Slider-crank mechanism of internal combustion engine

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mechanical engineering, particularly to manufacturing of piston and complex internal combustion engine. Slider-crank mechanism of internal combustion engine, containing piston with opening, in which it is installed piston pin, connecting rod, bush of piston head of connecting rod with inner parallel hole for piston pin, herewith contains angular deviation compensator from equality of relative angular position of piston axis relative to cylinder axis in the form of spherical hinge, installed between piston pin and piston head of connecting rod, herewith piston head of connecting rod contains spherical opening for bush, bush is implemented from elastic antifriction material, on the outside contains spherical surface and socket lengthwise its longitudinal axis with angle of slope in transverse plane relative to tangent to its inner cylindrical surface in the range from 0 up to 90°.

EFFECT: invention provides reduction of deviation of relative angular position of piston axis relative to cylinder axis in its longitudinal plane and reduction of specific pressure in conjugations between mechanism's parts, its wear rate and increasing of its resources.

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The present invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular to the manufacture of piston and combined internal combustion engines (ice).

Due to the deflection of the crankshaft of the crank-slider mechanism, inaccuracies in its manufacture or installation, there are deviations from uniformity mutual angular position of the connecting rod journals, crankshaft, piston pin, the axis of the piston and the cylinder axis (see Cenglish. Piston rings. T1. Theory, fabrication, construction and calculation. - M, 1962, p.114, 115).

When the deviation in the longitudinal plane of the mechanism from the same mutual angular position of the axis of the piston from the cylinder axis on the side of the cylinder on the piston force, which relative to the axis of the crank pin crank shaft creates a large bending moment, which distorts the mechanism in the longitudinal plane and tends to rotate the axis of the piston to the cylinder axis.

The lack of a crank-slider mechanism is to use strain details to compensate for deviations from uniformity mutual angular position of the axis of the piston relative to the cylinder axis in the longitudinal plane and the creation of a large bending moment, which increases the unit pressure in his mates, their rate of wear and reduces its reliability.

Known piston, primarily for reciprocating machines Krivoshapko-connecting rod mechanism, consisting of a body with holes in it to install the piston pin and the damping element, which is to reduce the dynamic loads made in the form of concentrically arranged spacer and spring rings in the holes in the piston, and a spring ring is split (see speaker of the USSR №678228, F16J 1/10. Publ. 05.08.79. Bull. No. 29).

The disadvantage of the design is the use of damping elements to compensate for the deviation from uniformity of the mutual angular position of the axis of the piston relative to the cylinder axis in the longitudinal plane, insufficient reduction of the bending moment, the specific pressures in mates, speeds they wear and slight increase resource mechanism.

Well-known crank-slider mechanism of the internal combustion engine, containing a piston with a hole in which you installed the piston pin and the annular damping elements, which have an oval shape and are arranged in pairs between piston pin and connecting rod with the same angular displacement relative to each other (see speaker of the USSR №870806, F16J 1/16. Publ. 07.10.81. Bull. No. 37).

Execution of the damping rings oval provides a "floating" connection of the rod with the piston and allows the piston to samoustraniajutsia relative to the cylinder bore, reducing wear and increasing reliability and their pairs.

The lack of a crank-slider mechanism is the use of damping elements to reduce the deviation from uniformity of the mutual angular position of the axis of the piston relative to the cylinder axis in the longitudinal plane, insufficient reduction of the bending moment, the specific pressures in mates, speeds they wear and a small increase in resource mechanism.

The technical task of creating the crank-slider mechanism, minimizing the deviation from uniformity of the mutual angular position of the axis of the piston relative to the cylinder axis, reducing the bending moment, the specific pressure in his mates, speeds they wear and increase its reliability is solved by installation between the piston pin and the piston head rod compensator angular deviation of the axis of the piston relative to the cylinder axis in the form of spherical hinge.

Crank-slider mechanism of the engine includes a cylinder, piston, piston pin, connecting rod and bushing piston head of a rod. Piston connecting rod head has a spherical hole for the bushing. The sleeve is made of elastic antifriction material and includes an inner cylindrical hole piston pin and the outer spherical surface beneath the piston head rod. Sleeve along the longitudinal axis has a connector. The angle connector is a relative tangent to the inner cylindrical surface of the sleeve hole may be in the range from 0 to 90°.

Sleeve braid, which reduces it to the desired size, and place in a greased spherical hole piston head of the connecting rod, where it straightens itself partially or completely and / or its straighten using tool in the form of a cone, and then the mandrel to calibrate its internal hole size piston pin. The piston pin during Assembly of the piston rod through the hole in the boss of the piston installed in the inner cylindrical sleeve opening. The inner spherical surface of the piston head of the connecting rod and the outer spherical surface of the bushing to form a spherical hinge. To reduce the friction torque of the spherical surface of the hinge separated lubricant.

The work of a crank-slider mechanism is that an increase in the deviation from uniformity of the mutual angular position of the axis of the piston relative to the cylinder axis in the longitudinal plane of the mechanism causes the pressure force from the cylinder on the piston, which is relative to the center of the spherical hinge creates a moment of force. However, the moment of this force increases only up to the value of the moment of forces of friction in the spherical hinge. As soon as the torque overcomes the friction torque in the spherical hinge, it will turn the axis of the piston in the direction of the axis of the cylinder, which reduces the angle of its axis from Odie is ecowaste mutual angular position with the axis of the cylinder. The rotation axis of the piston in the direction of the axis of the cylinder reduces the bending moment of force acting from the side of the cylinder on the piston until less than the moment of friction forces in the lubricating film between the surfaces until its complete disappearance.

