radio signal receiving device configured to receive and identify radio signals of the corresponding transmitting station, a recorder for recording the reception time thereof in a time reference system specified at the RO and an information system configured, based on said coordinates and reception time of radio signals in the series, taking into account said time delays between radio signals, to measure coordinates of phase centres of the antenna of the RO according to the proposed measurement equations.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and simplification of corresponding radio systems.

1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to determine spatial coordinates of a stationary or mobile radio signal receiving radio facility (RO). Radio signals with given separate features and with given time delays between radio signals, which provide ordered arrival of radio signals at a RO, which is located at any point of the service area and known at the RO, are transmitted in series from N≥5 seriously numbered radio signal transmitting stations of a ground radio signal transmitting system, coordinates of phase centres of antennae of which are known at the RO, and the reception time of said signals is recorded in a time reference system specified at the RO. At the RO, coordinates of the phase centre of the antenna of the RO are measured according to proposed measurement equations based on said coordinates and reception time of identified corresponding stations of the ground radio signal transmitting system in a series, based on said given time delays between radio signals.

EFFECT: high efficiency and simplification of corresponding radio systems.

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: radio system (RS) comprises a ground radio signal transmitting system with N≥5 radio signal transmitting stations, coordinates of phase centres of antennae of which are known at radio facilities (RO). The transmitting stations are configured for synchronised ordered transmission of radio signals in series, with given separate features and with given time delays between radio signals, which provide ordered arrival of radio signals at the RO, located at any point in a service area. Each RO comprises a radio signal receiving device configured to receive and identify radio signals of the corresponding transmitting station, a recorder for recording the reception time thereof in a time reference system specified at the RO and an information system configured, based on said coordinates and reception time of radio signals in the series, taking into account said time delays between radio signals, to measure coordinates of phase centres of the antenna of the RO according to the proposed measurement equations.

EFFECT: high efficiency and simplification of corresponding radio systems.

1 dwg

FIELD: radar and navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in navigation systems and local area networks to control the movement of mobile objects in local zones navigation. Method is based on generation by a navigation object two high-frequency harmonic signals with different frequencies, their simultaneous radiation from navigation object and reception in several reference radio navigation points with known coordinates, generation in said points of differential frequency signals received from a navigation object high-frequency signals, transmitting generated differential frequency signals in central processing station, where phase difference of differential frequency signals coming from different reference points results of measurements of phase differences taking into account mutual arrangement of central receiving station and reference radio navigation points are recalculated in coordinates of navigation object, wherein both generated on navigation object harmonic signals, before radiation, are synchronously phase modulated with same pseudorandom binary sequence with phase deviation of 180°.

EFFECT: high noise-immunity.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: plant host system, a stationary or moving integrally, disposable specify the manner associated with the host system three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system are synchronously receive radio signals with known for each station in a time frame associated with the host system, the time offsets of reception of radio signals are recorded moments of reception times of radio stations determine the relative time delays reception of radio stations and correcting them according to the associated time offsets. According to the corrected relative time delays in the reception of radio signals, the relative ranges are determined and, according to the expressions given in the claims, the distances from the antenna phase centres (FCA) of the stations to the FCA of the object are determined. From the given spatial coordinates of the FCA of the stations and the indicated distances, the spatial coordinates of the FCA of the object in the indicated coordinate system are determined.

EFFECT: increasing the accuracy and reliability of determining the spatial coordinates of objects.

1 cl

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: stations of a transmitting system that are stationary or moving as a unit, arranged in a predetermined manner in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system associated with the transmitting system, synchronously transmit radio signals with known on the object for each radio signal by time shifts of transmission in a given time reference system associated with the transmission system, and on the object they are received in the time reference system associated with the object, the moments of the reception times are recorded, the relative time deposits the reception of radio signals from stations and correcting them taking into account time shifts. According to the corrected relative time delays in the reception of radio signals, the relative ranges are determined and, according to the expressions given in the claims, the distances from the antenna phase centers (FCA) of the stations to the FCA of the object are determined. From the given spatial coordinates of the FCA of the stations and the indicated distances, the spatial coordinates of the FCA of the object in the indicated coordinate system are determined.

EFFECT: increasing the accuracy and reliability of determining the spatial coordinates of objects.

1 cl