Diagnostic and monitoring method and device for railway points, crossings, turn-outs or rail joints

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: inventions consider diagnostic and monitoring methods for the running order and wear-out of railway points and/or crossings and/or turn-outs and/or rail joints consisting of several running rails. When railway vehicle passes the points, crossings, turn-outs or rail joint, vibration accelerations are measured and recorded on one or more assemblies of the railway vehicle in two or more spatial directions. The above vibration accelerations are created in the railway vehicle assemblies when it passes the railway point, crossing, turnout or rail joint. In accordance with the invention, the railway vehicle speed is measured and recorded, the movement direction is defined and recorded, the railway point, crossing, turnout and rail joint location is defined and recorded and the exceeding of the given maximum values of the measured vibration accelerations is monitored. Measuring signals from acceleration sensors, speed meters and navigation unit are processed by data acquisition unit. After that, data are stored and evaluated predicting the required time of maintenance and related maintenance costs. If the given maximum values of vibration accelerations are exceeded, a decision is made on the future, more detailed analysis of the railway point, crossing, turn-out and rail joint status.

EFFECT: possible assessment of railway point, crossing, turn-out and rail joint system at less cost and before such assessment is critical.

7 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention concerns a method and device for diagnosing and monitoring the degree of wear and functional status of the arrows and/or intersections and/or switch and/or rail joints rail track, consisting of several chassis rails. The method and apparatus, as claimed in the claims, are also suitable for the diagnosis and monitoring of wear and functional status of the roughness of the path.

Arrows crossing and switches are used to connect multiple rails of railway track in one for communication between the rails or for a single rail through another crossing paths. Smooth and almost completely resistant to the passage of the wheels of the rail vehicle through the arrow, the intersection or the switch is ensured by the so-called d-pad, which is located at the point of intersection of the intersecting rails. It is differentiated between the fixed and movable cross. The fixed cross has a special gap flange at the point of intersection, called the lumen of the spider. Because of this clearance wheel when passing through the arrow, the intersection or crossover rolled groove that leads to shock vibrations and loads on the wheel, and a stationary crossbar. In srednica the second period this leads to an increase and acceleration of wear of the fixed cross and all the arrows, crossing or switch. To solve this problem in the points, intersections or switches through which trains pass at high speeds, is used movable cross-piece, which creates a continuous flange for each rail. However, a large part of switches, crossings or switches has a fixed cross-piece due to lower costs of production and maintenance, as well as limited space for installation.

Measurements to determine the degree of wear and functional status of switches, crossings or switches require large amounts of personnel and logistical point of view are often too slow and/or too late, so, in particular, measurements of the cross-pieces after a routine checkup is carried out only when its necessity is visible to the naked eye. Visual determination of the status of switches, crossings or switches at routine inspections cannot give a reasonably accurate assessment of the degree of wear.

According to modern technical requirements diagnosis of switches, crossings and intersections is made by visual examination and evaluation in accordance with the method and the intra-instruction DS 8200605 B5 and standard BN 821.2005. This includes methods handle the CSO measure using ruler, calipers, measuring cords, measuring wedges, mirrors and probes. Special attention is paid to investigation of the line of transition curves, checking the flatness and direction of the rails and determination of the level crossings and guardrails. This requires 3 people, up to 30 minutes of time and a set of 8 measuring instruments, often very cumbersome.

In addition, the result is only geometric data on the degree of wear crosses, and guardrail at the time of measurement without any information regarding the status of the upper and lower track structure. In addition, this technique does not allow to identify the location of the cavities in the sleepers, which to this day is not going any system.

Thus, the disadvantage of this method is to attract a large number of staff and time consuming, that is rare and insufficient description of the actual degree of wear and functional status. Because of this prediction and the purpose of timely recovery operations are unlikely. Still there is no threshold at which intervention is necessary, especially for the transition region.

From DE 102004014282 known method and device for diagnosing and monitoring the transition arrows and crossing electrelane transfer rail track. In this case, the fixed d-pad or the point of intersection (in at least one place crosses or points of intersection in at least one direction) measured vibration accelerations crosses or points of intersection produced when moving the vehicle through the d-pad or the point of intersection. When using this technique, the deterioration of structural elements of the arrows crossing or switch is investigated directly on these elements. If necessary, testing several different switches, crossings or switches workers should dismantle an appropriate measuring device with one arrow, crossing or switch, move to the next arrow, crossing or switch and install it there. Diagnosis several different switches, crossings or switches associated thus with the use of a large number of employees and a lot of time.

