Bow spring

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to resilient elements of blade gasodynamic bearings used in small-sized high-speed turbomachines. The spring cut out from one plate contains multiple elementary arc-shaped springs (2) and (3). Springs (2) and (3) are located alternatively. Short springs (2) have equal length between reference edges. Long springs (3) also have equal length. The elementary springs (2) and (3) are interconnected by narrow bonding strips (8). Variable dependence of bow spring total tension on load is achieved due to difference in lengths for springs (2) and (3). Variable tension of bow spring in direction of elementary springs location is achieved due to variable width for springs (2) and/or variable width for springs (3).

EFFECT: reduction of shaft and bearing friction surfaces deterioration at start and stop of turbine rotor, reduction of rotor radial shift in bearing under action of heavy load and providing high limit carrying capacity of bearing at high rotor speed, providing assignment of various maximum inflection values to elementary springs and providing ease of bow spring manufacturing.

7 cl, 12 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular to the elastic elements of the radar (tape) gas-dynamic bearings used in small-sized high-speed turbomachines.

The level of technology

In radar (tape) bearings between adjacent shaft surface of a thin tape, often called a petal or the top of the tape and the surface of the shaft in addition to the contact areas to form one or more gaps confused form. In these gaps during rotation of the shaft occurs, the excess air pressure. At low shaft speed, during acceleration and stopping, when the air pressure a little, between the surface of the upper belt and the shaft in the contact area is dry friction and the wear surface of the upper belt and the shaft. With increasing shaft speed, the pressure in the air layer increases, the location of contact areas formed a thin layer of air and comes hydrodynamic friction mode.

The radial stiffness of the bearing surface of the flap bearing formed facing to the shaft of the upper surface of the tape is determined by the device located between the bearing housing and the upper ribbon of elastic elements. Typically such elastic elements using a special spring-loaded tape or a group of such tapes, which is about the essence of the leaf spring and having a different design.

A significant feature of the radar radial bearings as bearings with elastic support surfaces is the following. At low speed rotor side bearing operates basically just the weight of the rotor. During start-up and stopping of the rotor, when the dry friction between the surfaces of the trunnion shaft and the bearing surface of petal gas-dynamic bearings, reducing wear of these surfaces can be achieved by increasing the area of contact between the friction surfaces at a sufficiently uniform contact pressure, since this reduces the contact pressure and wear, as you know, is reduced by reducing the contact pressure of the friction surfaces. The large contact area with fairly uniform contact pressure can be achieved through small and fairly evenly distributed rigidity of the support surface of the bearing. The rigidity of the bearing surface of the bearing must be close to a constant along the axis of the bearing. When a large radial load on the bearing, which may occur at high rotational speed, low radial stiffness of the bearing surface of the bearing leads to excessive displacement of the rotor in the radial direction, which causes to increase the gaps in the flowing parts and seals that are measured and p is igodit to reduce its effectiveness. To provide a small radial displacement under load of the rotor to load slightly in excess of the load from the rotor weight, the rigidity of the bearing surface of the bearing has rapidly increased in several times. At the same time to ensure high limit bearing capacity of the bearing must also be a sufficient uniformity of rigidity of the support surface of the bearing.

Known leaf spring used in radar radial bearing (U.S. patent No. 5427455, CL 384/106, 1995). This leaf spring is composed of many located in one row of plates - elementary springs connected between the sides of the ridges having the same length between the supporting edges. Many of these leaf springs are located between the inner cylindrical surface of the bearing housing and the top belt in the circumferential direction. The number of elementary springs, each leaf spring is located along the axis of the shaft from one to the other end of the bearing housing. Leaf springs are combined in one box spring - loaded tape. These leaf springs provide a sufficiently uniform rigidity of the support surface of the bearing. With the rigidity of the support surface is close to a constant along the axis of the bearing.

The disadvantage of this leaf spring when the IP is the use in radar bearing is she has an almost constant dependence of the rigidity of the current from the upper conveyor load in a very large load range. The stiffness of the spring gradually begins to increase only after the deflection of the spring by the amount of more than half of the maximum deflection, that is, from a deflection, when the spring is fully pressed to the bearing housing. The load on the bearing, which begins to increase the stiffness of the spring, much higher than the load from the weight of the rotor and is close to or exceeds the ultimate load bearing capacity at high speed. Thus, for the most part or over the entire operating load range of the spring stiffness and the stiffness of the bearing is close to a constant value. Compliance requirements for small values of gaps in the flowing parts and seals that are measured leads to greater rigidity of the support bearing surface at low load, during starting and stopping of the rotor and increased wear of the friction surfaces.