The reduction of the torque pressure from the cylinder on the piston decreases to the minimum value of the specific pressure in the mates, their rate of wear and increases its reliability.

The advantage of a crank-slider mechanism is placed between piston pin and piston head rod compensator angular deviation of the axis of the piston relative to the cylinder axis in the form of a spherical hinge. The spherical surface of the joint to reduce friction divided lubricant. Therefore, the moment of force acting from the side of the cylinder on the piston relative to the center of the spherical hinge, can be reduced from the magnitude of the moment of friction forces in the lubricant between the spherical surfaces to zero.

The construction of the crank-slider mechanism of the internal combustion engine represented by figure 1, figure 2 and figure 3.

Figure 1 shows a crank-slider mechanism of the internal combustion engine when the deviation of the axis of the piston in the longitudinal plane of the axis of the cylinder at the initial angle, ensure the contact of the piston with the cylinder.

Figure 2 shows the crank-floor is unny mechanism of internal combustion engine after turning axis of the piston to the cylinder axis.

Figure 3 shows the design of the sleeve and the inclination of its longitudinal slot.

Where: 1 - cylinder; 2 - piston; 3 - piston cylinder, connecting rod, 4 - plug; 5 - piston pin; 6 - spherical surface of the joint; 7 - longitudinal connector sleeve; RC is the power of the pressure cylinder on the piston; OTS - axis cylinder; Osh - axis of the rod; Op axis of the piston; TSSH center of the spherical joint; α1- the initial deflection angle to the axis of the connecting rod and the axis of the piston from the cylinder axis in the longitudinal plane of the mechanism. α2the full angle of deviation of the axis of the rod from the axis of the cylinder; δ is the angle of rotation axis of the piston to the cylinder axis; γ - the angle of the longitudinal connector sleeve.

Works crank-slider mechanism as follows. Increasing the angle of deviation from uniformity of the mutual angular position of the axis of the rod Osh and the axis of the piston Od relative to the axis of the cylinder Center in the longitudinal plane of the engine at the initial angle α1provide clearance between the piston 2 and the cylinder 1 and the appearance of power RC acting from the side of the cylinder 1, piston 2 (Fig 1). Further increase in the angle α1the deviation of the axis of the rod Osh from the axis of the cylinder Center to the value of the angle α2accompanied by an increase in the strength of the RC, the current from the side of the cylinder 1, piston 2, and the creation relative to the center of the spherical hinge TSSH the moment of this force. The torque RC Proteose the t moment of friction forces in the layer of lubricating material, located between the spherical surface 6 of the sleeve 4 and the piston head 3 of the rod. As soon as the torque RC relative to the center of the spherical hinge TSSH exceeds the friction torque in the spherical hinge, he will overcome it and turn the axis of the piston Op in the direction of the axis of the cylinder OC on the angle δ, which reduces the angle of deviation of the axis of the piston from the same mutual angular position of the axis of the piston Od relative to the axis of the cylinder OC (figure 2). The rotation axis of the piston in the direction of the axis of the cylinder will reduce the torque RC acting from the side of the cylinder 1, piston 2, from the moment of the friction forces to zero. Force RC reaches zero, provided that the angle δ of the turning axis of the piston 2 in the direction of the axis of the cylinder is equal to the angle α2tilt axis Osh rod. In this case, the axis of the piston 2 will be parallel to the axis OC of the cylinder 1 (figure 2). The reduction of torque RC acting from the side of the cylinder 1, piston 2, from the moment of the friction forces in the spherical hinge to zero reduces the unit pressure in the mate-bar slider-crank mechanism, the speed of their wear and increases its reliability.

The advantage of a crank-slider mechanism is installed between the piston pin and the piston head of the connecting rod instead of the dampers compensator angular deviation of the axis of the piston from the same mutual angular position with the axis of the cylinder in the form of spherical what about the hinge, that reduces the torque RC acting from the side of the cylinder on the piston, from the moment of the friction forces in the spherical hinge to zero, reducing the specific pressure in the mates, their rate of wear and increases its reliability. The compensator is activated immediately when the angular deviation of the axis of the piston from the cylinder axis, so the operation of the engine will be held at the minimum variance that will reduce the work of the friction forces will increase the effective power of the engine, reduce specific fuel consumption and repair costs.

Crank-slider mechanism of the internal combustion engine, containing a piston with a hole in which you installed the piston pin, connecting rod bushing piston head of a rod with a cylindrical internal bore for the piston pin, characterized in that it contains the compensator angular deviations from uniformity mutual angular position of the axis of the piston relative to the cylinder axis in the form of spherical hinge installed between the piston pin and the piston head of the connecting rod, and piston head rod contains a spherical hole of the sleeve, the sleeve is made of elastic antifriction material, contains spherical outside surface, and the connector along its longitudinal axis with the angle in the transverse plane relative to the tangent to its inner cylindrical is overhasty in the interval from 0 to 90°.



 

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