Rack toothing for linear drive (versions)

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tooth rack gear, transforming rotary motion into forward motion and on the contrary. It can be used instead of usual involute gear of rack-and-gear mechanisms in linear drives of stands, in devices of auto steering control, and also in load-lifting technology (rack-and-gear jack and suchlike). Rack toothing for linear drive contains wheel (1) and rack (2). Wheel is implemented with one tooth with profile in transverse section of wheel in the form of circumference (3), off-centre displaced from pivot pin of wheel (1). Skew tooth is formed by successive and continuous turn of transverse sections around wheel's axis with formation of helical surface. Rack (2) allows helical teeth (4) of cycloidal profile, conjugated to helical surface of wheel (1). In the second option wheel (1) allows also one tooth and composed from certain crowns, each of which allows profile in the form of off-centre shifted circumference. Teeth of rack (2) are composed also from several cycloidal crowns. Adjacent wheel crowns and racks are phase shifted relative to each other for pitch of corresponding crown, divided for number of crowns.

EFFECT: invention provides creation of small-capacity rack toothing and increasing of its load-carrying capacity.

4 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to timing of kinematic pairs, and more particularly to a rack and pinion transmission that converts rotary motion to linear motion and Vice versa. It can be used instead of the usual rack and pinion mechanisms in linear actuators, machines, devices steering of vehicles and lifting equipment (rack and pinion jacks and the like).

Known cylindrical gear with a rack and pinion gearing, in which a gear wheel is in mesh with the rack, forming a fixed part of the progressive pair (Afraide. Dictionary-reference mechanisms. M: "engineering", 1987, s). As engagement in pinion used involute toothing. Axle gear perpendicular to the direction of movement of the rack. The main disadvantage of the rack and pinion is its low load capacity. To zoom, you need to increase the modulus of the tooth, and hence the size of gears. This increases the linear speed of movement of the rack at the same speed of rotation of the wheel, which is not always valid.

Known rack and pinion worm gear (see ibid., str). It is similar to the conventional worm gear, in which the worm wheel is replaced by rail. The axis of the worm is usually with the direction of movement of the rack some angle, which is dependent upon the angle of helix of the worm and the angle of the teeth of the rack. The lack of a rack and pinion worm gear is the same as a conventional worm gear, namely a low efficiency, not exceeding in most designs of 0.5.

A known mechanism for converting rotary motion into reciprocating (US 5187994) and later modifications of this mechanism (EP 0770795, US 5477741, US 5699604), which in the most General case consists of two parallel shaft rotated synchronously from one drive, a few eccentrics mounted on each shaft with a phase difference, as well as plates with teeth and holes, which are rotatably installed these eccentrics. The mechanism also includes a rack, which interact with the teeth of the plates. When the rotation shaft plate commit plane of planetary motion and, siteplease with the teeth of the rail, move it in the longitudinal direction. The profile of the teeth of the plates in one embodiment, has a semicircular shape, and the teeth of the slats have a cycloidal profile. In the second variant, the teeth of the slats are of semicircular profile and the teeth of the plates of a cycloidal profile. To reduce friction teeth semicircular profile are in the form of rollers freely rotatable on axes. The mechanism of such engagement can be quite high efficiency at high load capacity, due to the fact that motion is transmitted several the parallel branches. The main disadvantage of this device is its complexity due to the large number of parts. In addition, the device is critical to lack of synchronism of rotation of the shafts and require high precision Assembly.

For the prototype will choose the conventional rack and pinion engages the teeth of involute profile described above (Afraide. Dictionary-reference mechanisms. M: "engineering", 1987. s), as having the largest total number of the proposed solution characteristics. It contains being in engagement gear and the rack. The wheel and the rail is installed with the possibility of translational movement relative to each other. The speed of the translational movement of the slats is directly proportional to the diameter of the wheel. The load capacity of the gear depends on the module of the teeth, and hence the diameter of the wheel. Increase the load capacity leads to an increase in the diameter of the wheel and the speed of movement of the rack when other conditions are equal.

Thus, the object of the invention is to provide a compact, simple and reliable rack and pinion gearing for linear actuator.

The technical result achieved by the invention is to increase the load capacity of gear with the same dimensions, and the possibility of obtaining high speeds Reiki regardless of the size of the wheel, (and depending who it only from the corner of the step slats).