Disclosure of inventions

The present invention is the creation of a leaf spring, which in petal gas-dynamic bearing provides technical results in reduced wear of the friction surfaces of the shaft and bearing at start-up and stopping of the rotor, and when the rotational speed R of the torus provides a small radial displacement of the rotor in the bearing under high load and high ultimate load-carrying capacity of the bearing.

The solution of this problem is achieved in that the leaf spring consists of a set of elementary springs, connected by a jumper on the sides, many elementary springs consists of several parts, each of these parts includes only elementary springs of the same length, springs from different parts of the specified sets have different lengths, with many springs elementary alternation of elementary springs is such that they form two or more groups of elementary springs of different length.

Additional technical results of the use of the specified leaf springs in petal gas-dynamic bearings are the ability to set different values of the maximum deflection of the springs elementary and ease of manufacture.

The achievement of these technical results achieved by the fact that elementary spring may have a curved shape, in particular, elementary spring may have a cylindrical surface with a common generatrix and General guide.

Another technical result of the use of the specified leaf springs in petal gas-dynamic bearings is to increase the ultimate bearing capacity of the bearings in the event of an impact rotor in the working conditions of the big con is Aulnay loads.

This increase is due to the fact that the elementary springs of different lengths may have different width or elementary springs of the same length can have the same width or elementary springs of the same length can have different width. In particular, elementary springs of the same length from one part of the above sets can have the same width, and elementary springs of the same length from another part of the above sets can have different width.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 shows the leaf spring.

Figure 2 presents a view of the leaf spring in the plan.

3 shows the leaf spring elementary springs having three different lengths.

4 shows the block leaf springs.

Figure 5 shows the location of the block leaf springs in radar radial bearing.

In Fig.6 and Fig.7 presents the sections of the bearing, made by planes perpendicular to the bearing axis.

On Fig presents a cut of the bearing, made by a plane perpendicular to the axis of the bearing when the bearing from the rotor heavy radial loads.

Figure 9 presents the distribution of the contact pressure of the shaft on the supporting bearing surface in the circumferential direction.

On 11, 12 presents the dependence of the radial displacement of the axle shaft from the load.

Embodiments of the inventions

Figure 1 presents the proposed leaf spring.

The spring is cut from one plate contains a number of primitive arc-shaped springs 2 and 3. Elementary springs are located in one row so that the neighboring elementary springs facing each other side by side. For convenience of Assembly of the bearing and mutual positioning elementary springs 2 and 3 are interconnected at the sides of the ridges 8.

To specify different values of the maximum deflection of the springs elementary and ease of manufacture surfaces 10 and 11 elementary springs 2 and 3 can be of General cylindrical surface of the spring with the generatrix 15 and the guide 16 having an arcuate shape.

Figure 2 shows a view of the spring at the top. The set of all elementary springs consists of two parts. One part of this set contains a short elementary spring 2. The length of each spring 2 between the supporting edges is equal to L1. The other part contains a long elementary spring 3. The length of each spring 3 is equal to L2. Elementary spring are rotated so that they form a group consisting of two springs of different lengths. Each group consists of springs 2 and 3.

Figure 3 shows the other the th option of a leaf spring. The set of all elementary springs consists of elementary arcuate springs 21, 22 and 23. The length of all of the springs 21 is L3. All springs 22 have a length L4. The length of all of the springs 23 is L5. Elementary spring are rotated so that they form a group consisting of three springs. Each group consists of springs 21, 22 and 23. Elementary spring interconnected bridges 28.

As well as cylindrical surfaces 10 and 11 elementary springs 2 and 3 (figure 2), the cylindrical surface 31, 32 and 33 elementary springs 21, 22 and 23 (figure 3) may belong to a common cylindrical surface of the sheet springs.

When using leaf springs in radar bearings for ease of Assembly uses a spring-loaded blocks comprising several such springs and is often called spring ribbon.

Figure 4 shows a variant of such a spring unit. The block 36 is made from a single tape. It includes several leaf springs, separately shown in figure 1 and figure 2. Leaf springs are interconnected through located on the sides of the block jumper 40.

Figure 5 shows the location of the spring unit 36 in the radial radar bearing. The spring unit is located on the inner surface 51 of the bearing housing 50. The spring unit is attached to the housing 50 by welding or any other possible ways the om. On the inner surface 51 of the bearing housing in the circumferential direction can be set several such spring units. Inside bearing axle shaft and the upper belt (petal), located between the spring side 36 and the axle shaft, not shown.

