Method of underground disposal of liquid wastes
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used during designing, construction and operation of deep depository (landfills) of liquid industrial wastes in underground medium. Method includes selection of sections for wastes disposal, structuring of pumping wells and pumping though it wastes into reservoir rocks. Additionally sections in underground medium are located under watershed divide parts of ground surface topography.
EFFECT: creation of method, providing the most total usage of underground space at reliable localisation of wastes in particular borders and during particular time.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
The invention relates to mining and can be used in the design, construction and operation of deep repositories (burial grounds) liquid industrial waste in the underground environment.
There are various ways underground disposal of industrial waste. The most famous of them are: the injection of wastewater in deep aquifers; waste disposal in the artificially created capacity in low-permeable clay and salt-bearing rocks using mechanical excavation of rocks, fracturing, underground explosions, dissolved salts and others; burial in loose unsaturated zone high power due to the use of the sorption capacity of the rock; the disposal of waste mines; the use of certain types of wastewater in the system water flooding of oil reservoirs [1, p.5].
Among these ways to close analogues of the claimed invention include methods of underground disposal of liquid wastes by injection through disposal wells in reservoirs [2, s-211; 3, p.5, 23]. According to the methods main criteria for selection of disposal sites are: the presence of the aquifer or that one and the same reservoir with high absorptive capacity; the need for reliable isolation of the reservoir permeable the rocks (clays, marl, gypsum, shale and other) from overlying aquifers, while the overlying confining layer should be kept in area; the reservoir in the immediate vicinity (within a radius of 20-30 km) shall not extend to the surface or to have a relationship with the river; above the reservoir must be buffer aquifer; the optimal depth interval for the underground disposal of industrial sewage are depths from 500 to 1700 m.
The main disadvantages of these methods are associated with the inefficient use of underground space, due mainly overly strict requirements to the location of burial sites.
The closest analogue to the claimed invention and taken so for the prototype [4, s-225] is a method of waste disposal, in which the requirements for the location of burial sites is significantly simplified. Disposal of this method is the injection of wastes into aquifers, ranging from a depth of 180 m, and the reservoir when this comes to the surface at a distance of 10-15 km from the site (landfill) disposal.
Despite a significant reduction in requirements to the location of burial sites, a number of disadvantages of this method is the same as that of the analogues. These include the need for reliable isolation of the reservoir-collecto is and permeable rocks throughout the area of its distribution, the obligatory presence on it of buffer horizon and other Preservation of these requirements reduces the possibility of effective use of underground space for the disposal of liquid wastes, especially in the nearby places from their appearance.
The consequence often is the appearance of many kilometers of the contamination of the surface of the earth and water, existing for decades and not have any signs of possible rehabilitation in the foreseeable future. A characteristic example of such contamination is the area surrounding the radiochemical production Association "Mayak" in the Chelyabinsk region.
Object of the invention is to provide a method for disposal of liquid wastes that ensures the full use of underground space in secure containment of waste within certain limits and within a specified time.
The solution to this problem is achieved in the method of disposal of liquid wastes, including the selection of waste disposal sites, construction of injection wells and injection through them waste in the water bearing rocks, characterized in that the sections in the underground environment come under the watershed portions of the surface topography of the earth, and the injection of waste lead through the working parts of injection wells located in the downstream parts of the flows underground in the.
The method above has the following characteristics a number of advantages and benefits (positive technical results) before prototype and analogues.
As described the invention to the first and its main difference is the location of waste disposal sites in the underground environment under parts of the watershed topography of the surface. With this arrangement of burial sites in this part of the underground space in them in natural conditions, groundwater movement is the downward direction, at least to a depth equal to not less than the distance from the watershed to the nearest catchment groundwater (up to rivers, lakes, reservoirs etc).
In accordance with this feature of the natural underground hydraulic systems the movement of the liquid waste from the area fill them located in this space, in ascending to the surface direction is not possible. In this case, the fulfilment of such requirements safe disposal of liquid waste, as mandatory coverage for disposal of low permeable layers and the buffer horizon, is not necessary. In this case, and without their implementation eliminates the risk of liquid waste on the ground surface and thereby increases the efficiency of use of underground space is La grave in it waste, i.e. for disposal can be used such underground environment, which is the prototype and analogues for this is not suitable.
