Method of underground disposal of liquid wastes

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used during designing, construction and operation of deep depository (landfills) of liquid industrial wastes in underground medium. Method includes selection of sections for wastes disposal, structuring of pumping wells and pumping though it wastes into reservoir rocks. Additionally sections in underground medium are located under watershed divide parts of ground surface topography.

EFFECT: creation of method, providing the most total usage of underground space at reliable localisation of wastes in particular borders and during particular time.

2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to mining and can be used in the design, construction and operation of deep repositories (burial grounds) liquid industrial waste in the underground environment.

There are various ways underground disposal of industrial waste. The most famous of them are: the injection of wastewater in deep aquifers; waste disposal in the artificially created capacity in low-permeable clay and salt-bearing rocks using mechanical excavation of rocks, fracturing, underground explosions, dissolved salts and others; burial in loose unsaturated zone high power due to the use of the sorption capacity of the rock; the disposal of waste mines; the use of certain types of wastewater in the system water flooding of oil reservoirs [1, p.5].

Among these ways to close analogues of the claimed invention include methods of underground disposal of liquid wastes by injection through disposal wells in reservoirs [2, s-211; 3, p.5, 23]. According to the methods main criteria for selection of disposal sites are: the presence of the aquifer or that one and the same reservoir with high absorptive capacity; the need for reliable isolation of the reservoir permeable the rocks (clays, marl, gypsum, shale and other) from overlying aquifers, while the overlying confining layer should be kept in area; the reservoir in the immediate vicinity (within a radius of 20-30 km) shall not extend to the surface or to have a relationship with the river; above the reservoir must be buffer aquifer; the optimal depth interval for the underground disposal of industrial sewage are depths from 500 to 1700 m.

The main disadvantages of these methods are associated with the inefficient use of underground space, due mainly overly strict requirements to the location of burial sites.

The closest analogue to the claimed invention and taken so for the prototype [4, s-225] is a method of waste disposal, in which the requirements for the location of burial sites is significantly simplified. Disposal of this method is the injection of wastes into aquifers, ranging from a depth of 180 m, and the reservoir when this comes to the surface at a distance of 10-15 km from the site (landfill) disposal.

Despite a significant reduction in requirements to the location of burial sites, a number of disadvantages of this method is the same as that of the analogues. These include the need for reliable isolation of the reservoir-collecto is and permeable rocks throughout the area of its distribution, the obligatory presence on it of buffer horizon and other Preservation of these requirements reduces the possibility of effective use of underground space for the disposal of liquid wastes, especially in the nearby places from their appearance.

The consequence often is the appearance of many kilometers of the contamination of the surface of the earth and water, existing for decades and not have any signs of possible rehabilitation in the foreseeable future. A characteristic example of such contamination is the area surrounding the radiochemical production Association "Mayak" in the Chelyabinsk region.

Object of the invention is to provide a method for disposal of liquid wastes that ensures the full use of underground space in secure containment of waste within certain limits and within a specified time.

The solution to this problem is achieved in the method of disposal of liquid wastes, including the selection of waste disposal sites, construction of injection wells and injection through them waste in the water bearing rocks, characterized in that the sections in the underground environment come under the watershed portions of the surface topography of the earth, and the injection of waste lead through the working parts of injection wells located in the downstream parts of the flows underground in the.

The method above has the following characteristics a number of advantages and benefits (positive technical results) before prototype and analogues.

As described the invention to the first and its main difference is the location of waste disposal sites in the underground environment under parts of the watershed topography of the surface. With this arrangement of burial sites in this part of the underground space in them in natural conditions, groundwater movement is the downward direction, at least to a depth equal to not less than the distance from the watershed to the nearest catchment groundwater (up to rivers, lakes, reservoirs etc).

In accordance with this feature of the natural underground hydraulic systems the movement of the liquid waste from the area fill them located in this space, in ascending to the surface direction is not possible. In this case, the fulfilment of such requirements safe disposal of liquid waste, as mandatory coverage for disposal of low permeable layers and the buffer horizon, is not necessary. In this case, and without their implementation eliminates the risk of liquid waste on the ground surface and thereby increases the efficiency of use of underground space is La grave in it waste, i.e. for disposal can be used such underground environment, which is the prototype and analogues for this is not suitable.

According to the second difference is the injection of liquid waste produced through the working parts of injection wells (through their filters, open their trunks, opening intervals disposal through the use of different methods of perforation of the walls of the wells, including hydraulic fracturing and other), allocated in the descending part of the natural flow of groundwater. With this arrangement of the working parts of injection wells safety of the disposal process during its carrying out, and after its completion. After filling in selected underground space waste recovery is here the natural groundwater regime with a downward motion.