In the US 2002056398 A1 described independent from the reaction of the road or rail track method and device for controlling the running gear of a multi-axle vehicle where are inadmissible deviations from the normal mechanical operating characteristics of the suspension. D is I the acceleration sensors measure acceleration, at least two axes of the chassis, which are estimated using the Fourier transform. Thus, when evaluating formed over a longer time intervals of the mean value profiles can be installed occur over a longer time deviation from the original condition and automatically be prompted for the appropriate corrective event at the wheel pair.

As should be filtered out by the influence of the rails on the characteristics of the bogie, with the help of this method or device, you can get an idea about the condition of the rail, in particular about his injury.

The disadvantage of the described method and device is that when moving the rail vehicle through the arrow, cross, switch or rail junction is impossible to determine the actual wear with such precision that even without a corrupted state can be forecasted possible the required period of renovations with the correspondingly expected at this cost.

It is only possible to establish that exceeding a certain boundary values of the corresponding area of the track is already invalid.

In addition, after only one passage in the track you cannot get any information about the actual wear of the rail track and associated irregularities way. Occur at the points, intersections, turnouts crossings or rail joints oscillations/vibrations have a shorter wavelength than the fluctuations that occur in case of irregularities of the road. To evaluate these relatively long-wavelength fluctuations should be compared with each other series of measurements for multiple trips.

From EP 1236633 A2 known method for determining the state of "derailment" of the wheels of the rail vehicle. This is determined characteristic parameters and when exceeding a predefined value is given the index signal and/or emergency braking. Through this method it is impossible to assess worn and the functional state of the arrows, turnouts, crossings, rail joints or rails.

Thus, the objective of the invention is the presentation of the method and device, which could be a small cost to estimate the entire system of the arrows crossing or switch, as well as rail joints and irregularities way before the need for such evaluation will be manifested visually and without inherent in the prior art shortcomings.

This problem is solved according to the invention: method - using characteristics referred to in paragraph 1 of the claims, and for the device to the ri using signs, referred to in paragraph 6 of the claims.

In paragraph 1 of the formula of the invention provides a method for diagnosing and monitoring the status of the worn-out and functional status of the arrows and/or intersections and/or switch, as well as rail joints and irregularities of the track. When the moving rail vehicle through the arrow, the intersection or the switch, rail joints and irregularities of the rail track on at least one structural element of the vehicle in at least one spatial direction measurement and the memorization of vibration accelerations occurring at this constructive element when moving through the arrow, the intersection or the switch, rail joints and irregularities of the track.

Thus, in accordance with the invention, when the moving rail vehicle are measured and accurate assessment of the place, in particular, vibration accelerations. These accelerations are in direct contact with the wear and functional state of the arrows crossing or turnouts, rail joints and irregularities of the road, because of the increasing vibration acceleration caused, in particular, an increase in the variance of their geometrical shape and position from the set. In particular, moving to the forest train through the lumen of the fixed cross is becoming less and less "soft" with increasing wear. At the same time increase the vibration acceleration means an increase in energy applied to individual elements of the arrows crossing or switch and rail junction and irregularities way that enhances and accelerates wear.

Crossing due to structural breaks arrows, intersections, turnouts, rail joints and uneven path with the increase of wear or poor installation leads to characteristic changes of the parameters of vibration accelerations on the wheel or wheel pair of the rail vehicle. Such vibration acceleration apply to all vehicles in accordance with its design characteristics of the damping. Thus, increasing deviations from the geometric shape, configuration, and mounting elements of the arrows crossing switch and rail junction and uneven paths lead to the buildup of vibration accelerations in the vehicle and Vice versa.

In accordance with the invention additionally involves measuring and memorizing the speed of the rail vehicle, and the direction and location of the arrows crossing or switch and rail junction and the roughness of the path.

Pre-treatment the processing of the measuring signals on Board the vehicle mainly produced in series, so through the interfaces of the vehicle you want to pass only the extracted data, such as direction of motion, the acceleration of the wheel pair, the speed, the location of the train.

Using located on the rail vehicle data collection devices process the measuring signals of the acceleration sensors, speedometer and navigation device, remember and appreciate. However predict the required period of repairs and associated costs for repair work.