To solve this problem a rack and pinion gearing, as the prototype comprises a gear wheel and the rack installed with the possibility of translational movement relative to each other. Unlike the prototype of the wheel and the rail is made with oblique teeth, and the wheel is made with a single tooth profile in the mechanical section of the wheel in a circle eccentric offset from the axis of rotation of the wheel, and oblique tooth wheel is formed of a consistent and continuous rotation of these end sections around the axis of the wheel with the formation of the helical surface, and the rail has helical teeth of a cycloidal profile associated with the helical surface of the wheel and providing a linear contact of the teeth. For continuous transmission of the movement angle of the axial overlap gears and Reiki to exceed 180 degrees.

Like any helical gearing, the gearing will have axial components of the force. In order to eliminate them, the teeth of the wheel and the rail is advisable to make herringbone.

Possible and the second embodiment of the inventive concept, forming the essence of the present invention. The toothed profiles of the wheels and rails in this case are not helical, and a compound of the packages, at least three identical crowns. Crowns in each packet is shifted in phase to each otnositelnogo a step corresponding to the crown, divided by the number of crowns. Each crown wheel is an eccentric offset from the axis of the wheel circumference, and each crown Reiki has the teeth of a cycloidal profile. As the wheel in the proposed mesh has only one tooth, individual crowns must be rotated relative to each other by an angle equal to 360 degrees divided by the number of crowns. The wheel is composed of three crowns, crowns rotated relative to each other at an angle of 120 degrees. For Reiki with three crowns crowns are shifted relative to each other along the direction of the translational movement of the rack 1/3 of the linear step rail. Increasing the number of crowns with a simultaneous decrease in the thickness of the second variant of the invention seeks to the first.

The invention is illustrated in graphic materials, in which figure 1 is a perspective view of the first variant of the proposed rack and pinion gearing. Figure 2 shows the same gearing, end view. Figure 3 and 4 shows diagrams illustrating the formation of cycloidal profile rack with different linear step. Figure 5 illustrates the engagement of the helical teeth. Figure 6 shows a General view of the second variant of the gear wheel and rack, composed of 6 crowns.

The mesh depicted in figure 1 and 2, is formed by the wheel 1 and the rack 2. The axis of rotation OO1wheel 1 perp is ndikumana the direction of translational movement of the slats 2, shown in the figures by the arrow. The wheel 1 is made with one helical tooth angle of the axial overlap in 360 degrees. Helical tooth formed a consistent and continuous rotation for each end section of the wheel 1, which represents the eccentric offset by the distance e from the axis of rotation of the wheel circumference 3. Or the formation of helical tooth can be considered as uniform and continuous movement of the eccentric offset of the circle 3 along the axis OO1with simultaneous continuous rotation of this circle around the axis OO1. In the figures, the dashed lines 3', 3”, 3”',... marked circle in the end sections of the wheel 1, is made through 60 degrees.

Helical teeth 4 of the rail 2 in the end sections have the form of a cycloidal curve 5. Figures 5, 5', 5”, 5”' marked cycloidal curves in adjacent sections of the rail, the mating with the respective eccentric circles 3, 3', 3”, 3”' in the end sections of the wheel 1. Because the construction of each of the circles 3, 3', 3”, 3'”,..., has a point contact with the corresponding cycloidal curves 5, 5', 5”, 5”',..., the toothed wheel 1 with the rail 2 will have a continuous line of contact of the aircraft.

To build paired with a wheel 1 of a cycloidal profile 5 rack 2 refer to the diagrams in figure 3 and 4. The letter marked On the center of rotation of the wheels is 1. Its jagged profile here represented by circle 3, the center of which is offset by the distance e from the center of rotation O. To obtain a cycloidal profile 5 of the rail 2 will build from the center Of the circle 6 on circle 3. Rolling this circle 6 direct 7 without slipping her point And coincident with the center of the circle 3 and located within the circle 6, describes trochoid (shortened cycloid) 8 increments of t6. Equidistant this trochoid 8 shifted by a distance r (here r is the radius of the circle 3 in the end section of the wheel 1), forms the desired cycloidal curve 5. For more steep fronts cycloidal teeth Reiki 2 you should build trochoid in smaller increments. It is formed by rolling circumference 9 of smaller diameter, as shown in figure 4. Circle 9 there is also built with a center point On, but its diameter D9less than the diameter DGforming a circle 6 figure 3. Rolling without slipping circumference 9 straight 10 point And inside the circle 9, describe trochoid (shortened cycloid) 11, which has more sharp edges than the curve 8. Equidistant trochoid 11 and will be required cycloidal curve 12, which forms the profile of the tooth 4 of the rail 2 in smaller increments t12. For wheel 1 having a cross-section circle of the same radius r with one and the e the eccentricity e, you can build a lot of cycloidal curves, characterized by the step size, and hence the steepness of the front teeth. The reduction step of the tooth Reiki 2 is limited only by the effect of cutting teeth.