In addition, the arrangement of the working parts of the wells can be used for waste injection wells with different angles of inclination from the vertical. With this construction of injection wells becomes optional binding their mouth parts to the highest elevation of the earth's surface in the watershed and therefore the opportunity to efficiently dispose of surface complex of buildings associated with the injection of wastes. In particular, you can use the of the parts of the wells instead of surface pipelines, that is especially important at the disposal of toxic waste.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing. It summarized depicted hydrodynamic scheme in underground interfluvial space and shows the following elements: 1 - the water level in the river - water; 2 - the surface of the earth; 3 - line shift vertical scale provided for a clearer explanation of the role of surface topography of the earth, including its watershed part in the formation of groundwater flow; 4 - line of equal groundwater pressure; 5 - line current groundwater; 6 - area disposal of liquid wastes or the area of the working parts of injection wells; 7 - water level in the reservoir UVV (reservoir, lake, and others).

As follows from this figure, even when uniformly permeable rocks, located in the underground interfluvial space, the movement of groundwater from the Central part thereof is possible only in the downstream direction and then in hand through the entire thickness of the array to the underground drain. So, here is to isolate the waste in the disposal area and to prevent their exit on the earth's surface is not required to have waterproof covering layers or buffer aquifers. As for the horizontal movement of liquid waste through the thickness of the array to the nearest watercourse, when the real mnogokilometrovaya distances interfluvial spaces, the duration of such movement will almost always greater than the natural time reduce the toxicity of known waste to specified values.

An example of application of the method is given for natural conditions interfluvial space, located between the river Suselo and the liquid reservoir low level nuclear waste into the river Techa "Mayak" in the Chelyabinsk region. Here is the geological synclinal Techa-Brody structure, populated mainly by limestones and Dolomites. These rocks are from land surface to a depth of approximately 2200 m Simulated hydrodynamic scheme for incision area based on data from actual observations of groundwater levels is as indicated on the drawing.

Permeable Sveshnikova-dolomite sequence is divided into three parts: the top from the ground surface to a depth of 400 m with a filtration rate of 5 m/day; average low permeable in the depth interval from 400-1000 m filtration coefficient of 0.004 m/day and lower average permeability in the range of depths of 1000-2000 m filtration coefficient of 0.09 m/day. In accordance with the hydrodynamic scheme for the disposal of selected area under watershed with a radius of 1 km in the depth interval 1000-2000 m (see figure 1).

At the opening of this zone wells based on similar conditions for disposal of liquid wastes at the landfill RIAR [4] it is assumed that the effect of the main (absorbing) for injection will be 25% of the open interval, ie 250 m Taking the same analogy for this part of the zone effective porosity equal to 0.02, we get that it can be pumped volume of liquid waste is V=π·0,02·(1000)2·250=1,57·107m3. With the continuous injection of wastes in this area with a flow rate of 1000 m3/day duration will be 43,0 year.

To calculate the rate of filtration of waste after filling zone burial will take the condition of continuity of groundwater flow, starting from the center for watershed site to place their seepage into surface runoff. Taking a filtration rate of underground water seepage equal to 10% of the precipitation, the intensity of which for this area is 350 mm/year, get that here the vertical filtration rate is a 0.035 m/year. According to the drawing in the area of disposal of groundwater flow is divided into two equal horizontal part, which defines here with the same source area seepage velocity horizontal velocity filtering, equal 0,0175 m/year. This value means that, when adopted previously, the value of the effective porosity of 0.02 and permeable parts of the array, constituting 25% of the total area of the filter speed actual horizontal filtering of groundwater will be 0,0175:(0,02·0,25)=3.5 m/year.

When this near the STI and the distance from the place of disposal to surface water, component 6 km, duration of the motion before them waste will be 6000:3,5≈1700 years. Burial in these conditions, the liquid radioactive waste from the Mayak, in which the main radioactive elements cesium and strontium, with a half-life of about 30 years, during the time of their promotion to surface waters (river Suselo and reservoir on the river Techa) the radioactivity of the waste will be reduced by about 18 orders of magnitude. When known the real contents of radionuclides in the source liquid waste such reduction in activity will make them harmless.

Thus, subject to the generally accepted technical rules for the disposal of liquid wastes, such as quality construction of injection wells, feeding them waste without the formation of vertical cracks fracturing and some others, the disposal is a reliable and without the availability of natural conditions required for the application of known methods of waste disposal.

References

1. Goldberg V.M., N. Skvortsov, lukyanchikova L.G. Underground disposal of industrial wastewater. - M.: Nedra, 1994. - 282 S.

2. Goldberg V.M., Gazda C. Hydrogeological framework for the protection of groundwater against pollution. - M.: Nedra, 1984. - 262 C.

3. Hydrogeological studies of underground disposal of industrial effluents. Edited VAGRA Unicov. - M.: Nedra, 1993. - 335 S.

4. Rybalchenko A.I., Pimenov, M.K., Kostin P.P. and other Deep disposal of liquid radioactive waste. - M: publishing house, 1994. - 226 C.

1. Way underground disposal of liquid wastes, including the selection of disposal sites, construction of injection wells, the flow through them waste in the water bearing rocks, characterized in that the sites of burial in the underground environment come under the watershed portions of the surface topography of the earth.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the working parts of injection wells installed in the descending part of the groundwater flow.



 

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