Methodology of dry concentration before combustion and systems for improvement of solid fuel characteristics

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: ordinary solid fuel for concentration is obtained; one or several characteristics of ordinary solid fuel selected from following: moisture content (BTU/pound), ash content (%,) total sulphur content (%), content of different sulphur forms (%), content of volatile materials (%), content of bound carbon (%), Hardgrove grindabillity index, mass content of trace minerals and reaction of fuel and its components to electromagnetic radiation are measured; the characteristics of the fuel expectable from solid fuel after its concentration are determined. Relying on desired moisture content in solid fuel at least one working parametre of the system and one configuration parametre leading to obtaining of solid concentrated fuel with desired moisture content are selected; the solid fuel is concentrated by the way of its electromagnetic radiation in accordance with at least one aforementioned parametre; the selected parametre is modified in response to data of moisture content in solid fuel during concentration.

EFFECT: obtaining of new family of solid-fuel custom coals being absent in nature.

17 cl, 16 dwg

 

The level of technology

Currently, more than half of the electricity consumed in the U.S. is produced by the inefficient coal-fired plants. Despite the increasing use of oil and gas resources, due to its low cost, easy and wide availability, large reserves of coal and a large number of employees in the coal industry there is a guarantee that in the foreseeable future, coal will remain an important natural resource for industrial purposes, and especially for energy production on a global scale. However, the coals are very diverse and heterogeneous, and typically contain significant amounts of moisture, ash, sulfur and mineral impurities, and these impurities reduce its existing potential to be efficient and clean-burning fuel.

In the scientific literature, the literature on technology and patents presents many unsuccessful attempts to improve the overall combustion characteristics of solid fuels. When cleaning the coal and waste management, use of physical and chemical methods, and even biological organisms. Wet coal is widely used for removal of ash and pyrite sulfur with higher specific weight, but this usually leads to losses of about 20% of coal during enrichment. In an attempt to improve BTU/function of the (British thermal unit/pound) coal use different but costly methods of drying coal, and in an attempt to substantially reduce the sulfur content to explore numerous ways.

Combustion or burning coal even high categories, such as anthracite or bituminous coal, creates significant emissions, and there is increasing concern due to the considerations on local and global climate warming. Burning coals with high sulfur content causes serious damage to the environment in Eastern Europe, China and elsewhere, and to a great extent promotes widespread but unsuccessful attempts in the last 25 years to find effective and affordable ways to remove sulfur. Many of these attempts include electromagnetic methods; namely, using frequencies in the ultraviolet, optical, infrared, radio, microwave, x-rays and even gamma rays and combination of radiation. Most methods have failed. In fact, according to the applicant the information in industrial practice there is no effective and economically viable technology enrichment before burning, electromagnetic or other intended for the removal of sulfur or any other component from among the other major components of coal.

The presence of all the coal moisture, ash, sulphur, the other components in various quantities leads to various problems when coal is burned or heated for any purpose. Toxic gases, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx), which is the result of burning coal, adverse effects on the environment, including the emergence of acid rain, smog, polluted air with a high sulfur content (resulting in typically the yellow sky in many regions of China) and the deposition of toxic particles, while some migrated far from their places of origin by air currents in the upper atmosphere. In addition, after burning coal remains the inorganic ash with impurity elements such as mercury, with consequences which are rarely considered when ash recycle or use as a filler in widespread applications, intended for a longer period, for example, in the laying and repair of roads. Currently, an additional concern is that the large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2)generated during combustion of coal, which makes a significant and direct contribution to global warming. Finally, the presence of significant amounts of moisture in many coal is the result of inefficient combustion, resulting in burning more coal, the consequence of which is increased brosy. Relatively little attention was given to dehydration (i.e., the contribution to the increase in BTU/lb, which directly leads to the possibility of burning smaller amounts of coal to produce the same amount of energy and as a result, by itself, to reduce emissions).

For many years attempts have been made to remove or reduce the amount of sulfur and ash in coal and thereby reduce pollution of various kinds by improving the quality and characteristics of burning coals. Unfortunately, such attempts were requiring time-consuming, expensive and impractical.

For example, attempts have been made to wash coal before combustion. These attempts led to higher costs and the need for large improvements plant equipment and equipment modifications. In the washing systems to supply coal to the apparatus for washing coal must be milled or bring to the specified size using screens, coal mills, ball mills, crushers or grinding equipment other similar species. Usually such types used for crushing coal, is a relatively heavy and large equipment that requires large expenditures for the acquisition, maintenance and operation.

In other examples, system and ability, who would be cleaning include extensive drying of the coal before combustion or burning of coal or fuel through the use of centrifuges, rotary drum filters, dryers fluidized bed or drying equipment other similar species. Usually such types used for drying coal is a complex or multi-stage equipment, which also requires large expenditures for the acquisition, maintenance and operation.

Other attempts have used additive for coal of one or more catalysts, in an effort to reduce the number of unwanted by-products formed during the combustion of coal. For example, the catalysts of some species to be added to the coal can reduce the amount of sulfur released during combustion of coal. These attempts were also intended to improve the combustion characteristics of the feed coal, for example, BTU/lb. However, the implementation of these attempts can be formed by-products in various combinations, which can be dangerous and costly to eliminate or storage.

In the absence of a solution to this long-standing problem of cleaning up burning currently in the industry of coal-fired power plants, the preferred methodology is to clean up after burning. For example, install scrubbers for cleaning gaseous products after combustion, remove connections SOxand NOxof gaseous products SGAs the project. Equipment of this type and other similar systems and processes are costly in implementation, maintenance and operation. Unfortunately, this does not solve the problem of CO2and recent work aimed at the capture and redirection of gaseous CO2are not promising or practicable.

Finally, many power plants running on coal, mixed coal with low sulphur and coal with high sulfur content to reduce the total sulfur content in order to meet the requirements regulated by the state of the indicator of the number of pounds SO2per million BTU. Usually you need to transport long distances heavy, with a large moisture content of the coal, while the cost of transportation is often equal to the cost of coal or exceed it.

The invention

In this application of the described methodology, systems and processes, according to which electromagnetic energy (e.g., microwave energy) is used to change the mechanical structure of the coal and for intentional separate and/or joint changes of the main components of coal to improve the burning characteristics of the coal fuel (for example, for the application, which was discussed, in order to reduce moisture and increase BTU/lb to optimal the x levels reducing the sulfur content of all forms, including the more difficult to remove sulfur compounds and reduce the ash content while maintaining or improving the calorific value of coal).

Embodiments of the present invention can be designed for a specific type of coal and the changes required characteristics. The system can be modular, scalable and portable or stationary and can be used in underground mining or open pit mines or power plants, or offline. The process parameters can be selected to meet the meet the requirements for specific applications, along with removing and collecting valuable byproducts, such as water, sulfur and ash. Methods of measurement within the system and outside the system can be used to determine the characteristics of enriched coal, with a feedback system is used to change control parameters, such as the residence time in the system (flow rate), power, air flow, etc. to achieve the desired, predefined improved characteristics of the fuel and not to make excessive enrichment or lack of concentration.

The process begins by gathering information about a specific angle, including the place of its location (mine, quarry equipment for splitting the mixing to the final grinding or power in any place and so on). Another concern is for the purpose for which clean coal desired characteristics will be used (for example, more efficient and cleaner fuels can be used for coal-fired boilers, fuel with low sulphur content and with high volatility can be used for steel production and other processes, fuel special purpose for chemical processing etc). Then determine the quantity, in tons, is scheduled for enrichment, and any existing processing procedures that need to be considered, such as grinding and sieving of coal. Then carry out the measurement of the raw coal samples to determine their characteristics. Finally, design the system to obtain the necessary specific characteristics of enriched fuel. The design parameters of the system, which can be set or changed in real time include: bandwidth input system for transportation of coal required to be consistent with the quantities and volumes supplied in the processing plant; the size, shape and type of the working chamber and conveyor system for transportation in the amount and at the rate (cost)needed during distribution or necessary during enrichment; the frequency or frequencies and power levels, and duration is lnasty electromagnetic radiation, necessary to obtain the required characteristics of coals; and the depth of penetration required to ensure that the coals in the middle will be enriched in the desired degree.

Electromagnetic technology of dry and single-stage enrichment of coal before combustion has proven to change the mechanical structure of the coal and thereby significantly improve the ability to grinding; reduce humidity and increase BTU/lb to optimal levels for the considered application; reducing the sulfur content of all forms, including the more difficult to remove sulfur compounds; reduction of ash content and a significant reduction in the rate of emissions relations SO2pounds to one million BTU while maintaining the calorific value of coals. In addition, unlike many previous attempts, the coal may be enriched in ways that do not require exposure to coal education slurry or added solvent or other liquid. The methods described in this application can also go far beyond just the removal of the coal sulfur or other single component, as was done in previous methods; instead, the methods can be used to achieve the objectives related to each of the different characteristics of the coal, such as those listed above.

Methodologists who enrichment, the purposes of the present application provides the ability to change the parameters of the process for planning certain characteristics of the combustion of solid fuels. For example, you can effectively plan a definite decrease in the moisture and the resulting relatively narrow range BTU/lb even for the party of coal (each batch of coal) with samples having a distribution of sizes and characteristics.

Attached typical results for removing moisture, typical, but not "the best", the results collected to show the wide applicability of the process. The results are arranged in ascending order reducing the percentage of moisture, to further show evidence that through these methods and the installation of any coal can be enriched to the desired level of humidity reduction. In addition, through extensive research before enrichment is also possible to determine the amount of ash and sulfur in the ordinary coals and how specific coal will react during the process, the consequence of that is that if desired by the system can be improved and also other characteristics of the combustion of coal.

Listed and described in the present application materials additionally demonstrate that these designed systems operating in batch or continuous is egime, can ensure the removal of moisture or improvement other required characteristics of the combustion of coal; specifically, to provide coal with:

- low percentage of moisture to any desired level in any category of coal, up to about 1% or below;

- increased BTU/lb in any category of coal, to any level up to at least the level at which it will have zero percent moisture content, or at least 1000 BTU/lb (as in enrichment also reduced the percentage of ash and the percentage of total sulfur, which contributes to a further increase in BTU/lb);

- low percentage of ash in any category of coal (e.g., at least about 2%); according to a specific implementation options range reduction is from about 10% to more than 50%; and

- low sulfur each form and all forms (for example, a reduction of at least about 2% of total sulfur, at least about 3% pyrite, at least about 5% sulfate and at least about 1% of the organo-sulfur compound, in accordance with the specific options for the implementation of the total sulfur content is reduced from 25% to 50%, and for some coals even more.

In addition, these systems and methods, the danger of formation of arc (ignition) can be with Irena or excluded. While earlier in the experiments to reduce the danger of formation of arcs used small pieces and samples, according to the modalities for the implementation of the methods described below, the integrated measurement, control and feedback, together with the supplementary regulations of power levels, levels of air flow and residence time in the plant used to control the temperature of the surface, serve to reduce the likelihood of the formation of the arc.

Furthermore achieved by an applicant an improved understanding of the process of penetration of electromagnetic energy in coal and understanding that large penetration depth can be obtained at higher power levels, paving the way for effective enrichment at the greater speed of passage of the coal through the installation (for example, industrial scale) and coal, having large particle sizes.

Brief description of drawings

In the accompanying drawings, described below, the same items refer to the same or similar parts in the various views. The drawings are not necessarily made to scale, instead emphasis on the specific illustration of the principles of methods and installation, as described in the section "Detailed description".

In the drawings:

figure 1 is a graph illustrating the absorption of El is electromagnetic radiation in a particular lignite depending on frequency;

figure 2 is a plot of the penetration depth of the electromagnetic radiation of frequency in water at 25 °C;

figure 3 - block diagram of the sequence of operations, in General terms, describing the methodology of the process according to the options of carrying out the invention;

4 is a block diagram of a system of enrichment according to the options of implementing the present invention;

5 is a view of a conveyor system;

6 is a view of the node boot device intended for use in conjunction with a conveyor system of figure 5;

7 is a rear view of the conveyor installation from figures 5 and 6;

Fig rear view of the conveyor installation from figures 5 and 6;

figures 9 and 10 are a perspective views of the cover gear tray, shown in figure 5;

figures 11 and 12 are perspective views of the cover gear tray, shown in figure 5;

Fig - type periodic node according to the options of carrying out the invention;

figures 14 and 15 is a top and side view of periodic site shown in Fig; and

Fig - view of the experimental setup.