According to the second difference is the injection of liquid waste produced through the working parts of injection wells (through their filters, open their trunks, opening intervals disposal through the use of different methods of perforation of the walls of the wells, including hydraulic fracturing and other), allocated in the descending part of the natural flow of groundwater. With this arrangement of the working parts of injection wells safety of the disposal process during its carrying out, and after its completion. After filling in selected underground space waste recovery is here the natural groundwater regime with a downward motion.
In addition, the arrangement of the working parts of the wells can be used for waste injection wells with different angles of inclination from the vertical. With this construction of injection wells becomes optional binding their mouth parts to the highest elevation of the earth's surface in the watershed and therefore the opportunity to efficiently dispose of surface complex of buildings associated with the injection of wastes. In particular, you can use the of the parts of the wells instead of surface pipelines, that is especially important at the disposal of toxic waste.
The invention is illustrated in the drawing. It summarized depicted hydrodynamic scheme in underground interfluvial space and shows the following elements: 1 - the water level in the river - water; 2 - the surface of the earth; 3 - line shift vertical scale provided for a clearer explanation of the role of surface topography of the earth, including its watershed part in the formation of groundwater flow; 4 - line of equal groundwater pressure; 5 - line current groundwater; 6 - area disposal of liquid wastes or the area of the working parts of injection wells; 7 - water level in the reservoir UVV (reservoir, lake, and others).
As follows from this figure, even when uniformly permeable rocks, located in the underground interfluvial space, the movement of groundwater from the Central part thereof is possible only in the downstream direction and then in hand through the entire thickness of the array to the underground drain. So, here is to isolate the waste in the disposal area and to prevent their exit on the earth's surface is not required to have waterproof covering layers or buffer aquifers. As for the horizontal movement of liquid waste through the thickness of the array to the nearest watercourse, when the real mnogokilometrovaya distances interfluvial spaces, the duration of such movement will almost always greater than the natural time reduce the toxicity of known waste to specified values.
An example of application of the method is given for natural conditions interfluvial space, located between the river Suselo and the liquid reservoir low level nuclear waste into the river Techa "Mayak" in the Chelyabinsk region. Here is the geological synclinal Techa-Brody structure, populated mainly by limestones and Dolomites. These rocks are from land surface to a depth of approximately 2200 m Simulated hydrodynamic scheme for incision area based on data from actual observations of groundwater levels is as indicated on the drawing.
Permeable Sveshnikova-dolomite sequence is divided into three parts: the top from the ground surface to a depth of 400 m with a filtration rate of 5 m/day; average low permeable in the depth interval from 400-1000 m filtration coefficient of 0.004 m/day and lower average permeability in the range of depths of 1000-2000 m filtration coefficient of 0.09 m/day. In accordance with the hydrodynamic scheme for the disposal of selected area under watershed with a radius of 1 km in the depth interval 1000-2000 m (see figure 1).
At the opening of this zone wells based on similar conditions for disposal of liquid wastes at the landfill RIAR  it is assumed that the effect of the main (absorbing) for injection will be 25% of the open interval, ie 250 m Taking the same analogy for this part of the zone effective porosity equal to 0.02, we get that it can be pumped volume of liquid waste is V=π·0,02·(1000)2·250=1,57·107m3. With the continuous injection of wastes in this area with a flow rate of 1000 m3/day duration will be 43,0 year.
To calculate the rate of filtration of waste after filling zone burial will take the condition of continuity of groundwater flow, starting from the center for watershed site to place their seepage into surface runoff. Taking a filtration rate of underground water seepage equal to 10% of the precipitation, the intensity of which for this area is 350 mm/year, get that here the vertical filtration rate is a 0.035 m/year. According to the drawing in the area of disposal of groundwater flow is divided into two equal horizontal part, which defines here with the same source area seepage velocity horizontal velocity filtering, equal 0,0175 m/year. This value means that, when adopted previously, the value of the effective porosity of 0.02 and permeable parts of the array, constituting 25% of the total area of the filter speed actual horizontal filtering of groundwater will be 0,0175:(0,02·0,25)=3.5 m/year.