Obviously, in the engaged figure 3 path length DE, passable at any point on the circumference 3 for one full turnover, approximately equal to the length of this circle. Engaged as in figure 4, the circumference 3 is significantly greater than the corresponding length of the path of GH. Therefore, the mesh in figure 3 will have less slippage than engagement with the greater curvature of the front teeth of the rail 4. However, this engagement is significantly worse than the existing distribution of power. Indeed, the interaction force F of the tooth of the wheel 1 and the tooth Reiki 2 is directed perpendicular to the profiles of the teeth at the point of contact. This force can be resolved into two mutually perpendicular components of F1and F2. Component F1directed along the rail and is actually the driving force and the component of F2is the force with which the wheel 1 is pressed to the river 2 (pressure force). Obviously, with equal moments of rotation of the wheel 1 operating force F1for Reiki in smaller increments will be greater than the operating force for engagement of figure 3. Thus, in each case for the same wheel 1 step selection Reiki 2 BU the et requirements for power or efficiency.

As everyone helical gearing, the proposed mesh has a component of force directed along the axis of the wheel and tending to shift the wheel relative to the rail. To prevent axial displacement of the rack and pinion transmission, you should use angular contact bearings. Another solution to this problem is the implementation of the rims of the wheels and rails Chevron, as shown in figure 5. The wheel 1 has the length of two sections 13 and 14 formed helical surfaces opposite direction. Circle 3 in the end section of the wheel on the section 13 has a continuous rotation around the eccentric offset of the axis OO1clockwise, and on plot 14 counterclockwise. Similarly, gear Reiki 2 consists of two sections 15 and with the right left 16 cycloidal teeth formed phase shift of a cycloidal curve 5 in opposite directions.

It is obvious that due to the symmetry of the arrangement of the teeth of the axial components of force in a Chevron engaged mutually balanced.

With all the advantages of the proposed rack and pinion gearing is quite difficult to manufacture, requires a multi-axis CNC machines. This idea of engagement can be implemented in another embodiment, more simple to manufacture. Refer to the diagram of the education wintopo what about the profile of the tooth of the wheel 1, depicted in figure 1 and 2. If the profile of the tooth of the wheel 1 to obtain continuous rotation and offset of the eccentric circle 3 relative to the axis of rotation OO1wheel 1, and to separate these two movements, you will receive a stepped profile of the wheel 1, an educated individual rotated relative to each other the same rims 17, 17', 17”, ... (see Fig.6). Every crown 17 is formed by a cylinder with an eccentric offset circle in cross section. Neighboring crowns 17, 17' are rotated relative to each other by an angle equal to the angular step of the wheel divided by the number of crowns. Figure 6 angular step of the wheel 1 is 360 degrees, the number of crowns is 6. Therefore, neighboring crowns 17 will be rotated relative to each other by 60 degrees. To produce such a stepped profile wheels can be either single crowns, rigidly fastened together, or by the wheel with stepped profile in the form of single parts like the crankshaft.

Similarly constructed and compound gear profile Reiki 2, only individual crowns 18, 18', 18”, 18”', ..., shifted relative to each other along the rails by a distance equal to the step slats, divided by the number of crowns. In the General case about the crowns of the composite wheel and compound Reiki can say that they are displaced relative to each other in phase and the offset is step corresponding crown, divided by the number of vents is C. Each pair of the rims 17 and 18 wheels 1 and Reiki 2 contacts in a straight line and a common line contact profile is a piecewise continuous polyline curve. In engagement with a stepped profile wheels and rails no problem the axial component of the force, as it can be seen as a superposition of pairwise links separate spur crowns. It should be noted that by increasing the number of crowns in engagement, we'll come to the first embodiment of the gearing of helical screw teeth. In turn, mesh with the helical teeth can be considered as the engagement of the stepped profiles, where the number of crowns infinitely large, and the displacement in phase between adjacent crowns infinitely small.