Detailed description

I. Coal

A. General provisions

Coal is a combustible material, formed from fossilized plants; coal contains amorphous carbon in combination with various organic and some inorganic compounds. As Harold H. Schobert in "Coal, the energy source of the past and future" (American Chemical Society, 1987), all instructions which are included in this application by reference, charcoal refers to the number of materials from soft, moist, brown material to very hard, shiny, black, dense, and its physical and chemical properties may vary significantly depending on how and where the materials are deposited, types of organic materials available at an early stage, and their changes over time. Therefore, in order to develop the Deposit, sell, and use coal in industrial practice, it is necessary to perform the classification and standardization of coal types and properties. Coal can be subdivided into the following main categories, starting from the worst quality to best quality, respectively:

1) brown coal;

2) lignite;

3) sub-bituminous coal;

4) bituminous coal and

5) anthracite.

Brown coal immediately after the production has a very high moisture content at low values BTU/lb (about 3000 BTU/lb). Lignite is the class brownish-black coal with a moisture content in the range from 20% to more than 50% BTU/lb in the range from more than 4,000 to about 7,000. Sub-bituminous coal is a bituminous coal without wood textures found in lignite; sub-bituminous coal has a high authorities the ability (usually from 30% to 35%), and BTU/lb overlaps between lignite and bituminous coals. Bituminous coal is a soft coal, having the most extensive changes in the chemical composition; the moisture content of bituminous coal can vary from 5% to 20%, and it has levels BTU/lb from about 10,000 to more than 14,000. In the United States bituminous coal was originally discovered in the Western regions. Anthracite coals are very solid and immediately after production have a relatively low moisture content (typically <5%) and BTU/lb in the area of 14000. Each category is divided further into sub-categories (refer to ASTM, 1981, D-2796 and U.S. Geological Survey). Found that in all cases the coal varies from mine to mine, from seam to seam and often varies considerably within each layer.

Generally speaking, the maximum limits of variability for all coals categories are:

BTU/lb<4900to>15400;
Humidity<3,0%to>50%;
Ash<3,0%to&t; 35%
The total sulfur content<0,25%to>6,0%.

Within individual mines BTU/lb may change at 2500; humidity may vary by 13%; ash content can vary by 13%; and the total sulfur content can vary by 3%.

Because the coals are very variable in appearance, composition and properties (from brown coal to lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, anthracite, and variable within each category, and within each mine or each reservoir or a small number), it is difficult and usually impossible to generalize how to improve specific characteristics of coal as fuel. In this application the coals definitely are evaluated on an individual basis.

C. Database on the coals.

The database collected by measurements made on a wide range of ordinary and enriched carbons, including, but without limitation, coals with low sulfur from Australia, China and South Korea, the range of coals from India and coal from Canada and the United States (including Alabama, Florida, Illinois, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas and Wyoming).

First, all parties unsorted coal were investigated to determine their average characteristics. For the best approximation to promyshlennoi practice more, but some unsorted samples were selected from each lot for enrichment, namely, were selected those samples that have not been altered in any way. Using this procedure, we selected enough samples to ensure that their characteristics are on average representative to coals.

Self-consistent statistical sampling approach used for the study of hundreds of ordinary and enriched samples regarding their appearance, color, hardness, homogeneity, size and weight and additionally enriched samples relative to the temperature of their surface and internal temperatures. Part of this database contains the results of research in Standard Laboratories from South Calstone, West Virginia, USA, held at about 450 ordinary or enriched samples, the results of measurements on samples include percent moisture, percent ash content, percent volatile solids, the percentage of fixed carbon BTU/lb (before treatment, in terms of dry substance, without moisture and ash; as defined below), forms of sulfur (the percentage of each substance from total sulfur, pyrite, sulfate, sulfur compounds before processing, in terms of dry substance), a record of Hardgrove ability to grind the total mercury content, the melting temperature of ash and data analysis of the mineralogical composition of the ash.

C. test Procedures and categories designed to assess coal

The first stage consisted in melting of the sample and the use of a small part to determine the percentage of moisture content. Then another part of the same sample used to determine the percentage ash content ("pre-processing" means that before the sample investigated, it did nothing). "In terms of dry substance" characterizes the calculated value, which is taken for the measurement result to enrich and bring it to what it should be if the sample is dry. Similarly calculate the BTU/lb; namely, the value determined for part of the sample prior to enrichment, and then perform a calculation on the basis of the absence of moisture (dry matter). After that carry out a similar calculation, "without In-C", the value that should be in the absence of moisture (In) and ash (C). "Sulfur forms for the samples to determine enrichment similarly and then also count on dry substance.

Conducted random sampling was performed comparing the visual characteristics and the measured performance in batch and continuous modes of enrichment, to get more confidence in t is m, the results are representative, what should happen when the enrichment quantities, with industrial value (from tens to hundreds of tons per hour and more).

As part of data collection were carried out laboratory measurements on a group of ordinary and enriched coals and their individual components, such as ash, pyrite and organo-sulfur compound. The measurements include the absorption and reflection of electromagnetic waves in a wide frequency range. The control system of dielectric properties was used to measure changes in the dielectric properties of coals, such as changes that occur as a result of the effects of the process on the chemical composition. Dielectric properties affect how the material will react to electromagnetic radiation.

First, a small number of different coals were tested on a specially designed installation free space for microwaves, the waveguide is used for outputting microwave radiation from the microwave chamber on an exposed surface on which small samples could be irradiated at varying small power levels and times of exposure could be observed, monitored and weighed. Then larger samples were investigated in different cells of microwave ovens. the ti system furnaces was a camera in various sizes with the possibility of changing power and time of deciding power. When it was discovered that a large part of the fuel characteristics for samples of coal small and medium size (up to 5 pounds) is improved, then the range of the input power and providing opportunities for enrichment samples up to approximately 40 pounds in periodic mode was designed system larger cameras (see the installation shown in figures 13-15). If these studies provided the receipt of such improvements, fuel characteristics, which were necessary and which were obtained using small systems enrichment and small samples, we performed additional steps on an industrial scale, it was designed flow system continuous enrichment capable of bringing about 1000 pounds per hour (see figure 5-12). The research process carried out in a continuous flow system enrichment showed that the performance of the fuel can be changed as and when the research enrichment of smaller sample size in a batch mode, that is, the methodology discussed process can be easily adapted to the coals of a wide range of types and to the required flow rates to obtain the expected improved fuel performance.

II. The methodology of the process

A. Basic principles of the overall process

The sequence of steps of the overall process may be) the wife in the following form.

1. Measuring the absorption of electromagnetic radiation coals and their components in a wide range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation

Having selected electromagnetic radiation as the primary active agent concentration of solid fuels/coal, it is necessary to understand its effect on the coals and their individual components. This information can be obtained on the basis of measurements of the absorption and reflection of electromagnetic radiation and, particularly, the dielectric constant materials. The dielectric constant is an intrinsic property of the material and can be used to predict the response of a material to microwaves or any other electromagnetic radiation. The terms "electromagnetic" and "microwave" radiation during this review are sometimes used interchangeably. When these terms are sometimes used, in all cases meet the requirements of the range of electromagnetic radiation includes frequencies listed elsewhere in this description, which may be in accordance with certain standards to be considered low radio frequencies", not the higher "microwave" frequencies.

Measurements of absorption and reflection carried out for several different coals, ordinary and enriched, nor can bytecodestream measurements for several components of the coal, such as ash, pyrite and organo-sulfur compound. The results of measurements of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 0.5 GHz to 18 GHz 500 MHz to 18000 MHz) is presented in figure 1 for two samples of the same raw lignite (upper curves) and enriched lignite from East Texas. The following features are evident in these measurements and all measurements acquisitions made by the applicant:

- Overall downward trend in the extent of absorption from right to left indicates that the absorption efficiency of electromagnetic radiation that coal (and all coals) decreases as one moves to lower frequencies; therefore, the penetration of radiation in coal stronger at lower frequencies.

- Peaks visible near 0,8; 2,45; 5,75 and 11.6 and, of course, starting near 18 GHz, appear to be associated with each other; for example, a frequency of around 11.6 GHz peak absorption is almost exactly equal to twice the frequency of 5.75 GHz prior to absorption. These features are available in all measurements of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation of the studied coals. The applicant believes that these features reflect the reactions that are specific for one or more components of coal or possibly due to the rotational energy of large molecules(hydrocarbons or sulfur) or reactions of both species. Of particular interest are the phenomena that are visible on all the results of measurements made by the applicant, namely, that (a) these features are still distinguishable for washed coal, but much weaker than the background, and that (b) according to levels of absorption with frequency for the background (bound water) and peaks significantly less enriched coals.

The range of frequencies selected for these measurements over a large portion of the microwave frequency, with lower frequencies may pass into the region of frequencies that depends on how you define these terms. Observed frequency 0,322; 0,460; 0,915 and 2.45 GHz correspond to the fundamental frequencies of electromagnetic radiation within this range that is allocated for residential and partly for international use. Frequency of 2.45 GHz is the most common, being the frequency of wide use in the kitchen microwave ovens. Frequency 0,915 GHz is the frequency of choice worldwide for devices induction drying, for example, drying of cured ceramic, pasta, pet food, ground nuts, non-woven cloth, etc. Note their proximity to the two above-mentioned peaks. Peaks approximately 5,75, approximately 11.6 and about 18 GHz allow us to recommend these frequencies as the parameters of choice for microwaves in the process.

Data provide sufficient information for proceeding to the next step, necessary for the calculation of the basic system of electromagnetic radiation. The use of this information is illustrated below (paragraph 7).

2. The calculation of the depth of penetration of electromagnetic radiation in wet and dry coals to meet the requirements of frequencies of electromagnetic waves and selected for national and international use in microwave devices

In further attempt to understand the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with coals were performed extensive theoretical calculations based on the applicant's studies of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation and materials in several laboratories, which have been held for such research throughout the period, starting in the late 1960's. These calculations include calculating the effects of absorption and reflection of electromagnetic radiation through the use of various physical parameters related to wet and dry coals, to the layers of coal in contact with air gaps, and the effects of temperature and depths of penetration for a large number of input parameters. Measurement of electromagnetic radiation in providing laboratory include studies of the effects of size and fo what we particles, surface roughness and magnetic properties.

The results of calculations of the penetration depths for each of the above four frequencies are shown in figure 2. Although the results of calculations are presented for the unbound or free water at 25°C (properties vary with temperature), in first approximation, differences in penetration depths at different frequencies are also applicable to coal, especially to very wet coal. In other words, the penetration greatly increases as you move to lower frequencies as shown for example, the penetration of electromagnetic radiation into the water on 0,322 GHz more than 30 times more penetration at 2.45 GHz. It is essential that the laboratory enrichment, the applicant has found that at 2.45 GHz, the penetration of different coals can be 3 to 4 times more than predicted. The applicant attributes this difference mainly to the fact that the water in the coal is distributed randomly and not in one or more layers; that is, there are paths running through the coal on which the electromagnetic radiation will be found weak resistance, or water is absent, and as a result, the penetration occurs more easily, or in some cases it is carried out directly through the coal in these areas. In addition, the penetration greatly increases as the temperature increases coal and captured them of moisture. Additional, but less significant factor stems from differences in the properties of free and bound water. In this case, it is important to note that the surface temperature of the coal during enrichment often account for 70°C and above, the latter occurs when it is also necessary to reduce the content of sulfur and ash. Since the internal temperature can be higher than the surface temperature, deep penetration can be guaranteed by appropriate selection of the operating frequency of electromagnetic waves and by calling attention to the temperature measured during enrichment.

The importance of such measurements, especially when the removal of moisture, stems from the fact that the increase of the penetration depth as it approaches the lower frequencies more than compensates for the relatively small decrease in the efficiency of absorption in water (figure 1). This relationship directly affects the need to increase the depth of penetration in enriching coal, should be ignored if large quantities of material, ensuring profitability.

3. Characterization of raw coal

The range of coals ranges from a soft, damp brown material to very hard, shiny black, dense, and their physical and chemical properties can greatly vary depending the from how, when and where the materials were deposited from organic materials available initially, and their changes over time. Sizes and shapes, hardness, ability to evaporate, carbon, trace minerals, fire and other properties vary widely within each category of coal from the mine to the mine and within each mine or seam.