When this near the STI and the distance from the place of disposal to surface water, component 6 km, duration of the motion before them waste will be 6000:3,5≈1700 years. Burial in these conditions, the liquid radioactive waste from the Mayak, in which the main radioactive elements cesium and strontium, with a half-life of about 30 years, during the time of their promotion to surface waters (river Suselo and reservoir on the river Techa) the radioactivity of the waste will be reduced by about 18 orders of magnitude. When known the real contents of radionuclides in the source liquid waste such reduction in activity will make them harmless.
Thus, subject to the generally accepted technical rules for the disposal of liquid wastes, such as quality construction of injection wells, feeding them waste without the formation of vertical cracks fracturing and some others, the disposal is a reliable and without the availability of natural conditions required for the application of known methods of waste disposal.
1. Goldberg V.M., N. Skvortsov, lukyanchikova L.G. Underground disposal of industrial wastewater. - M.: Nedra, 1994. - 282 S.
2. Goldberg V.M., Gazda C. Hydrogeological framework for the protection of groundwater against pollution. - M.: Nedra, 1984. - 262 C.
3. Hydrogeological studies of underground disposal of industrial effluents. Edited VAGRA Unicov. - M.: Nedra, 1993. - 335 S.
4. Rybalchenko A.I., Pimenov, M.K., Kostin P.P. and other Deep disposal of liquid radioactive waste. - M: publishing house, 1994. - 226 C.
1. Way underground disposal of liquid wastes, including the selection of disposal sites, construction of injection wells, the flow through them waste in the water bearing rocks, characterized in that the sites of burial in the underground environment come under the watershed portions of the surface topography of the earth.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the working parts of injection wells installed in the descending part of the groundwater flow.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the area of underground storage in the permafrost rocks and can be used in the gas, oil-extracting and petrochemical industry. The mine underground storehouse in the permafrost breeds 1, will gain the basic tunnel development 2, inclined development 3 for passing of the basic tunnel excavation, operational 4 and technological 5 boreholes. The basic tunnel development 2 is executed with a side raise of the technological boreholes 5. The operational borehole 4 is drilled in the bottom part of tunnel development 2, thus in an operational borehole 4 pipelines for reception 8 and selection 9 products of storage are placed. The corner of an inclination of the basic tunnel development does not exceed size at which an absolute mark of the ground 6 basic tunnel developments 2 in a zone of accommodation of a technological borehole 5 does not exceed an absolute mark of its roof 7 in a zone of an arrangement of an operational borehole 4.
EFFECT: increases the efficiency and reliability of the operation of the mine storehouse, to increase useful volume.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to remove the water from gas and gas-condensate fields. The method includes injecting methanol with the specified concentration (C) [mass percent] as an inhibitor, into reservoir. The (C) is determined by mathematical correlation.
EFFECT: amount of methanol is reduced.
FIELD: methods or devices for use in mines or tunnels, not covered elsewhere, particularly modification of mine passages or chambers for storage purposes, especially for liquids or gases.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling wells in deposit and developing thereof by partial separated produced gas return. Gas extracted from deposit with high light-weight methane fraction content is returned through production wells into roof area of deep sited deposit at final deposit development stage under pressure less that saturation pressure to form gas cap. Underground natural gas storage is created in the gas cap.
EFFECT: decreased costs for storage creation, decreased storage creation time, increased coefficient of final hydrocarbon recovery in oil field developed by natural pressure depletion without tank gas and other valuable hydrocarbons output volume with the use of common production equipment.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes driving a mine for cleaning sump and connecting it to sump in such a way, that mine soil for cleaning sump in place of connection is placed at level of shaft bottom, construction of water collector, located outside the shaft, and its connection with mine for cleaning sump, mechanized cleaning of sump. Transporting slope is driven to level of sump cleaning. Then water collector is driven. Mine for cleaning sump is driven with deflection towards water collector. Sump cleaning is performed by delivering spillage along transporting slope.