Consider the operation of the gearing shown in Fig.1-2. During the rotation of the wheel 1 about the axis OO1eccentrically located relative to the axis of the circle 3 (3', 3”, 3”' and so on) in any of the mechanical section of the wheel 1 is in contact with a cycloidal profile 5 (5', 5”, 5”', ...) Reiki 2 in the same section. Let the wheel 1 rotates clockwise, as shown in the figures. Circle 3 in the frontal plane of the mesh (see figure 2), in contact with the top of the cycloidal tooth 5, when rotating around the center O begins to put pressure on the tooth, causing the movement of rail 2 in the same direction by an amount equal to half of its angular step. After the floor is guilty of revolution of the wheel 1 circle 3 will come into contact with the depression of a cycloidal profile 5 of the rail 2 and on the next half of the turnover in this section forces acting on the rail 2 will not. Similar reasoning can also lead to other mechanical sections of the wheel 1 and Reiki 2, where the power contact siteplease profiles will be carried out only on the half turn of the wheel 1. If the angle of the axial overlap of the wheel 1 will be equal to or greater than 180 degrees, the power contact is set to the full revolution of the wheel 1. This means that the movement of rail 2 is continuous and one revolution of the wheel 1 rail 2 will be moved in the longitudinal direction on one tooth. I.e. movement speed rail 2 is determined only step her teeth and does not depend on the diameter of the wheel 1, as it was in the prototype. In addition, under the same diameters of the wheels in the prototype and in the present invention the dimensions of the tooth wheel and rail according to the invention will be significantly larger than that of the prototype with involute gearing. Thus, significantly higher and the load capacity of the proposed rack and pinion gearing.

If the angle of the axial overlap of the wheel 1 is less than 180 degrees, then the mesh will appear "dead zones", where the motion is not passed. However, the engagement and in this case, it may be serviceable if the desired reciprocating movement of the slats 2 smaller step angle. In addition, gearing operable and when the wheel 1 has a large centrifugal mass, the inertia of which Preodolenie the "dead zone" of the engagement.

Work rack and pinion type gearing according to the second variant does not differ from the above. The motion passed successively different pairs of crowns composite wheels and composite slats, i.e. crowns 17-18, 17'-18', 17”-18” etc.

1. Rack and pinion gearing for linear drive with toothed wheel and the rack installed with the possibility of translational movement relative to each other and are in engagement, wherein the wheel and the rail is made with oblique teeth, and the wheel is made with a single tooth profile in the mechanical section of the wheel in a circle eccentric offset from the axis of rotation of the wheel, and oblique tooth wheel is formed of a consistent and continuous rotation of these end sections around the axis of the wheel with the formation of the helical surface, and the rail has helical teeth of a cycloidal profile associated with the helical surface of the wheel and providing a linear contact of the teeth.

2. Rack and pinion type gearing according to claim 1, characterized in that the angle of the axial overlap of the wheel exceeds 180°.

3. Rack and pinion type gearing according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the teeth of the wheels and rails made herringbone.

4. Rack and pinion gearing for linear drive with toothed wheel and the rack installed with the possibility of translational movement relative to the part of each other and are in engagement, characterized in that the toothed profile and wheels, and Reiki is made in the form of a package of at least three identical toothed crowns each, crowns in each packet are shifted relative to each other in phase by step the corresponding crown, divided by the number of crowns, and tightly connected to each other, each gear wheel has a tooth profile in which the mechanical section defined eccentrically offset from the axis of the wheel circumference, and each gear Reiki has the profile of a cycloidal shape.



 

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FIELD: mechanical engineering.

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EFFECT: improved efficiency of machine in operation.

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EFFECT: increases the coefficient of efficiency of transformation of the alternate/reciprocal motion into rotary and vice-versa and simplifies the construction of the toothed transformer.

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FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly combustion engines, pumps and positive displacement compressors, namely mechanisms, which covert reciprocal movement into rotation and vice versa.

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3 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to lever-tooth mechanisms with rack and it can be used to drive mechanisms of slotting machine, automobile windshield wiper, brush cleaner of screens of grain-cleaning machines, in automatic machines, etc. Proposed mechanism contains base, toothed wheel and crank hinge-mounted on base for rotation, and toothed rack engaging with toothed wheel. Lever with guide member is hinge-mounted on axle of toothed wheel. Guide member engages with rear side of toothed rack forming translational pair. Guide member is made in form of roller hinge-mounted for rotation on axle installed on free end of lever provided with thread. Axle of roller is provided with through cross hole to pass threaded end of lever. Roller is held on lever by nuts arranged from outer and inner sides of roller to adjust and fix radial clearance in meshing between rack and toothed wheels.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of mechanism.

2 dwg

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