Below are defined the following characteristics of the raw coal, selected for enrichment: moisture, BTU/lb, ash content, forms of sulfur (e.g., pyrite, sulfate, organo-sulfur compound), the size, structure and hardness (ability to grinding). The first step in the characterization of any ordinary or graded coal enrichment which you want, is to select samples of coal in accordance with accepted standards. These standards include the standards of the American society for testing and materials, D 338 (classification of coals by category), D 2013 method of preparation of coal samples for analysis), D 3180 (standard practice evaluate the results of coal and coke analyses based on different databases and standards and the US Geological Survey Bulletin 1823 (methods for sampling and inorganic analysis of coal). For some coals and lignites have significant visible differences on the structure (e.g., smooth or rough, or PLA is tinata), color (such as brown, as some Asian dust lignite, black and solid lignites from East Texas with threads or veins, or mosaic) and composition (e.g., heavy or light with visible fragments of ash or pyrite, or even with fragments of wood structures plant substances or wood, visible in some lignites), hydration or dehydration, the size distribution of samples, etc. in Addition, some of the original samples selected for study based only on observable characteristics, and some samples that have these characteristics, randomly mixed, select for a complete study of each of the many differences observed in coals. Since there is no single standard that provides for such diversity, it was developed a comprehensive and consistent method of sampling in which such differences remain unexplored.

When travelling for the purpose of submission for consideration by the technology of enrichment of coal, the next step is the selection of well-known experience and recognized research laboratory (e.g., Standard Laboratories, Inc.), which is certified to conduct research as much as possible a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics of the coal. Can eratica each of the following characteristics: percentage moisture content, the percentage ash content, percent volatile solids, the percentage of fixed carbon BTU/lb (before treatment, in terms of dry substance and without moisture and ash), sulfur forms (percentage of total sulfur, pyrite, sulfate and sulfur compounds before processing and in terms of dry substance), a record of Hardgrove ability to grinding, the mercury content (ppm), the melting point of the ash and the analysis of the mineralogical composition of the ash. Terms used in this application, is defined by Standard Laboratories and are commonly used among professionals for testing coal, and characterized in different location.

It is important to examine a sufficient number of samples to be more than the number of samples selected because of their different appearances, (b) to transmit a greater number of specimens of each species than is required for the study, (C) carefully document in each case, the criteria used for selection, and (d) to maintain control sample from each batch of the original samples submitted for analysis. After receiving the results of the study and the remaining samples not used in research laboratories, it is important to carefully record the results, for example, in a spreadsheet (for example, using software Excel is the), that will give the opportunity to carry out various statistical sampling, averaging, etc. it is Important to carefully study the results of the research in order to detect possible correlations between the results of the research and used different selection criteria, including the observed differences in appearance. This way you can completely and properly characterize the distribution or range of characteristics that can be specified to represent the average of the selected part of the coal.

4. Description coal (for example, the required characteristics and the quantities to be enriched)

Then define the tasks that enrichment is usually, but not always, is partly based on the desire to obtain improved performance for their own coals or foreign coal imported for specific needs. These tasks may include the improvement of one or more characteristics of the combustion of coal, with the same improvements carried out for the entire coal or enrich coal to a higher threshold characteristics and mix it with raw coal to the average to obtain the required common characteristics. For example, in a power plant, where burn low-grade lignite with low BTU/lb, often deliver superior Western coals for blending with low-grade coals, trying to p in order to obtain lower emissions of waste and increase the working efficiency.

Other important considerations include the necessary bandwidth. For small-scale consumers who spend between 25,000 to 50,000 tonnes per year, supply cheap party can be enriched in periodic mode or periodic/continuous mode. The last way you can use boxes or drums that load coal, move to a preset position under the treatment system with surround electromagnetic radiation, enrich, separated from the processing device and is moved along a processing line for output and unloading at that time, as the following loaded coal containers are moved to a predetermined position for enrichment. At very high throughput required in most cases, transportation and enrichment, coal enrich continuous way, in the stream. This imposes one of the most slonovykh requirements on any system enrichment and this is one of several reasons why a group of scientists and engineers work tirelessly for decades trying to develop, but without success, useful and affordable tool for coal before combustion. The importance of bandwidth for the construction and operation of system enrichment shown by the example in section 7 below.

5. The use of small-scale (10 to 40 lb who) laboratory studies to determine the actual response of each coal on key process parameters

The charcoal pre-enriched and investigated in a controlled laboratory setting to determine the first reactions of coals in the treatment system, designed for use in operating conditions. Information obtained from this study, ensures that the treatment system can actually solve problems for which it is intended. From the batch of coal were systematically sampled and enriched to provide confidence that the results will provide these significant input data for the design of the main system enrichment.

In the study used advanced laboratory system enrichment, specially designed for this purpose. The laboratory system has the following characteristics:

The frequency of the microwave radiation is 2.45 GHz. From the information obtained from figures 1 and 2, it follows that you can "pre-enrich" the coal at a frequency different from the frequency of enrichment systems intended for use in operational conditions, and you can then relate the results at this frequency with results that can be expected at the operating frequency of the system. This correlation was further confirmed by the good matching characteristics, the resulting enrichment of the coals of the same pairs of the AI by using two different frequencies in a continuous mode and one of these frequencies in a batch mode.

For irradiation of samples was provided by a sealed, preventing leakage of microwave Luggage with easy front loading and with the possibility of enrichment from 10 to 40 pounds; in the enrichment of smaller quantities becomes more difficult to ensure the enrichment of a sufficient number of samples to obtain an appropriate estimation of their reactions in the system with many options designed for the enrichment of coal in operating conditions.

System provides the ability to change the power supplied to the electromagnetic radiation at any level throughout the range of hundreds of watts to 3000 watts. In part, this flexibility is due to the fact that the applicant used three magnetron, resulting in a change of the operating cycle power occurs at such short intervals that are approximately equivalent to the ability to instantly change the power level.

Above - mentioned three magnetron carefully placed at preselected locations to obtain the "proper" orientation fields. For example, the output power of each of the three magnetrons 1002 can be individually directed in a rectangular waveguide working resonator with a tuning device 1003 and the opening 1004 in part for power control (see Fig). The direction of polarization of microwaves along which the electric field of owls is Reet fluctuations, perpendicular to a wider open side of the waveguide at the input of the resonator. Any two adjacent input polarization must be oriented accordingly, for example, perpendicular to each other to minimize the communication between the corresponding two magnetron sources. Similarly, three input appropriately placed on the resonator in order to minimize unwanted interaction between the magnetrons. Magnetrons can be used singly or together, while the power level can be selected on each. Control (or reference) position and depth of the moving probe in the above-mentioned configuration device ensures the efficient flow of energy microwave radiation using the so-called "impedance matching" between the source and the load. Setup is easily controlled by means of the detector associated with the hole 1004 for power control shown in Fig. Extensive time and temperature tests were carried out using water, with the amount of power contained in the resonator was measured on each hole 1004 to control the power of the microwave radiation, and the measurement results of the temperature increase of a certain amount of water in various places in the resonator gave the actual tap is ewenny power. Was investigated and it was confirmed blending modes (i.e. configuration (configurations) or shape (form) of an electromagnetic wave in the chamber). Performed calibration. Significant movement of air relative to the camera and separately relative to the power sources were used to ensure their stability.

In addition, the system provides the ability to control the intensity of the air stream with an inert gas or without. The inlet is provided to force the air flow inside and outlet openings/catching cells intended for portable air flow of liquids and gases coming out of the camera gain. It is useful to have one hole suitable for the camera, to perform remote measurements of surface temperatures of coal during enrichment.

For this system does not require devices for real time measurement of the moisture content, ash content, sulfur content or the content of trace minerals, or a feedback system connected to the control process. Any system with similar capabilities will meet the requirements set forth in this application.

The first stage of coal research in Standard Laboratories and other laboratories for the study of coals is the grinding of the samples and after that in the definition of the AI of expected performance. Enrichment returned powdered samples at odds with how the coal must be processed in industrial practice, this raises the need to show that the enrichment unsorted coal will give the same results, which are obtained by enrichment of the same coal crushed to enrichment. At the mine or power plant for crushing coal to enrichment will need to find additional unexpected time and increase costs.

Based on the above concerns, the applicant has chosen to conduct under all circumstances enrichment unsorted carbon, not crushed carbon, returned from Standard Laboratories after researching it. To obtain results that are more representative than the results before and after studies on the enrichment of the same coals, two different sets of unsorted raw coal was chosen for each shipment of coal, subject to enrichment. This approach requires that each set of raw coal were studied a sufficient number of samples, and for enriched set is guaranteed that the methodology is indeed statistically significant and that on the average it properly reflects the characteristics of ordinary and enriched coals. This approach is convincingly supported except for the sustained fashion reproducibility of these measurements; for example, various samples with exactly the same initial mass almost always lose exactly the same amount of weight during enrichment in the same way. In addition, the applicant was unable to get the same effectiveness of the system of enrichment or the consistency of the results in the enrichment of the crushed samples of the same coal.

Note that this process is intended to further define and Refine the design of the primary enrichment systems intended for her coals and is not a substitute for full-scale testing of the final system enrichment.

6. Baseline data collection for each coal

Gather initial information such as the location of each coal intended for enrichment (coal mine or power plant), number of coals and how they are transported (conveyor belts or trucks, or barge, and/or coal train etc), the available space for placement of the system, the available electrical energy and its cost and how best to move the coal to the processing device and from it. Factors of location, size, configuration and design enrichment systems are directly influenced by circumstances such as the availability of sufficient energy and water at the mine or on the Playground electrostats and, the available space for placement of the system (usually limited in power plants) and the means of transportation and the speed with which the coal is transported to the site. Conveyor belts are used for the transportation of coal for the majority of the mines and power plants, while they have different sizes, speeds and material ribbons. Since it is expected that existing conveyors coal will be transported to the treatment system and from it, and in some cases even be transferred into the working chamber, the input supply and output discharge device and their sizes are calculated under consideration of the conveyor system. If conveyor belts are transferred to the working chamber, the materials are of particular importance and should be taken into account when designing and job enrichment systems; for example, metal (reflecting electromagnetic waves) or nonmetallic (absorbing electromagnetic waves) materials tapes create a very different electromagnetic effects, and the screens are missing coal dust and coal, which can lead to mechanical problems in the transport system.

In addition, the load capacity and the speed of conveyor belt directly determined by the throughput and the system of enrichment is, regardless of whether the tape passes through the working chamber or connected with the supply system coal enrichment systems.

7. Using the information received in accordance with paragraphs 1 to 6 above, for the construction of primary enrichment systems designed for each batch of coal selected for enrichment

The following is a thorough review of the calculation example is based on electromagnetic radiation enrichment systems, designed for specific features or characteristics of combustion after enrichment of a particular solid fuel or coal.

Assumptions, requirements, and options that can be selected:

Member lignite with a humidity of 36% and 7300 BTU/lb (corresponds to coal from table 3 in the section "Experimental results" below) enriched with the purpose of obtaining a moisture content of 23% and 8000 BTU/lb. Although table 3 shows the results of the enrichment of very small samples (a few pounds) with moderate power (5 to 20 kW) for short periods of time (10 to 120), the purpose of this example is to provide guidance in part how you can enrich the same coal, but many times large quantities and, therefore, at higher power, but at the comparable time stay in the system.

Volume production is VA set equal to 10 t/h or 66000 tons per year (based on 20 hours each day for 330 days) and lignite enrich on a continuous basis or on the fly. Norm (in this case 10 t/h) is usually chosen by the consumer based on the current production of the mine or the part of the product, which should be enriched, and for transporting the quantity of the angle to be enrichment required existing systems for transporting coal or modification.

Because most large pieces of lignite output typical first mine crushing stations have a maximum size of about eight inches, the height of the entrance slit and the other of openings for the passage of coal in the working chamber is from 9 to 10 inches. In other cases, use a pre-processing step to remove larger pieces or breaking them into smaller pieces. Chamber dimensions are important and often limit the constructive system parameter of electromagnetic radiation (see below).

To select the frequency of electromagnetic radiation refer to figures 1 and 2.

Magnetrons (basic elements that generate microwaves) at 2.45 GHz, is used mainly for laboratory, industrial and kitchen stoves relatively small power, and they do not produce for large capacity (for example, 75 kW or above)is required for efficient enrichment of coal in accordance with the methods described in this application. In addition, at 2.45 GHz the e is provided penetration, required for dose of coal and depth vector of coal. The dimensions of the waveguide and the camera for well-designed systems of electromagnetic radiation with high efficiency, uniformity and safety) at this frequency is too small to match the size of the coal in excess of 1-2 inches.

Frequency 0,915 GHz is the frequency of choice for numerous devices drying electromagnetic radiation, and the magnetrons at 75 kW and 100 kW has proved valuable and widely supplied, and can be combined to obtain the power levels required for large-scale coal (see below). Limited depth of penetration and the small size of the system electromagnetic radiation narrow the scope of application of this frequency to the implementation of enrichment with a small bandwidth is relatively small coals.

Magnetrons that produce electromagnetic radiation at 0,460 GHz, not produced in the United States, and there are difficulties in operation and maintenance and compliance specified in the contract delivery date.

Relatively new on the open market magnetrons that produce 0,322 GHz in a wide power range, manufactured in the USA.