EFFECT: simplified operations, lower laboriousness.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: gas, oil, oil refining and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to building and operation of underground reservoir in stable rocks, for instance, soluble salt deposits. Method includes delivery of water and putting out brine along water feed and brine lifting pipes placed one inside the other, charging and storing of gas in underground reservoir. After brine lifting, reservoir is dried and then is filled up with alternating layers of absorbent and inert porous material, volume ratio 2:1, delivered along clearance between water feed and brine lifting pipes. Brine lifting pipe is perforated in lower part in height of reservoir and it is installed in lower part of reservoir. Difference between angles of repose of absorbent and inert material does not exceed 10 degrees. This done, reservoir is filled with gas delivered along perforated brine lifting pipe.
EFFECT: increased productive volume of reservoir owing to sorption of gas on surface of absorbent, reduced cost of gas storing.
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to instrument engineering and covers handling control of near-parallelepiped-shaped piece freight of approximately the same height, e.g. parcels, letter correspondence boxes, etc., and can be used in automatic or manual freight packaging. Specified system comprises measurement complex (1), system unit (2), memory unit (3), freight area calculation unit (4), freight shape factor calculation unit (5), unit (6) for area, shape factor, weight and load sequence freight ranking, pack-design unit (7) that specifies freight position on layer formation plane by criterion of minimum shape factor of space free after freight is placed thereon. Restrictions to number of packaged freight layers and to weight-bearing capacity are considered as well.
EFFECT: invention provides maximum freight packaging density, observes restriction to weight-bearing capacity and minimises height of centre of gravity of a loaded pallet box whenever possible.
SUBSTANCE: invention is provided for continuous transport of small-grained or collector dust by means of transport environment to consumption places. Facility contains distributive tank and connected to it transport pipelines of mentioned solid material. Distributive tank is implemented in the form of overhead tank (1) with feeder in the top part and ring header (4) and sprayers (13) in its bottom part. In internal cavity of overhead tank (1) it is located guide vane with input convergent tube (8). To smaller basis of convergent tube (8) it is joined parallel portion, installed with radial clearance with ability of vertical displacement by means of co-axial installed rod (12) in directed upwards by bottom sleeve (9). To the sleeve bottom (9) there are joined pipelines (10,11) of initial material transportation, which come into wall of cylindrical water-cooled nozzle (14), fixed before plasmatron anode jet (15).
EFFECT: productivity improvement at continuous transporting of solid material directly into the metal melt at operation of plasma smelting furnace.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a packing set for storing and dispensing plenty of piled mint candies. The packing set comprises a cylindrical outer cover with a cylindrical inner insertion which slides into the cover and is made so that to contain plenty of the piled mint candies. A control boss of the inner insertion is placed inside a vertical control groove made in the outer cover. The control boss design implies possibility for the cylindrical inner insertion to move between the closed and open positions for mint candy dispensing. Second version of the packing set comprises additionally at least one vertical longitudinal guide made in the inner surface of the side wall of the cylindrical outer cover.
EFFECT: easy production and assembly of the set.
20 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: application: in methods and devices for determination of clogged areas in pipeline. Method consists in the fact that time of change of measured pressure and temperature values to border values is measured both during pumping of working substance from device of working substance supply and in case of its cessation. Distance to clogged area is defined from mathematic dependence. Device comprises device for working substance pumping and pressure detectors. This device also has temperature detectors and control unit, which provides for reading of pressure values and working substance temperature values, and also measurement of time of pressure and temperature variation both during pumping of working substance and in case of its cessation.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of clogged area detection in pipeline.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to air transportation of loose materials, namely to machines for continuous air transport of loose materials, and can be used at loading and unloading operations in different branches of industry. Machine consists of chamber feeder, lock chamber in a form of bunker and located between them device for material supplying from the zone with one pressure to the zone with the other pressure. The device is performed in a form of horizontally located cylinder with unloading opening with moving piston rigidly connected with the rod with the possibility of horizontal movement. Chamber feeder is equipped with additional opening located symmetrically to the existing opening in relation to vertical axis. The said cylinder is equipped with additional unloading opening located symmetrically in relation to the existing unloading opening of this cylinder. Cylinder unloading openings are located in relation to chamber feeder openings. The cylinder has spring-operated valve at the ends. Between the valves there is the said moving piston.