In Fig.6 and Fig.7 presents the sections of the bearing, made by planes perpendicular to the axis of the bearing through elementary spring 2 and elementary spring 3. Shows the trunnion shaft 53 and the upper belt (petal) 55 located between the pin 53 and the spring block 36. The elements of the bearing shown at sufficiently high rotor speed, gas-dynamic friction when everywhere between the upper tape 55 and the pin has a layer of air. When this rotor side bearing operates a small load close to the weight of the rotor.

Radar bearing is as follows. When the shaft surface of the trunnion draws ambient air from the zone 57 (6) with a large thickness of the air layer between the trunnion and the elastic blade in an area of 59 with a small thickness of the air layer. Due to current in the air forces of viscous friction with decreasing thickness of the air layer it creates excessive pressure. When reaching a certain speed, the magnitude of this pressure is sufficient the La disengagement of the pin 53 from the surface of the elastic petal 55 and there is a mode of gas-dynamic friction.

The current in the air gap pressure transfers the load from the axle shaft on the upper belt 55. Part of this load is transmitted from the upper conveyor to one of the leaf springs of the spring unit shown in Fig.6 and 7. Because the load side axle shaft is small, the transfer of load from the leaf spring on the bearing housing 50 is only through region 6 long elementary springs 2. Spring 3 does not touch the bearing housing. The rigidity of the leaf spring is equal to the sum of the stiffness of the long springs elementary 2, under these conditions small because the width of these small springs. Also is small and the rigidity of the facing to the trunnion surface of the upper belt 55, which is the bearing surface of the bearing, and the rigidity of the entire bearing.

Rotation of the shaft with a low frequency at start and stop, when the rotor side bearing operates basically just the weight of the rotor occurs when the dry friction between the part surfaces of the trunnions 53 and part of the upper surface of the tape 55.

Due to the low rigidity of the support bearing surface of the load shaft will absorb the greater amount of leaf springs than with a large stiffness. This increases the area of the friction surface reduces the contact pressure of the friction surfaces and reduces wear when starting - stopping the rotor, increases the I bearing life. The distribution of the contact pressure of the shaft on the bearing surface in the circumferential direction at a dry friction for bearings with low (curve 60) and large (curve 61) rigidity of the support surface under the same load on the bearing is presented in Fig.9. For a small rigidity of the support surface, the maximum contact pressure is less, so less will be the rate of wear of the friction surfaces, which is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the contact pressure.

Since a small load is only having a small rigidity long elementary springs 2, the load from the upper conveyor to the leaf spring 2 is transmitted through the small area of contact between elementary springs 2 and the top of the ribbon. The upper belt is in the direction along the axis of the bearing certain, though not very large, Flexural rigidity, so the uneven distribution of the contact pressure of the shaft on the bearing surface is smoothed compared with the contact pressure between the leaf spring and the upper tape. Figure 10 presents the distribution of the contact pressure of the shaft on the bearing surface in the axial direction during dry friction for leaf springs with small (curve 70) and large (curve 71) number of long springs elementary 2 in the leaf spring with the same load on the bearing. VI is but the maximum contact pressure, and hence the high rate of wear will be in the bearing with a small amount of long springs elementary. With the increase in the number of elementary spring in the leaf spring uniformity of the contact pressure in the axial direction increases, and the maximum contact pressure is reduced. Usually the relative Flexural rigidity of the upper conveyor increases with decreasing size of the bearing. Therefore, bearing small size is quite uniform contact pressure in the axial direction is provided with a smaller number of elementary spring in the leaf spring. The minimum width of the elementary springs may be limited by the manufacturing technology, as a rule, it is not less than the thickness of the tape, which is made of sheet spring.

When a large radial load on the bearing, which may occur at high rotational speed, low radial stiffness of the bearing surface of the bearing leads to excessive displacement of the rotor in the radial direction. To prevent this, options of long and short elementary springs leaf springs are calculated in such a way that after a slight excess load from the weight of the rotor on the bearing deflection of the leaf spring reaches this size, the edges 7 of the short cell battery (included) the tare spring 3 rest against the inner surface 51 of the bearing housing, as shown in Fig, which shows a section of the bearing in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the bearing through elementary spring 3. In this case, the rigidity of the leaf spring will be equal to the sum of the stiffness of long and short springs elementary 2 and 3. Because of the short length of the spring is smaller and the width is substantially greater than the width of the long spring 2, the rigidity of the short spring is significantly greater than the stiffness of a long spring. Therefore, the rigidity of the bearing resulting from the stiffness of individual leaf springs, significantly increases after reaching the contact edge 7 short springs 3 with the surface of the bearing housing. High ultimate load-carrying capacity of the bearing, i.e., maximum load capacity, which supported the regime of gas-dynamic friction, is provided under a heavy load due to sufficient uniformity of pressure in the air layer in the direction of the bearing axis. This uniformity is achieved by a sufficient number of short springs leaf springs. Influence on uneven pressure in the air layer number of short elementary springs are similar to the effects on the uneven contact pressure support surface number of long springs elementary, shown in figure 10.