During enrichment, for example, 10 tons (20,000 lb) of coal per hour moisture reduction of 13% is deleting 260 pounds of water for each that is well, or in this case 2600 pounds of water every hour.

Measurement of the mass of the samples before and immediately after enrichment provide information that can be directly associated with the reduction of moisture content percentage. With additional measurements of weight after 30 min after the end of the enrichment detected weight reduction and even after 24 h always found even greater weight reduction, giving a total reduction in mass after enrichment from 3 to 5%. At a very rough estimate of the applicant using phase pre-heating (for example, through the use of heat or infrared radiation at a frequency that differs from the frequency of the input later electromagnetic radiation, in a separate chamber or in a separate part of the camera) to the active enrichment electromagnetic radiation can further reduce the weight from 2 to 3%. Taken in sum, used here for example the planned reduction in the moisture content of 13% can be carefully reduced to approximately 8%, which must be planned for the segment enrichment electromagnetic radiation. This reduction arising from a pre-heating process leads to the removal of 160 pounds of water per ton during the concentration of the electromagnetic radiation instead of 260 pounds required in the embodiment.

If the efficiency is 100% and the temperature of the environment and the surrounding environment electromagnetic energy at a power of 1 kW can vaporize 3,05 pounds of water per hour. In the case of a well-designed systems of electromagnetic radiation energy in the amount of 98% is absorbed and converted into heat. For reference, for 1 kW of input electromagnetic energy takes approximately 1.15 kW of electricity, and evaporate 2,989 pound of water. Therefore, removal of 160 pounds of moisture required for 61.6 kW of electricity (i.e., 160 pounds, multiplied by 1.15 kW to 100 kW input power electromagnetic radiation divided by 2,989 pounds). From the above implies the need for capacity 533 kW per hour (£20,000 divided by 300 pounds of water, multiplied by 8% for every 100 kW). Therefore can be used in three separate systems, each with a capacity of 200 kW. Depending on the available space for placement of systems and devices for loading and unloading, which are installed at the place, enrichment systems are used in parallel or on the same line.

Other parameters of the process and results of observations:

The time enrichment or stay in a conveyor system enrichment:

Time enrichment (in which the sample is subjected to irradiation), depending on the size and configuration of the camera enrich the available power of the electromagnetic radiation and the size of samples is usually from 5 to 45 minutes For small samples require more Corot is the cue times enrichment etc. (see table 3). The time of stay in the system when high enrichment can be scaled accordingly, but the existing power limits imposed requirements, namely, that high performance (hundreds of tons per hour) can be obtained only by combining several separate systems enrichment.

The atmosphere of the camera:

Strong air flow create flow of liquids and gases resulting from enrichment. A consequence of the lack of air flow will be condensation of moisture on the surface of the chamber walls, resulting in a loss of electromagnetic efficiency and the formation of the arc, and possibly fire, which should be excluded. The value of the air flow depends on the size of the working chamber, the size of the enriched samples, the number of by-products released in the cell, temperature, etc. the easiest way of monitoring the adequacy of the air flow is periodic suspension of enrichment for examination of surfaces to see if they are wet. At the same time it is useful to observe the formation of cracks and any possible Pomeranian or redness of the embers, which may be due to the occurrence of hot spots. Finally, if the by-products is Udut seen coming out of the camera through the pipe or catching sinks-coils, it is likely that the air flow is adequate.

- Temperature coal:

Solely to reduce humidity the surface temperature of the coals should be maintained around 100°C or below. It is easily portable control (infrared) sensors temperature or at a distance using thermal probes placed inside the working chamber.

- Use of inert gas:

If the temperature of the coals are maintained at the levels recommended to reduce the humidity, that should not be ignition and combustion, and the inert gas is not required. In the variants of implementation, in which an inert gas can pass through the camera with a speed of at least 15 ft3/PM

- Hydrogen:

Hydrogen gas is not required to reduce humidity. However, hydrogen gas may be supplied during phase process for recovery of sulfur.

- Real-time system for measuring moisture content, ash content, sulfur content, trace minerals and temperatures:

In practice, to ensure that the planned levels of performance will be achieved, and enrichment will not be insufficient or excessive, measurement and feedback associated with the process parameters, such as electric power supplied power electron gitogo radiation (and the ability to change the power level and duration of on and off) and the time of enrichment.

In the case of the example given in this application and in compliance with the above recommendation, you need to change only the input power of the electromagnetic radiation and the exposure time can and should control only the temperature of the surfaces.

- Study of combustion characteristics in their own and certified coal testing laboratories:

Because there is a direct correlation between weight loss and reduction of moisture content percentage, measurements of mass before and after enrichment and even during the enrichment must be part of the regime enrichment. Finally, in laboratories for the testing of coals can be provided fast and accurate measurement of moisture content percentage and BTU/lb for additional confirmation that the target levels have been reached.

8. The study of local, state and Federal permitting and regulatory requirements and their impact on design and job enrichment systems, including collection and processing of by-products

Is it possible to design the system to dry and one-step enrichment, which can satisfy all the above requirements? In one word, Yes. But before the end of the design intellectual enrichment systems, through which you can make certain necessary characteristics of a particular is Glu, should first carefully examine all local, state and Federal permitting and regulatory requirements concerning the place where the treatment system should be used; these requirements can influence and often affect the design and operation of the system of the coal. After taking into account these requirements, the above primary treatment system can be optionally modified.

To mines and coal-fired power plants are different sets of requirements, which is often the result of differences in design and operation of the system for two classes of work sites and even within a given class. For example, many power plants seek and burn any previously tested coal with characteristics different from the characteristics of the coal, currently approved for use, even if documented, that "new" coals are cleaner and more environmentally friendly. You may even be required systems engineering enrichment so that they meet certain requirements to the combustion process, singly or in the aggregate, such as limited emissions of SO2or NOxor CO2. Some of the requirements similar to the frequently used term "conclusion on the impact of n is the environment." Examples of such requirements include:

- Emissions of liquids, solids and gases in the process:

Emissions of liquids, solids and gases may be regulated by the components shown in figure 4. Even a system that encompasses all of the by-products of the process, must be certified for compliance with the mandatory requirements for processing and collection.

- The emission of odors during enrichment:

Isolation of side products formation by itself eliminate odors; however, the odor should be minimized through air purge by-products. If you have a strong residual odor, you may need to add materials with the help of an air carrier to absorb or minimize odors.

Control of ignition and explosion:

To meet these requirements there are standard procedures and systems, such as temperature sensors, infrared detectors and systems display.

Control dust:

Under all conditions of transportation of coal dust is always primarily due to the introduction of coal into the chamber and the release from it. Since it is expected that the transport of coal will be carried out partly by the use of existing on site transporters, the external content is yli should be minimal. The dust generated in the system should be controlled in the system of processing by-products.

- Air pollution (including smoke or fog), chemicals and hazardous materials:

Before shipment should be conducted qualification tests to confirm that the system does not pollute air or essentially does not pollute. No chemicals or hazardous materials shall not be used or entered in the system, except for the possible use of inert gas, which is not considered dangerous.

- Security and protection from electromagnetic radiation:

Safe levels of exposure to microwave radiation are defined and regulated, this requires that each and every treatment system, which uses microwave radiation, has been certified for compliance with these levels and standards. Many major manufacturers of microwave drying systems ensure compliance with these standards by designing systems in such a way that makes the system impractical and unsuitable for use in the high throughput required for the beneficiation of coal.

One solution, used by one of the manufacturers of microwave systems, is to focus on minimizing or complete isolation of microwaves; that eats the, detectable leak absent. It is important to note that the materials coming out of the microwave chamber after enrichment, still emit microwave radiation of a certain level within a short period of time even after leaving under the action of microwaves, including the food products to be removed from kitchen microwave ovens, although these levels are very small. In addition to the internal structures of the system that block the output of microwaves, you can escape the system from the outside appropriately placed metal screens and metal duct tape. In any case, regular and systematic observation in finding the leakage of microwaves to ensure that system security is not breached. Detectors leakage of microwaves can be purchased or designed and manufactured for specific applications.

9. Modification of the basic system enrichment

If necessary, the underlying system of enrichment modify based on the information from paragraph 8 above.

10. Design, manufacture and testing of each of the four major technological subsystems

Each of the four main technological subsystems (namely, pre-heating system of electromagnetic radiation, a system for measuring many parameters and inverse relations and the system of processing by-products) design, manufactured separately and experience.

11. Consolidation and checking of four subsystems at teamwork

The next step is to merge and verify the functionality of the four subsystems in collaboration with the subsequent quality assessment and validation tests on the full program for the verification tests on the full program using samples from the same batch of coal, for which the process was designed.

Steps 10 and 11 above are proven effective and standardized methodology, intended for use in the development of the main system, which consists of several subsystems and is used in laboratory and industrial conditions and even in the ocean, the atmosphere and the space environment, where equipment often must be operated remotely.

12. Installation on site

After successful completion of studies characteristics of enrichment systems are made to order and fully tested intelligent sent to the intended place of operation. After receiving the system further checks to ensure that no changes due to shipping and transportation. Then the system enrichment move to place and unite with su is estoya in place a system of transportation of coal (or make changes in the existing system), and, if necessary, with electrical equipment, systems, feed water, air, or producing inert gas, and optionally checks before putting into operation.

Century Management, control and operation

If you do not manage to change the order of selection frequency or other parameters of the process, the enrichment leads to matrix cracking of coal, followed by separation of the moisture and then ash, and then sulphur. For some coals, the phases are separated and separated, while for others there is overlapping stages; for example, some coal allocation of ash and sulfur begins when the moisture is still released.

For some characteristics and control of a common uniform enrichment of the surface temperature of the coal is measured in several places in the working chamber at a time when coal is enriched. Because the coals are not identical in size, shape or characteristics and are unevenly distributed on the conveyor, such temperature measurements can be considered as providing the average representative data. In addition, because the coals are subjected to cracking, some of the measured temperatures can be close to the internal temperature, which is usually slightly higher. It makes sense to ensure that the considerable exceptions is x temperature changes by adjusting, if necessary, the power of the microwaves in such zones.

The moisture released from the coal, may be collected in any of several ways, such as, but not limited by them:

- moisture may be condensed on the chamber walls and pushed down dry air into the system of collection and storage, under the working chamber;

moist air can be expelled from the chamber dry air of the forced water supply (positive pressure) along the axis of the working chamber, and then the moisture in the air can be collected by condensation; and

moist air can be pulled from the camera dry air of the forced water supply (negative pressure), and then the moisture in the air can be collected by condensation; small particles (not small) and gases are driven to capture the item, where they are collected, separated and stored.

If dehydration and increased BTU/lb are of paramount importance, or rather the change of the desired characteristics, the composition can be enabled real-time analysis system humidity and feedback. Through this system it is possible to determine when the enrichment is achieved levels of humidity, which provide for the desired value BTU/lb, and in this case, if necessary, can change the mode of enrichment or to stop it.

If specific values reduce the ash and sulfur belong to the bases of the output required changes the composition can be enabled real-time analyzer level of the chemical signatures of sulfur and ash). As before, at the discretion can be used in a feedback system to change or cessation of enrichment. Optionally, if necessary, can also be supplied for use station sampling, weighing and control.

In practice and for the most part coal requires minimal custom research and testing, in real time or offline, and operator-technologist can use previous experience to make judgments about the moment of achieving the required levels of performance coal. The coals out of the camera enrichment in the discharge tray, which is designed for installation on the location of the system and is designed for mass production (tonnes per hour); for example, the tray may be designed to supply at the loading station, for communication with another conveyor etc

The overall result is that this methodology enrichment with its ability to implement customized systems allows you to get the coals with individual characteristics; that is, the coal of any category or form can be enriched so that it became a new and different coal with any of a wide range of characteristics on the choice of the customer. In other words, these methodologies may be used in the us to create new coals with a variety of improved fuel characteristics, not found in ordinary, raw coals.

C. embodiments of the method

Figure 3 shows the block diagram of the sequence of operations of the exemplary method 100. In method 100 reflects the stages of transportation and enrichment, designed to improve the combustion characteristics of fuels such as coal or other fuel is carbon-based. The method 100 may be implemented or executed on different systems and installations. The method 100, described below, is carried out in the system 200, shown schematically for example in figure 4, and the various elements of system 200 are referred to when explaining the exemplary method of figure 3. The invention can be implemented and can be implemented in other systems and with other processes. We turn now to the detailed description of exemplary embodiments of the invention illustrated by the accompanying drawings. In the following description, the same positions are used throughout the drawings to designate the same or similar parts.