EFFECT: invention provides improvement of production capacity.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device contains the main pipeline with extreme sides furnished with working platforms for loading of cargo containers, and a drive to accelerate and decelerate the movement of cargo containers interjointed by couplers to make a train. The working platform represents manifold accommodating cargo containers. The mentioned drive represents locomotives, each furnished with a propeller for forcing air, and representing a casing housing two capsules, fitted one into another with a gap filled with heat-insulation material. The container body casing edges feature supports and seals with perforation made there between. The container casing inner spaces communicate between themselves all along the train with the locomotive propeller rotation zone to create an air cushion. The manifold end is provided with control gate and safety valve, while is end is furnished with two turbojet propulsors. One of them is intended for start the train, the other one moves the first propulsor into the manifold start part.
EFFECT: increased volume and speed of transporting oil products in main lines.
3 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: transport facility includes an air tube, where a piston is installed and fitted with permanent magnets on the sides, and a platform linked to a semicylinder carrying permanent magnets interacting with the piston permanent magnets. Reservoirs with compressed air supplied by compressors energised from the mains can supply compressed air into the air tube even in case of power cutoff.
EFFECT: environmentally friendly transport facility, high operational reliability.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to pneumatic unloading of loose material, in particular, hardly loose oxidant, for its further pneumatic transport, may be used in different industries. Method includes supply of compressed air, preparation of aeromixture, its transport with suction vacuum pump, settling in unloader and capture of particles with wet filter. For method realisation inclined drum is used for prearation and unloading of aeromixture. Aeromixture is formed in it by supply of compressed air with pressure of up to 0.07 MPa and with continuous motion of oxidant together with cylindrical elements with diameter and height of 30-40 mm from elastic polymer materials. At that oscillatory motion of drum is created with amplitude of up to 180° at the same angle of travel from vertical axis. For aeromixture removal from drum in the beginning of drum oscillatory motion, unloading hatch gate is remotely opened, aeromixture is transported to material line along flexible sleeve connected to unloading hatch. Mass ratio of oxidant and cylindrical elements prior to unloading beginning is taken as accordingly 1:0.15-0.3.
EFFECT: provides more complete unloading of oxidant from reservoir for its further pneumatic transport.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to transport equipment for transportation of items by non-contact method in production systems of transportation on air cushion. Pneumatic conveyor with stabilised thickness of air cushion contains pneumatic chamber, bearing surface with rectangular openings with movable plates installed in them. Movable plates are installed with the possibility of turn around axes that are located along opposite walls of rectangular openings and are equipped with limiting plates and walls. Movable plates together with walls of pneumatic chamber, limiting plates and fixed limiting walls fastened under bearing surface create cavities that are equipped with openings that connect these cavities to atmosphere.
EFFECT: design simplification, reduction of power inputs and increase of reliability.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: collector-header is used, which is arranged as tapered, installed vertically with its top downwards with creation of pressure difference in it to the lower side from the initial one. At that large fractions of dust settle down under effect of gravitation forces and self-flow to technological tank through return pipeline, which is connected with tapered collector-header and technological tank. Small fractions of dust together with air are supplied through air duct and transport manifold for filtration. According to invention, in system that realised the method, by means of the first outlet through the top oriented downwards, collector-header is connected by return pipeline with technological tank, at that with its second outlet collector-header is connected with air duct to transport manifold connected to filter.
EFFECT: simplification of aspiration process.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing a test pumping of liquid waste into absorbing well before operational pumping, while changing flow step-by-step. From equation of absorption base hydrodynamic parameters are determined for calculation of predicted coefficients of operation characteristics of absorbing well and reserve well. During operational pumping of liquid waste together with thermometry along absorbing well shaft, registration of actual pressures and flow on pump devices, actual pressures on mouth in tubing pipes of absorbing well, actual pressures on face are additionally registered in absorbing well as well as pressures on mouth in behind-pipe space, actual loss at mouth in behind-pipe space, actual loss of waste on mouth, actual positions of face well, upper and lower limits of absorption range from well mouth. In reserve well actual pressures on face are registered, as well as actual positions of liquid level from reserve well mouth, upper and lower limits of absorption range. Prediction coefficients are compared for operation characteristics of absorbing well and reserve well to actual coefficients. 9 conditions of hydrodynamic bed conditions at reserve well and absorbing well are considered during pumping of waste. Specific actions of operator on each condition are described.
EFFECT: higher reliability and trustworthiness.