Figure 11 shows the dependence of the offset - nagruzkami bearing with leaf springs having elementary spring constant length and for bearing with leaf springs having long and short springs elementary. Both bearings are made a condition of equality of the radial displacement of the shaft in the bearing emaxunder the action of the maximum load Pmaxto provide the required radial clearance in the flowing parts and seals are measured.

As can be seen from the graph, the dependence of the load from offset for bearing with elementary springs of the same length in the leaf spring is nearly linear up to the maximum load and stiffness of the bearing To0close to a constant. This dependence follows from the constancy of the elementary stiffness of the spring during deflection of the spring until the moment when the radius of curvature of the spring in its middle part becomes equal to the radius of the shaft. From theoretical dependences for the one-dimensional bending of the long plate, it follows that for a rectangular elementary spring, the length of which is small compared with the radius of the shaft, the stiffness of the spring gradually begins to increase only after the deflection of the spring by the amount of 65% of the maximum deflection, that is, from a deflection, when the spring is fully pressed to the bearing housing.

Figure 11 shows the dependence of the load from offset for bearing with long and short elementary PR is inami has two close-to-linear plot. At the site with low stiffness K1the rigidity of the support surface is small, which reduces wear during dry friction during start-up and stopping of the rotor. Due to the predetermined difference in length of short and long springs elementary maximum load on this site is chosen somewhat larger than the load of Protthe weight of the rotor. The stiffness K2the second section is selected due to the short width of the springs so as to provide a specified radial displacement of the shaft in the bearing emaxthe load Rmax.

At very high loads from the shaft to the blade bearing may need additional increase stiffness. To accomplish this goal is the use of a leaf spring shown in figure 3. Increases load on the bearing on the shaft side surface of the bearing housing first contact only long elementary spring 21 and the rigidity of the bearing is minimal. Then, after reaching elementary contact springs 22 with the bearing housing, the rigidity of the bearing is increased. Finally, after reaching the contact of the bearing housing with the most stringent elementary springs 23, the rigidity of the bearing increases and reaches the maximum value. The nature of the dependence of the radial displacement of the trunnion shaft from loading the key for bearing with such leaf springs shown in Fig. With increasing displacement, the stiffness of the bearing increases, taking successively the values of K1To2and K3.

In the event of a significant cantilever radial forces acting on the rotor of a turbo-machine in operation, the ultimate bearing capacity of the bearing can be increased due to the uneven distribution of the stiffness of the leaf springs along the axis of the bearing. In this case, elementary spring 2 have a constant width that allows us to perceive the weight load of the rotor evenly and to ensure minimal wear petals with starts and stops, when the cantilever radial load no. Elementary spring 3 are of decreasing width and, consequently, the stiffness, the cantilever part of the bearing. When significant cantilever load on the operating mode of the radial displacement of the rotor and the deformation of the springs 3 increase with distance from the center. Reducing the stiffness of the springs 3 to the console side of the bearing leads to a more uniform load distribution on the bearing along its axis and increase the ultimate bearing capacity when the cantilever load.

In addition to the described use of leaf springs in radar radial bearings, the spring can also be used as spring elements, perceiving the load side of the rotor in the axial petal gas is dynamic bearings.

1. Leaf spring consisting of a set of elementary springs, connected by a jumper on the sides, characterized in that the set of elementary springs consists of several parts, each of these parts includes only elementary springs of the same length, springs from different parts of the specified sets have different lengths, with many springs elementary alternation of elementary springs is such that they form two or more groups of elementary springs of different length.

2. The spring according to claim 1, characterized in that the elementary springs have Dagoberto form.

3. The spring according to claim 2, characterized in that the elementary springs are cylindrical surfaces with a common generatrix and General guide.

4. The spring according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the elementary springs of different lengths have different width.

5. The spring according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the elementary springs of the same length have the same width.

6. The spring according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the elementary springs of the same length have different width.

7. The spring according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the elementary springs of the same length from one part of the above sets have the same width,
and elementary springs of the same length is C another part of the above sets have different width.



 

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