In each block, shown in figure 3, is reflected one or more steps to be performed in the method 100. The exemplary method 100 begins at block 102, according to block 102 untreated fuel accepted for processing. For example, the raw coal may be taken for enrichment method 100 section 202 neojidannogo the fuel, shown in figure 4 and described below.

In some cases, the crude fuel are sorted by size. The crude fuel are sorted by size to bring to a specified size by crushing device. For example, raw coal can be sorted by size in section 202 of the crude fuel, shown in figure 4 and described below.

After block 102 is followed by a block 104, according to which determine the characteristics of the fuel composition. Fuel is analyzed to determine characteristics of the composition such as moisture content in the fuel. For example, the moisture analyzer can be used in the process conveyor section 204 and/or 206 feedback (shown in figure 4) to determine the moisture content in the fuel.

Block 104 is followed by a block 106, according to which determines the characteristics of the coal required by the consumer. The required characteristics of the coal and the composition of the raw coal used for the definition of "structural" parameters of the selected system enrichment. The power and duration of the energy supply can be based on the desired combustion characteristics, such as moisture content, and can also be based on the relative speed or the amount of fuel, relatively noise generator 208 electromagnetic radiation (shown in figure 4). "The duration of the supply of energy can be expressed as the relative duration of inclusion, resulting capacity is rotated with the turning on and off to ensure low average power. In the example above, the moisture content in the member angle and the required characteristics are used to determine the amount of wave energy and other process parameters required to obtain coal, "responsible plan". Using a moisture analyzer, through a system 206 feedback you can control the fuel and selectively adjust the power and duration of exposure to electromagnetic energy to obtain the desired humidity level.

In the embodiment of the system described below, the group generators of electromagnetic radiation (similar 208) may be initiated to supply selected amounts of electromagnetic energy to the layer of coal on the floor of the conveyor or on the process conveyor 204, passing near the generators of electromagnetic radiation so that the layer of coal is threaded sufficiently to remove specific amounts of moisture, ash and sulfur from the layer of coal.

After block 106 is followed by a block 108, whereby the fuel fail electromagnetic radiation with a given frequency and wave energy and inert gases. As described below in respect of option exercise system, a group of generators electromagne the aqueous radiation can be excited to summarize certain amount of wave energy to the fuel.

Block 108 is followed by blocks 110, 112 and 114, according to which by-products are removed or withdrawn from the fuel. In the summing up to the fuel electromagnetic energy through a generator of electromagnetic radiation 208, one or more side products, such as excessive moisture, ash or sulfur, can be obtained from the fuel. As will be described additionally below, according to one of the blocks 110, 112, 114 these by-products are collected. For example, according to block 110, the amount of moisture removed or withdrawn from the fuel. According to block 112 of the fuel to remove or take away the amount of sulfur. According to the block 114 of the fuel is removed or taken other by-products. A direct result of the summing up of electromagnetic energy to fuel is to improve the combustion characteristics of the fuel. The purified fuel is collected or taken in section 116 of the clean fuels.

D. Options for fuel enrichment

Sizes and shapes, hardness, volatility, carbon, trace minerals, combustion, and other characteristics of coals vary within wide limits. Therefore, select settings coal will also vary within wide limits, this change is influenced by the following factors: quantity of coal to be enrichment, time and space available for enrichment, whether coal obog is rotated in a batch mode or continuously or in a combination of modes, the aim of carry out enrichment, and intended use (application) of coal. These separate General characteristics cannot be easily made by the process parameters, although, as described below, the ranges suitable for use in the implementation process, can be identified.

1. The energy of electromagnetic waves

In the implementation process can be used with the appropriate frequency electromagnetic generators in the range from below 100 MHz to above 20000 MHz. You can use a single frequency or multiple frequencies simultaneously or sequentially, or in stages. The radiation frequency or frequencies may be continuous or pulsed, or cyclic (i.e., synchronized so that was on and off in much the same way as when working kitchen microwave ovens).

2. Power

The electromagnetic power generators can be from 100 watts to 100,000 watts, continuing until megawatts.

3. The duration of the enrichment

Depending on enriching coal suitable range of the length of the electromagnetic radiation is from 5 to 45 minutes

4. Performance

When the system is designed to work in batch mode, the capacity of the system can be in the range from ounces to tons. In systems of continuous enrichment can about the earn from tens of pounds to hundreds of tons per hour. To ensure greater uniformity of wave energy and results of the process atmosphere in the chamber can be dry oxygen. The inert gas prevents the formation of oxides, such as SO2, CO2and NOxduring enrichment and reduced risk of ignition and/or burning.

5. The temperature of the coal and air

The temperature of the coal on its surface and inside during enrichment may be in the range of from ambient to about 250°C.

Related to the process parameters are temperature surfaces enriched coal and the air temperature inside the working chamber. Enrichment of electromagnetic radiation in laboratory tests can better assess and understand when to perform periodic measurements of surface temperatures of coals; these measurements can be easily made portable infrared sensors or temperature probes placed inside the chamber. When large-scale continuous enrichment of coal such measurement and control of temperature are even more important. The threshold temperature previously determined separately for each of the other group concentrated coal, and they depend on processing tasks (for example, only a decrease in humidity or in combination with a decrease in the content of the additional components). The coals in the high humidity will be easier to absorb electromagnetic radiation, than coals with low humidity, and therefore, the desired temperature can be achieved more quickly. Reaching or exceeding the threshold temperature of ignition may cause a reduction in BTU/lb coal, even if the combustion exclude by use of inert gas. Therefore, enrichment systems provide related systems measure temperature and feedback to ensure that, if temperatures reach these thresholds will be immediately initiated a change in process parameters such as power input microwave or duration of exposure or air flow. These threshold temperatures can be pre-determined in the laboratory for each group of characteristics significantly different batches of coal, while the threshold temperature value may be determined based on experience of conducting enrichment.

The threshold temperature of another kind is that which is associated with changes in materials, in this case of particular interest is sulfur. The predominant form when sulfur melts at 119°C, is a yellow transparent liquid to temperatures of 160°C, when sulfur undergoes molecular transformation, resulting in the sulfur atoms form a dark viscous liquid. In other words, the temperature below 119°C or above 160°C results in the Yat to significantly different physical and chemical properties of free sulfur or sulfur relationships in the corner and should be considered, to be able to reduce the sulfur content in any predictable way. During the research process, the applicant has observed sulfur in each of these different forms. As another example, specify that one party coal from among the many selected coals were opuscules dense clouds of yellow gas after a few seconds after start enrichment even to moisture. No other studied coal with the same reaction. Similar considerations research pre-treatment applicable to ashes, the allocation of which, in accordance with this methodology enrichment usually precedes the allocation of sulfur. For convenience, the maximum temperature limit may be set to about 200°C, because at higher temperatures in coal can be created other, unwanted changes, or they may too quickly to cause changes in the characteristics of the coal, so that they can be controlled.

Finally, the detection of higher temperatures camera than expected, can be a sign of combustion and may nominate a security problem, and the problem of enrichment (i.e., there is an additional reason to include temperature control systems and feedback as an integral part of the entire system enrichment). System for visual the control and remote image acquisition can also be used to guarantee redundancy in addressing safety and enrichment.

6. Air flow

Air flow is an important and multi-parameter process. Dry air after filtration of particles is particularly suitable, however, the intensity of the air flow depends on the configuration and size of the working chamber and from how coal is injected into the chamber and removed from it. Controlled air flow promotes mixing of the air in the working chamber, providing a more uniform distribution of heat in the chamber. Air is the carrier of side-products of the process, such as moisture, small particles of the substance and any fumes that result from enrichment. Sufficient air flow negates any possibility of electrical arcing or sparking during enrichment in cases where the enriched party (i.e., the load) is large enough to shape, size camera and used power levels.

Without airflow, moisture condensed on the chamber walls, this creates several negative effects. Wet surfaces absorb some of the electromagnetic radiation, and as a result reduces the overall system performance, this requires more processing time. In addition, the moisture gets dropwise to coal and results in uneven heating and ner is nomernomu the penetration of electromagnetic radiation through the coal, making it more difficult to obtain results that are reproducible or typical for the entire party enrich coal. The consequence will be that through some of the coals at the bottom of the workpiece, the party will not fully penetrate microwave radiation, and the coals will not crack as much as the coals closer to the top of the party, and so the components will not be released in the same amount. Finally, the above-mentioned uneven heating will lead to the emergence of the so-called hot spots, which are the precursors of ignition, ignition and combustion, all of which must be excluded during enrichment.

In the presence of air flow without the use of a system of collection and storage of by-products, you can see steam escaping during the process. Within only a short time enrichment can be seen colorless water vapor coming out of the camera during enrichment. When the continue enrichment and/or use other process parameters for removal of other components, steam changes color when it first pairs has a yellowish tint and felt another smell that is characteristic of the presence of sulfur and sulfur compounds. Ongoing enrichment leads to the dark-colored selection of gases and liquids containing sulfur in ininformed, and ash. Sulfur may be emitted, for example, at temperatures in the range from 130°C. to 240°C. If the enrichment is long enough, eventually also highlighted hydrocarbons and resin, with a selection of the last two is undesirable, since it will be apparent loss of heat content of coal.

7. Inert gas

The use of inert gas in the chamber is optional. When the inert gas used in the chamber, the quantity of inert gas depends on the goals of enrichment.

Inert gas, preferably dry nitrogen or argon) is used for several purposes. Any of several factors can lead to overheating of the part of the party coal or sample, or part of a block of coal to a level that can be ignited and burning. Use atmosphere of nitrogen or argon in the chamber will prevent any combustion of coal during enrichment. Nitrogen is readily available in a dry gaseous form, is stored in the tank and dosed for use in the laboratory, and the stream from 20 to 25 ft3/h is sufficient for the removal of liquid and gaseous by-products during enrichment in a small microwave chambers kitchen size and at the same time prevent burning. Can be used commercially available system for the separation of gases used in conventional practice the ke for other applications; when you need large quantities, for example, for a coal mine or coal-fired power plant, in these systems, the nitrogen is taken directly from the air. Nitrogen is a preferred inert gas due to its wide availability and low cost compared to argon, but only if it is guaranteed that the coal will be terminated before the undesired release of hydrocarbons and particularly to resinous phase when dangerous compounds can be formed from chemical compounds resulting from the threshold temperature or too long enrichment. In addition, the use of an atmosphere of inert gas in the chamber prevents the formation of oxides, such as SO2, CO2and NOxduring enrichment.

8. Hydrogen

The use of hydrogen (for example, supplied from the hydrogen generator in the camera is optional. The hydrogen may be injected for additional deterrence changes in coal during enrichment.

9. Atmospheric pressure in the working chamber

The pressure in the working chamber is typically one atmosphere, but the process parameters can be modified, when necessary, or when the processing at altitude (above sea level). In some cases, can also be applied ratrie is used.

10. Built-in measurement system

Built-in measurement system may be provided for measuring the moisture, ash, sulfur, trace minerals and temperatures in the chambers. They are all designed to provide feedback to management when necessary process parameters to ensure achievement of planned levels and does not exceed them, and thereby to ensure that the coal was not enough or excessively enriched enriched.

III. The install. An implementation option And

A. Section of untreated fuel

The system 200 shown in figure 4, includes section 202 of untreated fuel. Section 202 of the crude fuel can be cumulative bunker designed to collect raw coal or receive raw coal, subject to enrichment through the installation. Usually raw coal receiving from a remote location, such as a coal mine, and are collected in section 202 of the crude fuel until then, until it is required for further processing. Raw fuel such as lignite, anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous coal with low sulfur content, high sulfur content and the average coal can be stored in the storage of untreated fuel up until not needed. Selected quantity of raw fuel is measured in section 202 neojidanno what about the fuel enrichment through other parts of the system 200. Section 202 of the crude fuel may also include one or more operabilty devices that divide the relatively large chunks of coal into small pieces of coal. Section 202 of the crude fuel may include equipment such as, but without limitation to them, mill fine grinding, coal crusher, ball mill or disc mill. For example, coal crusher can be used to bring the size of the raw coal to approximately four inches (10 cm) in diameter. In accordance with various embodiment of the invention it is possible to use coal or another fuel larger or smaller sizes.

C. Additional interconnected system

After the section 202 unenriched fuel should process conveyor section 204. Technological conveyor section 204 communicates with the section 202 unenriched fuel for receiving a given quantity of fuel to be rich.

In addition, technological conveyor section 204 is interconnected with section 206 of the feedback system, section 208 of the generator of electromagnetic radiation, section 210 of the air handling systems and section 212 enriched fuel.

C. feedback System

Section 206 of the feedback system interacts with the processing pipeline to determine the characteristic is cteristic fuel such as percent moisture content or the percentage of ash in the fuel. Section 206 of the feedback system includes a sensor 214 humidity sensor 216 temperature, the analyzer 218 ash and spectrochemical analyzer 220. Using some of these components, you can define, for example, the approximate number and duration of exposure to microwave energy required to remove specific amounts of moisture from the fuel. Other characteristics of the composition, which can be defined that represent specific quantities of ash, sulphur, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and other compounds or elements in the fuel.

Note that to determine one or more characteristics of the fuel combustion other suitable devices or methods. Such devices and methods may be used in conjunction with the basic equipment or offline. Such devices and methods include, but without limitation, moisture analyzers, analyzers ash content, temperature sensors and spectrochemical analyzers.

Section 206 of the feedback system and section 206 of the technological pipeline also interact with section 222 of the management process. Section 222 of the management process interacts with section 208 of the generator of electromagnetic radiation to provide management with feedback is ASU or receive other instructions from section 206 of the feedback system to control section 208 of the generator of electromagnetic radiation.

D. a Generator of electromagnetic radiation

Microwave energy section 208 of the generator of electromagnetic radiation is applied to the fuel section 204 of process pipeline. The generator 208 electromagnetic radiation includes a group of magnetrons, which are located in predetermined locations relative to the fuel section 204 of the technological pipeline; the energy of electromagnetic radiation of magnetrons is directed to the fuel based on pre-defined characteristics, such as percent moisture content, which is desired.

For example, each of the magnetrons section 208 of the generator of electromagnetic radiation can be controlled by regulating the power, duration and other parameters to ensure the quantity or quality of wave energy sufficient to penetrate into the fuel and to remove the specified amount of moisture. In accordance with the invention, the generators of electromagnetic radiation to provide for fuel specific, predetermined number of wave energy. By using the information collected in section 206 of the feedback system, such as the results of measurements of moisture content, by section 222 of the control process can selectively adjust each of the generators to ensure a specific number is tion energy for the layer of coal in section 204 of the technological pipeline until while a certain amount of moisture is removed from the coal.

Note that other devices or methods may be used as a means of wave energy, intended to summarize the specified number of wave energy to the fuel. Such devices and methods include, but without limitation, magnetrons, klystrons and gyrotron.

Note that electromagnetic energy at lower frequencies penetrates deeper into the fuel material such as coal than it does at higher frequencies. A suitable generator of electromagnetic radiation for the system 200 generates the output oscillation frequency from 100 MHz to 20 GHz. In accordance with other variants of the invention can be used in other frequency wave energy.

Power wave energy may be pulsed or continuous. In the example above, the generators can create wave energy at continuous power. To regulate the wave energy supplied to the fuel, the output of wave energy may be pulsed at regular time intervals at a constant frequency. In some cases, the exercise of power by one source is at least 15 kW at a frequency of 928 MHz or lower, and in other embodiments, the implementation is at least 75 kV is at a frequency of 902 MHz or higher.

In addition, each of the generators can be controlled based on the speed of "passing" transported specific fuel within the power range of the wave energy of the group generators. The speed can be defined as the rate of passage of a specific amount of fuel through the wave reactor during a specific period of time. For example, the rate of passage of fuel, such as coal, can be from 200 to 400 pounds (90-180 kg) per minute.

Note that the fuel of each type can be handled by using different quantities and qualities of electromagnetic energy, depending on the type of fuel, condition of fuel and other fuel characteristics of the environment or the fuel itself.

That is, the air handling System

Section 210 of the air handling systems provides for the collection of by-products of section 210 of process pipeline. The system 210 air handling includes section 224 of the collection and storage of moisture, section 226 of the collection and storage of gases and section 228 of the collection and storage of by-products. In section 210 of the processing air is collected and stored by-products of enriched fuel. For example, when reviewing the electromagnetic energy to an ordinary coal formed water vapor and condensed water in section 204 of process pipeline. Section 224 of the collection and storage of moisture water is ondensate is collected for storage and subsequent use. Water vapor and gases can be collected in section 226 of the collection and storage of gases for later use. Other by-products of section 204 of technological conveyor are collected in section 228 of the collection and storage of by-products for further use.

F. Install subsequent processing

The remainder of enriched fuel from section 204 of the technological pipeline is transferred to the section 212 enriched fuel or going in it. Such devices can be, but without limitation, hopper railway car, dump or conveyor, which transports it directly to the implementation of the combustion process (not shown).

Then the fuel of section 212 enriched fuel can be used to make the combustion process, for example, the combination of a combustion chamber and a steam boiler. The enriched fuel according to the invention can also be used with other known combustion processes.

G. Boot device and conveyor system

Figure 5 presents a perspective view of an existing conveyor system 300, which may be modified in accordance with the invention. Shows the conveyor system 300 represents the Slipstick conveyor™, designed and manufactured by Triple/S dynamics, Inc. Shows the conveyor system 300 which may be used in conjunction with section 204 of the technological pipeline, shown in figure 4, or included in its composition. Various settings in accordance with the invention can be constructed using a conveyor system, shown in figure 5. In accordance with a variant embodiment of the invention can also be used with other conveyor systems.

In figures 5-10 shows a sample installation 400 according to the invention. Installing 400 may be incorporated in any of various systems, and through it can be done different ways according to the options of implementing the present invention. For example, installing 400 may be included in system 200, described above, or used in conjunction with it. When explaining an exemplary installation of the figures 5-12 mentioned various elements of the system 200. In addition, for example, the method 200 described above may be implemented by installing 400, shown in figures 5-12. Installation of 400, shown in figures 5-10, includes the node 402 boot device, the actuator 404, conveyor node 406 and the reactor element 408. Node 402 boot device is configured to receive fuel, such as pre-sorted according to size coal, and also performed with the possibility of sending fuel in the reactor element 406. The actuator 404 is configured to transport fuel cher the C reactor element 406. The reactor element 406 is made with the possibility of deciding on a certain amount of electromagnetic energy to the fuel. Different parts 402, 404, 406, 408 and functions set 400 are described in more detail below.

Figure 6 shows the node 402 boot device to install 400. Node 402 boot device is located immediately above the entrance side of the camera pipeline before the driving mechanism of periodic action. Node 402 boot device includes an input section 418, a transitional section 420 and the connecting section 422. Node 402 boot device and its relevant sections 418, 420, 422 are usually made of aluminum plate with a thickness of about 0.13 inches (3.2 mm). In accordance with the invention, depending on the bandwidth of the system 200 can be designed alternative designs for host boot device. The size of the input section 418 is designed to receive fuel from section 202 of the crude fuel from figure 4. In the shown example, the input section 418 is a funnel having a square cross section, which tapers from the end of the measurement of fuel by the end of the transition section. Note that depending on the type of section 202 of the crude fuel throughput of the system 200 and/or shape of the transition section 420 of the input section 418 may have an alternative configuration, shape and size of the market.

The size of the transition section 420 expect from a condition of receiving pre-sorted by size fuel from the input section 418 described above. In the shown example, the transition section 420 is a tube with a corresponding square cross-section from the end of the input section to the end of the connecting section. A set of sliding valves 416 can be mounted on the end of the input section and the end of the connecting section or near these ends for controlling the flow of fuel from section 202 of the crude fuel. Note that depending on the bandwidth of the system 200, the shape of the input section 418 and/or shape of the connecting section 422 of the transition section 420 may have alternative configurations, shapes and sizes. In combination with the node 402 boot device can be used dampers and valves of other types.

The size of the connecting section 422 expect from the conditions of admission of fuel from the transition section 420, described above. In the example shown the connection section 422 is a detail of a concave shape, which is arranged to fit to the corresponding hole of the driving element 404. Note that depending on the bandwidth of the system 200, the shape of the transition section 420 and the drive section 404 of the connecting section 422 may have an alternative configuration of the AI, shapes and sizes.

In some embodiments, the implement to compensate for any thermal expansion of the node 402 boot device or elements operating near the node 402 boot device, temperature compensators (not shown) can be installed on various elements 418, 420, 422 node 402 boot device or in conjunction with them.

Conveyor node 406 includes a gear tray 424. Gear tray 424 is configured to receive fuel from node 402 boot device and is also made with the possibility of moving fuel along the length of the transfer tray 424 to the precast section 426 at the opposite end of the transfer tray 424. Gear tray 424 is shown in the form of horizontally oriented trough with an open side. Depending on the bandwidth of the system 200 of the transfer tray 424 can have other configurations, shapes and sizes.

In figures 7-12 shows the types of cover gear tray, shown in figure 5. As shown in figures 7-12, the reactor element 408 includes the cover 500 of the transfer tray and the magnetrons (shown in figure 4 in section 208 of the generator of electromagnetic radiation). Cover 500 gear tray made with the possibility of closing an open end portion predation the first tray 424. The group of magnetrons mounted along the length of the cover 500 gear tray and positioned to transmit electromagnetic energy to the fuel located in the transfer tray 424. As discussed above, section 206 of the feedback system, section 222 of process control and generator 208 electromagnetic radiation interact with the process conveyor section 204 to provide control, monitoring and regulating the amount of electromagnetic energy created by a group of magnetrons arranged in a line along the cover 500 gear tray gear tray 424. In accordance with the invention in conjunction with the system 200, or similar systems can be implemented in other configurations of the reactor element 408.

In the case of actuation by node 406 conveyor is repeated actuation force to the transfer tray 424, and solid fuel such as coal, is supplied from node 402 boot device to the proximal end of the transfer tray 424. At each application of force to trigger the transfer tray 424 this force fuel is induced to move to the distal end of the transfer tray 424 (place 424 collection). While the fuel is moved along the length of the transfer tray 424, magnetrons excite transmit a certain number is TBA electromagnetic energy fuel in the transfer tray 424. The amount of electromagnetic energy, as defined by section 206 of the feedback system and/or section 222 of the management process, based partly on the amount of fuel in the transfer tray and partly on the velocity of the fuel under the transfer tray 424.

N. Installing portions enrichment

In figures 13-15 show an installation of 1000 for batch processing of coal or other solid fuels. The installation of 1000 can be used in conjunction with the installation shown in figures 5-12, or separately from it. The methodology of the process is illustrated in figure 3, in particular, the process according to the block 108 may be implemented through the installation of 1000. In the shown example, magnetrons 1002 are used to summarize a certain amount of electromagnetic energy to the fuel, such as coal, placed inside the unit. Wave energy is directed through the waveguide to the input waveguide in the installation. Install 1000 includes apertures 1004 to control the electromagnetic energy and the front door 1006 to load coal into the camera. In accordance with the invention there may be other configuration setup batch enrichment.

IV. The install. An implementation option In

Experienced installation according to a variant implementation is shown in Fig. Characteristic plant is the input device 110 of the bucket Elevator, associated with bucket Elevator 1104, intended for transportation of raw coal feed reservoir 1106. Consumable reservoir 1106 installed on top of the Shuttle valve 1110, bunker 1112 and valve 1114 bunker. When coal is moving from a supply reservoir 1106 down through the valve 1114 hopper, the coal falls onto a conveyor 1116, which transports the coal through a microwave working chamber 1118. After exiting the microwave working chamber 1118 coal moving through the receiver 1120 coal and valve 1122 in the storage tanks 1124.

In addition, the working chamber 1118 equipped with drainage pipes 1126, which flow into the exhaust line 1128. The exhaust line 1128 leads into the trap 1130 sulphur. On another line 1132 flow is sent from the trap 1130 sulfur condenser 1134, then into the tank 1136 water storage and, finally, to an exhaust fan 1138 and the emission control system.

The following briefly describes the process that is taking place in this setting.

First actuate exhaust fan 1138 to regulate dust that will be generated when the reset operation is performed. Exhaust fan 1138 pulls air from the bucket Elevator 1104 through the system and produces the resulting clean air.

Coal supply in cylindrical containers and unloaded in bunker boot is a device 1102 bucket Elevator, using forklift steer or forklift truck equipped with backuplocation/tripper. Bucket Elevator 1104 coal samples are transferred into the supply reservoir 1106 for the formation of the party, subject to enrichment. Depending on the size of the experimental batches in the system can load the coal from several 55-halanych cylindrical tanks.

After the batch of coal loaded into the supply reservoir 1106, start purging with nitrogen, and expendable tank 1106 closed to isolate the system enrichment. During this process the exhaust fan 1138 continues to work, including cooling system processing.

The amount of coal that is passed into the feed reservoir 1106, controlled by sensors 1108 weight, which also provide information about the download speed. Shuttle valve 1110 is used to regulate the flow from a supply reservoir 1106 in the transmission system of the source material. To maintain a constant flow rate of coal this valve 1110 performs the Shuttle reciprocating motion to a small amount of coal moved to the steering valve 1114 bunker. Hydraulic cylinders Shuttle valve 1110 provide the power required to move the Shuttle through the coal and, if necessary, the fragmentation of large blocks of stone.

PQS is LCU dimensions of the Shuttle valve 1110 and valve 1114 bunker designed the overflow hopper 1112 is excluded, the bunker 1112 can rotate continuously and thereby to ensure a constant supply of coal screw conveyor 1116. Screw conveyor 1116 operates in accordance with a feed rate of coal in the microwave working chamber 1118.

System and process control feedback and the conveyor is designed so that guaranteed access to the medium coals required dose for a residence time in the chamber. To ensure a constant feed rate of coal to the transmission system of microwave material of the working chamber 1118 speed of each of the conveying device (Shuttle valve 1110, valve 1114 hopper and screw conveyor 1116) are regulated independently.

Before reaching the output end of the chamber 1118 enrich the coal enters the zone (not shown), which allows additional allocation of emissions and cooling to remove in order to facilitate the regulation of odors and collect other emissions from clean coal. After cooling, the product purge nitrogen cease, but the exhaust fan 1138 continues to capture dust generated during transmission of washed coal in cylindrical tanks. Hydraulic valve 1122 is used to facilitate the transfer of enriched coal cylindricus is their tanks 1124. Once all the coal is enriched, cooled and transferred to a cylindrical tanks 1124, exhaust fan 1138 stop.

During the operation of the enrichment of any volatile materials (water, sulfur, hydrocarbons, mercury and other volatile substances) are removed from the microwave working chamber 1118. Water and other fluids down the curved walls of the chamber, are caught in the trap 1130 sulphur. Volatile materials (water and hydrocarbons) and then pulled out of the trap 1130 sulphur through a capacitor 1134 and fall into the tank 1136 for water storage. Prior to the release of material should be tested for mercury content.

The remaining volatiles are drawn to the filter to remove particles and carbon layer to remove organic substances, mercury and smells to purge with nitrogen. Filter and a carbon layer located in the system 1138 emission control and exhaust fan. Coal layers can be re-used or disposed of as hazardous waste.

V. Characteristics of enriched coal

The volatility characteristics of the raw coal is countered by constant monitoring and adjustment with feedback relating to the processing systems described in this application, to ensure a solid fuel with uniform characteristics. For some coal-fired boilers are limited the Iceni relative to the maximum temperature. In such cases, specify and control the reduction of moisture and ash content in order to obtain optimum BTU/lb without exceeding the maximum BTU/lb and the associated maximum temperatures for the specified boiler (boilers).

Using these methods, and installation can be obtained a new family of solid fuels in the form of coal according to the technical requirements of the customer, not found in nature. These enriched coals can be characterized by one or more of the following signs:

- the moisture content is reduced to any desired level for any category of coal, up to 1% or below;

- BTU/lb increased for all categories of coal to any level up to at least level, which has coal, free from moisture (ash content and the total sulfur content was also reduced, these reductions contributed to additional increase BTU/lb);

the ash content is reduced in any category of coal, the reduction range is from about 10% to more than 65% (see the example shown in tables 1 and 2 below); and

- reduced the sulfur content of each form and all forms, and the total sulfur content was reduced from 50% to 75%, and for some coals even more.

"New coal" includes any of these enriched coals having the characteristic or characteristics covered by any of the ranges of the seven features is to for each coal type, below.

Bituminous coals:

Coal USA:

From the typical ordinary to the best
BTU/lbfrom 12537 up 14301
Humidity, %from 3,39 to 0.44

Ash content, %from 10,94 to 2,65
Total S, %from to 3.73 to 1.21
Pyrite, %from 1.88 to 0.32
Sulfate, %from 0.14 to 0.01
Organo-sulfur compound, %from 1.73 to 0.62

Foreign coal (refer to tables 1 and 2 below):

From the typical ordinary to the best
BTU/lbfrom 12737 up 14537
Humidity, %from 2.00 to 0.83
Ash content, %from 10,29 to 2.24
Total S, %from 3,94 to 1,84
Pyrite, %from 0,88 to 0.11
Sulfate, %from 0.13 to 0.01
Organo-sulfur compound, %from 2.94 to 1.65

Lignites:

From the typical ordinary to the best
BTU/lbfrom 7266 up 11550
Humidity, %from 38,27 up to 3.73
Ash content, %from 7,29 to 5,22
Total S, %from 2.18 to 1.13
Pyrite, %from 0.68 to 0.01
Sulfate, %from 0.02 to 0.01
Organo-sulfur compound, %from 1.48 to 1.12

Foreign lignite:

From the typical ordinary to the best
BTU/lbthe t 8195 up 11729
Humidity, %from 25,58 to 5,67
Ash content, %from is 10.68 to 6.76
Total S, %from 5,86 to 1.78
Pyrite, %from 2.60 to 0,23
Sulfate, %from 0.45-0.07
Organo-sulfur compound, %from 2,81 to 1.31

A similar statement can be made for other coals and classes of coals, enriched by ways and installation of this disclosure, and additional results of the research process will enable the identification and creation of these new fuels from coal any category and class. The end result will be a matrix of coals of all categories and classes and all the "new coal", which can be obtained from enrichment by means of the invention.

VI. Experimental results

Coals with the above properties were obtained through experiments described below. By comparing the characteristics of ordinary and enriched coals of the same category or class, and from one sample party can determine the degree of improvement in each of the seven characteristics Topley is due to enrichment by these methods and installation. More specifically, in the example below presents the results of the study outside party (e.g., Standard Laboratories) of each of the multiple sample groups of ordinary and processed coal from a number of bituminous coals and lignite. For the raw coal used average or "typical" characteristics. Since the results of the enrichment of carbons contained in this application were obtained as part of a program of an applicant to study the impact of changes in process parameters, they do not demonstrate the full scope of the invention. In other words, it can be expected that the implementation of controlled processing to obtain a set of optimal performance will result in characteristics that will be better than the characteristics obtained during the evaluation of enrichment. For this reason, in this application shows the "best" values after enrichment for each characteristic enriched fuel; and demonstration purpose, these values are compared with typical values for the average, raw coal.

Three different groups of coals, ordinary and enriched, were enriched to illustrate how through the use of the methodology of the process can reduce the humidity, you can improve BTU/lb and you can reduce the ash content and all forms of sulfur. All these samples were selected randomly from the alsogo number of samples, and all of these outcomes are the result of research conducted in Standard Laboratories from South Calstone, West Virginia.

In tables 1 and 2 below, respectively, the characteristics of an ordinary foreign coal, associated with the characteristics of coal from the same place, enriched by means of electromagnetic radiation, as described above.

Characteristics of this batch of samples average foreign coal comparable in each category, except for sample No. 20731110. Greater reduction in ash content for enriched foreign coals leads to a higher BTU/lb compared to enriched coals from the United States. As in the case of the raw coal, one sample (i.e., sample No. 20925107) has significantly different characteristics, and in this case, the higher the sulfur content of each form. However, we note that the higher sulfur content did not affect BTU/lb, which is mainly determined by the moisture content and ash content. In General, the samples have a small variation of characteristics. In addition, these coals were enriched in similar, but not identical ways (different settings and times).

The details of the enrichment of foreign coal

Table 2 shows the results of the research enriched coals, made the s in Standard Laboratories. These initial studies were used to determine the sensitivity characteristics of these coals to the process parameters. Used a small camera to electromagnetic radiation of kitchen size at a low power (1000 watts or less) of electromagnetic radiation and the relatively small samples (from two to five pounds). Each study is relatively "new" coal in the first stage of laboratory processing was carried out as follows.

Usually at the initial stage of processing selected coals of different sizes, colors, etc. to explore their individual sensitivity and the impact, if any, on the characteristics after enrichment. When the research described in this application, each sample batch was also divided into parts, some of which were laid in thick and others thin layer, and the pieces were placed on or in various restraining containers, manufactured from Pyrex (Pyrex™); alternatively, vessels may be plates of high-temperature ceramics, aluminized Cup or formed from other high-temperature materials. The location of vessels in the chamber was changed; also changed the input power of electromagnetic radiation and relative time (the duration of the on and off). On the separate studies were performed on small pieces, on pieces from medium to large, and several well-mixed samples, etc. to study each of them separately and to assess the cumulative effects. Below each step and all the steps in sequence for the first four samples from table 2 lists together with comments and observations.

Samples 20731112 and 20731113 (see table 2)

These samples before enrichment included pieces exclusively from small to medium. Transparent tube attached to the outlet chamber for discharge of liquids and gases, but the enrichment of these samples forced air flow is not used, and only raising the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere of the camera, which was forced by-products out of the chamber.

The sequence of operations for the original sample below:

Table 3
The power levelTime (min)Comments
51Unless otherwise noted, the power dropped within 10 s after each specified time, excluding the periods of time when the camera is open.
82 Yellow pairs visible in the camera after 1 min, but in the chamber or in the tube, the moisture absent. A dense cloud of steam can be seen after 1 min 40 C. Too much warmth; cessation of operation to reset the power on the lower level.
51Pairs of yellow tint is visible after 30 s; signs of moisture there.
52The filling tube smoke yellow hue.
52The flow of dense smoke.
61
61
62Education in the tube a quantity of the condensate.
62Very strong smoke bright yellow color and the smell of sulfur.
62Brown residue collecting on the underside of the discharge tube.
62
62Audible cracking sounds when the camera and visible darker yellow smoke flowing into the tube.
62Opening the camera for observation. The hot coals, and the chamber filled with smoke.
62The fumes out of the camera. Off after 1 min 20 C. In the chamber there is moisture, but there is a dark brown residue all over the camera, this is probably the beginning of the selection of the hydrocarbon. The end of the research enrichment.

Level (1) power in the working chamber system is in the range from 1 to 10, with a value of 10 corresponds to the highest attainable level of power (1000 watts), but the levels do not change strictly linear, especially at high levels.

The above sequence of operations was applied to one sample, which was divided into two equally sized parts ('1112 and '1113) to send in Standard Laboratories for research. Test data Standard Laboratories are shown in table 2, which has documented that the percentage of ash and sulphur reduced by more than 50% in this test setup. Differences in the characteristics of two of asenneh parts of the samples are within acceptable limits, especially because, as noted above, placement of samples and other conditions have changed, and it was the first definitive study of this batch of coal. The total irradiation time of 24 min associated with the sample size, the levels of input power and the observed quantities and the color of the fumes during the current and subsequent enrichment.

Samples 207311114 and 207311115 entirely consisted of a set from small pieces to small pellets, which were placed on two ceramic plates height from 1/2 to 3/4 inch, elongated plate near the wall closest to the magnetron, and a rounded plate near the opposite wall.

Table 4
The power levelTime (min)Comments
21The power levels are deliberately set lower than in the above test installation.
21
22
22
2/td> 2
31
32Easy blushing observed in the tube.
32
42
42
42Now in the tube you can see a certain amount of condensate. Off on 24 minutes total exposure opening of the camera (for comparison with these studies at higher power levels). Moisture and fumes are not available, the air in the chamber and covered the surface of warm, but not hot. Observed smoke and definitely depend on the size of pieces of coal, their placement and distribution, the relative duration of the on and time. Smoke start coming out of the tube.
51
5151The top cover of the camera is hot to the touch; reset to a lower capacity.
41
42
42Cessation of enrichment for observation. The interior of the chamber filled with smoke, but no moisture on the walls of the chamber and no coal color, and coal only warm, but not hot.
42After 1 min 40 observed with smoke.
42Smokes throughout the chamber and tube.
42
42
42
42
42 The tube was not yet brown.
42Off to open the camera. Some smoke, but without brown.
42
42
42
42
42Off to open the camera. Removed a very small piece, which arose as a result of overheating.
42
51The smoke is quickly resumed.
51
51
51
51
51Off to open the camera. Filled with yellow smoke.
51No fumes.
51Smoke resumes.
59Switching on 1 min off 10 segments, while the camera was open after 9 segment.
52Strong smoke. Off to delete the contents of the round plates after 79 minutes total exposure (sample 1114) and continued only with the elongated plate (sample 1115).
42Resume smoke yellow color.
42Off to open the camera. A small area that is closest to the magnetron, very smoky.
42Again off and move the plate to the center of the chamber.
2
42The cracking noise from the ceramic plates, which overheated and cracked.
51
52The smoke is not observed in the tube or on its output.
71
71The smoke from the tube.
71The continuation of the smoke.
71Strong smoke in the chamber and the tube. More noises of cracking. Off to open the camera. Numerous cracks in the ceramic plate. Termination of course of the experiment after 96 min total exposure for sample 1115.

During enrichment most often occurs cracking, followed by the allocation of moisture, ash and sulfur in the specified order. In the case of this foreign coal allocation of sulfur detected earlier, che is moisture, but because of the low percentage of moisture in the corner of a small amount of moisture that can be allocated before, can be overlooked.

Comparison of characteristics:

For samples '1112 and '1113 obvious significantly large decrease in the percentage of ash and total sulfur in comparison with that obtained for the samples '1114 and '1115. The increased reduction of ash and sulfur can be directly attributed to use for '1112 and '1113 higher power levels (from 5 to 6, this generates approximately 600 to 700 watts) and, consequently, shorter duration of exposure. In these lower power (mostly 4 and 5) for '1114 and '1115 and much greater duration of exposure than before, not attained reduction, similar to the reductions for these first two samples. All such test measurements indicate that each coal is highly sensitive to input power; namely, each has a threshold power value, at which there are significant and sometimes unexpected changes. Once these thresholds identified for coal, can be further investigated combinations of process parameters to identify combinations of parameters that will achieve these thresholds. Then coal can be focused on attaining the of these thresholds by use of the identified combinations of parameters.

The variation of power and time parameters:

The research presented below was performed on a Texas lignite. The intention is to show through these studies that can be adjusted steplessly reducing the amount of moisture and the resulting BTU/lb by using multiple combinations of power supplied electromagnetic energy and residence time in the chamber.

Evaluation after enrichment set to BTU/lb, were deliberately selected from the above 7000 and up to just below 8000, and at the managed stage by small changes in the power and time were obtained from 8381 BTU/lb and humidity 26,11% to 7926 BTU/lb and humidity 23,21%. As can be seen from table 5, when the relationship 5/70 values power/time limit BTU/lb is too high, thus reducing BTU/lb can be achieved by using the same power, but by enrichment for an additional 50 p (recall that each data line in the table corresponds to a different sample from the same party (A) lignite). Because during enrichment time is always important, the following regulation has increased power and reduced the time and as expected the result has been a further reduction in BTU/lb. The following two samples were processed in the same job relations of power/time, while BP is me even more reduced and properly balancing" increasing input power. The differences in results for these two samples (30728125 and 307282260) are within acceptable limits during the concentration of the different samples and additionally illustrate the internal consistency of the methodology process. Finally, the same power level (see below) was used for the last sample, but the enrichment was extended for an additional 5 s, resulting in the planned BTU/lb.

Table 5
Lignite, E
No. of sample from the representation E (enriched)BTU/lb before processing% changeHumidity% changePower (kW)Time enrichment (C)
The average for ordinary729436,35
30728122,00838114,926,11(28,17)570
30728123,0 827813,49are 22.42(38,32)5120
30728124,00815111,7522,86(37,11)1045
30728125,00807410,6924,27(33,23)2010
30728126,0080169,925,9(28,75)2010
30728127,0079268,6623,21(36,15)2015

In table 5, examples are given to show how two of the main process parameters themselves can be used to achieve specific characteristics, BTU/lb and the percentage of moisture. It is important to note that the applicant is anee measured characteristics and enriched the same party lignite in their laboratory systems and therefore previously had information about their characteristics and their sensitivity to enrichment process electromagnetic radiation with many variable parameters. With this information, the applicant was able to accurately determine these expected changes in contrast to the changes caused by your power and time. A similar methodology can be used in laboratory and field conditions for each of these characteristics, however, they are predefined for any coals subject enrichment on an industrial scale.

Example that uses a methodology similar to the one used during the research, the results of which are shown in table 5, are shown for comparison in power and time are presented in table 6 below. Eleven separate samples of lignite from the same party, marked "A"were enriched while maintaining all process parameters constant, except input power of electromagnetic radiation and the time of enrichment. In order for the consumer of this lignite was the solution to the problem of reducing the percentage moisture content ranging from 8% to 12% and a corresponding increase BTU/lb to higher than 7000. For two out of the 11 enriched samples, 30728111 and '119, the value BTU/lb is significantly different (lower) from the values for other samples, the first sample also has the highest percentage of moisture. Obviously, the first combination of the test sequence from the 5 kW and 30 with was is too small to achieve the desired reduction of the moisture content of this sample, and this also showed relatively small amounts of water vapor existing in the working chamber during enrichment. The table presents the results of using different combinations of power and time, with all other combinations, except one of 20/15, provide specified levels. For each of the three groups of samples, '113/'114 and '115/'116 and '119/'120/'121, used the identical process parameters, including power and time. Differences in the characteristics among the samples in each of these groups can be attributed to differences in the internal properties of these samples, and not differences due to enrichment.

Enriched:
Table 6
Lignite And
No. you can imagine. sampleBTU/lb before processingBTU/lb, % changeHumidity, %% change humidityPower (kW)Time enrichment (C)
The average for ordinary635636,05
30728111,0069138,7632,90(a total of 8.74)530
30728112,00766220,5522,47(27,76)5120
30728113,00830730,7023,16(35,76)590
30728114,007977is 25.5027,13(24,74)590
30728115,00817728,6524,51(32,01)1045
30728116,00 803426,4024,42(32,26)1045
30728117,00818928,8425,08(30,43)2017
30728118,00794825,0525,26(29,93)209
30728119,00724313,9621,41(40,61)2015
30728120,00790524,3723,90(33,70)2015
30728121,00812127,7723,54(34,70)2015
Average (all) 24,89
(Medium (111 below)795624,09

Table 7
Lignite, F
No. sampleBTU/lb before processingBTU/lb, % changeHumidity% change humidityPower (kW)Time enrichment (C)
The average for ordinary684932,97
Enriched:
307281288517 24,35fall of 19.88(39,70)1045
30728129854524,7620,76(37,03)2015
30728130828020,8918,43(44,10)2015
30728131883829,0412,97(60,66)2030
30728132985443,884,74(85,62)5300
307281331031850,656,28(80,95)5300
307281341021049,07 7,81(76,31)3015

These results clearly indicate in another way, namely, that the ability to change the parameters of the process in accordance with the methodology of the process can be effectively used to achieve a specific reduction of moisture and the resulting relatively narrow range BTU/lb even for the party of coal (each batch of coal) with samples having a distribution of sizes and characteristics. In addition, the results indicate that using a relatively small set of studies can identify the number of combinations of power and time, which can be used to obtain the desired characteristics. Finally, using a simple research before enrichment can also determine the amount of ash and sulfur in the ordinary coals and how specific coal will respond to enrichment, and the result will be that, if desired, through a system can improve the overall combustion characteristics of coal not only by reducing humidity.

Any attempt to perform a representative laboratory studies should take into account the size of samples, the size and configuration of the camera, achievable the power of electromagnetic radiation and the th frequency or frequency, the possibility of changing power and relative activation time, the stability and reproducibility of the laboratory system and at least the estimated value of the real power of the electromagnetic radiation falling on the surface of the coal. Laboratory studies, such as presented in this application can lead to the enrichment of the basic input data on sensitivity characteristics of the coal required for design-to-order all enrichment systems, through which we can identify and get the specific characteristics of the coal.

Table 8 lists the decrease of moisture content, sulfur content, ash content and rate of emissions, but also increases BTU/lb for a wide range of coals, enriched by the methods of this disclosure.

Table 8
SampleOrdinary coals, %About., In, %CH. In, %CH. S with %CH. ash content %Ordinary coal, BTU/lbAbout., BTU/lbThe sheath. BTU/lb %CH. PV, %
LI147,8 44,3207NDND5851626907ND
LI252,9246,9411NDND5363594911ND
SBP26,1022,4614WELL14896096080705
LT36,0529,2219NDND6356778822ND
CBW21,6517,052105 0610251113451110
CBW20,1615,6622101810232114311216
BY2,001,4329466712737140961151
LT36,0524,8931NDND6356786124ND
CBW20,16of 11.4533101310232of 11,53713 24
BI22,151,1048376112969143260905
LT36,3517,4452NOWELL729477220605
BP3,361,3560210813792139910121
SBP26,108,696712WELL8960111292428
LI25,588,16 6868258195112823876
CBW20,16of 5.8171071310232122542022
BO3,400,8974472612537134420751
LT32,976,288112WELL6849101274842
LT38,304,99873409726611040 5257
SBP26,102,868912108960119163328
CEDof 6.490,698902NO14365151960607
SIDE3,960,4289040413871143771407
IBA14,89of 1.3491NO2012247141121514

Designation abbreviations table 8:

In the humidity, sulfur;

About. - about Ogaden;

CH. - decrease;

The sheath. - increase;

PV - rate of emissions; the number of pounds SO2/MMBTU;

ND - no data or insufficient data;

WELL - not established;

NO - no noticeable changes;

LI1 - Indian lignite from Neyveli (South-West);

LI2 - Indian lignite from Neyveli (South-West);

LI - lignite from the Indian state of Gujarat (North-West);

BI - bituminous coal from the Indian state of Assam (North-East);

SBW - sub-bituminous coal from Wyoming;

BP - bituminous coal from Pennsylvania (North-West);

ESD - sub-bituminous coal from the basin Powder river (Wyoming);

BO - bituminous from Ohio;

LT - lignite from East Texas;

CED is not completely finished petroleum coke from Illinois;

SIDE - bituminous coal of Oklahoma;

IBA - soft bituminous coal from Alabama.

For the sake of clarity in the described embodiments of the invention used specific terminology. For purposes of description it is assumed that each specific term includes at least all the technical and functional equivalents that are used in the same way to achieve the same objective. For example, references in this application to microwaves also should be interpreted as including several b is more low frequencies, that can technically be described as radio waves, provided that these frequencies are similar to samples of solid fuel. Similarly, treatment mainly made to coal, although these methods are also applicable to other solid organic fuels. In addition, in some cases, when a particular variant embodiment of the invention covers many of the system elements or steps of the method, these elements or stages can be replaced with a single element or step; similarly, a single element or step may be replaced by a set of elements or steps, which serve the same purpose. Moreover, although this invention has been explained and described with references to specific embodiments of it, specialists in the art should understand that various other dimensions in form and details may be made without deviation from the scope of the invention.

1. Way of dressing party member of the solid fuel, which consists in the fact that:
get an ordinary solid fuel enrichment;
measure one or more characteristics of the party of the ordinary solid fuel selected from the following: percentage moisture content, BTU/lb, the percentage of ash, the percentage of total sulfur, the percentage of each of the various forms of sulfur, the percentage of years is what material, the percentage of fixed carbon, the rate of raskalyvaemost Hardgrove, the number of trace minerals by weight and the reaction of the fuel and its components for electromagnetic radiation;
define the characteristics of the fuel expected from solid fuel after enrichment;
based on the desired percentage of moisture content of solid fuel select at least one operating parameter of the system and the configuration parameter of the system, which will lead to enriched solid fuel having a desired percentage of moisture;
enriched solid fuel by irradiating it with electromagnetic radiation in accordance with the specified at least one parameter; and
change the selected option in response to a measurement of the percentage of moisture in the solid fuel during enrichment.

2. The method according to claim 1, which further selects at least one operating parameter selected from the group consisting of duration, frequency and power of the radiation electromagnetic radiation that leads to the production of solid fuel having the desired characteristics of the fuel and irradiated solid fuel selected electromagnetic radiation.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which many of the listed characteristics of an ordinary solid fuel is measured and used to select the working is the system parameter.

4. The method according to claim 1, in which the solid fuel is a coal.

5. The method according to claim 1, in which the solid fuel is enriched in the cell, the method includes the transmission of air or inert gas through the chamber during enrichment.

6. The method according to claim 5, in which air or inert gas is fed at a flow rate sufficient for removal of moisture-Laden gas.

7. The method according to claim 6, in which the air speed is set in accordance with at least one parameter selected from the size of the camera, camera configuration and amount of moisture to be removed from the solid fuel.

8. The method according to claim 1, in which the enrichment of the electromagnetic radiation can increase BTU/lb for solid fuel, of at least 200 BTU/lb.

9. The method according to claim 1, in which the enrichment of electromagnetic energy can selectively reduce the percentage of moisture in the solid fuel from at least about 1 to 98%.

10. The method according to claim 1, in which the solid fuel is preheated.

11. The method according to claim 10, in which the preliminary heating provide heating source.

12. The method according to claim 10, in which preheating provide by the source of electromagnetic radiation.

13. The method according to claim 5, in which air or inert gas is preheated.

14. The method according to claim 5, in kotorovitch or inert gas is pre-dried.

15. The method according to claim 1, in which work the system parameter selected from the group consisting of a power level profile of the power level, frequency and performance.

16. The method according to claim 1, wherein the method is continuous.

17. The method according to claim 1, wherein the electromagnetic radiation, which is processed solid fuel in accordance with the selected parameter represents the microwave energy.



 

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