In addition, the control, was not exceeded characteristic specified boundary values of the measured vibration accelerations. In that case, if the limit values of vibration acceleration is exceeded, is the follow-up a more thorough control measurement condition of the arrows crossing or switch, in particular, according to the instructions DS 8200605 B5 or BN 824.9005.

Especially preferably the measurement of vibration acceleration with acceleration sensors, which according to paragraph 2 is installed in the vicinity of the point of contact of wheel and rail, in particular on item 3 on the cover bearing a pair of wheels or under paragraph 4 as close as possible to the point of contact of wheel and rail, in particular on specially selected izmeritelnaya pair.

According to paragraph 5, to determine the location of the train preferably used satellite positioning device, in particular GPS, DGPS or Gallileo. This allows you to set the location even in areas not equipped with systems of train control, reporting rail vehicle of its position on the plot.

In paragraph 6 is disclosed a device for implementing the method according to item 1.

When moving rail vehicle at a certain speed and a certain direction of the arrow crossing or switch, rail junction or irregularities in the path of at least one acceleration sensor on at least one structural element of the rail vehicle reports vibrational acceleration occurring on the rail vehicle when moving through the d-pad or gap rail. The acceleration sensors detect the vibration acceleration in one or particularly preferably in several directions, in particular in all three mutually perpendicular spatial directions. In addition, to determine the rotational movements and/or longitudinal pitching on at least one structural element of the rail vehicle can be used acceleration sensors.

As sensors accelerated the I, paragraph 7 are used piezoelectric acceleration sensors. They are lightweight, compact design and durability.

The speed gauge determines the speed of the rail vehicle. Thus, in particular, is used installed in a rail vehicle speed gauge, which also shows the speed of the operator. Alternatively, it is possible, in particular, the use of radar, ultrasonic or laser measuring devices.

The navigation device determines the location of the measured arrows, crossing or switch, as well as rail joints and irregularities way for positional bindings installed vibration accelerations corresponding to the arrow crossing or switch, rail joints or uneven road. The advantage of this is that if a problem occurs or is exceeded characteristic specified limit values of vibration accelerations staff is invoked exactly on the corresponding arrow, crossing or switch, rail junction, or the roughness of the path. In the navigation device primarily used existing rail vehicle these provisions in combination with the position of the acceleration sensors on a track vehicle. These terms of rail transport, the bound product are determined, in particular, through management systems train preteenage section of the route, which passed on a rail vehicle of its position in this area, in particular the system Linienzugbeeinflussung (LZB) or ein European Train Control System (ETCS)or through satellite positioning device according to item 5.

Particularly preferably used navigation device, which, along with the data position also provides data on the speed and direction of motion of the rail vehicle as possible, in particular, in the case of a satellite positioning device. Thus, the speed gauge and the navigation device is combined here into a single device that eliminates the need to separate the speedometer.

The data collection device is the measuring signals of the acceleration sensors, speedometer and navigation device, stores, in particular, electronically or magnetically, and evaluates them. In addition, the data collection device controls excess of the characteristic specified thresholds. In case of exceeding of the limit, using data collection devices, the decision on the subsequent, more thorough test measurement the state of the crossing or switch, in particular according to the instructions DS 8200605 B5 or BN 824.9005. T is thus, supporting the use of traditional means of measurement is required only when the device in accordance with the invention identifies the need for maintenance or when required by a regulatory mechanism.

Advantages of the method and device in accordance with the invention are, inter alia, in the diagnosis and monitoring of the arrow, crossing or switch, rail junction or irregularities path between regular inspections and maintenance. When this is done the first accurate report on the state of the arrows crossing or switch through a quick and simple test. Thus, it is timely to identify wear and on the basis of these data will be compiled, you need to forecast the timing and cost of repairs that will ensure the best he and optimization of life cycle costs. In addition, there is a possibility of comparison with earlier measured values.

Particularly preferably:

through the invention, in particular when a fully automatic process measurement and data processing eliminated the need for additional staff and time costs,

through the invention creates the possibility of timely automatic trend analysis,

- through the your of the invention can be arranged, to optimize and reduce inspection costs on the ground,

- increases driving comfort for passengers,

- may decrease the noise level.

It is assumed that the implementation of this measurement tasks can be delegated to a suitably equipped conventional trains with standard wheel pairs (with the appropriate information and technical support).

Below the invention is explained in more detail on the example of the version and by drawing, which shows a rail vehicle with a measuring device in accordance with the invention, moving the gap of the rail.

Particularly preferred example of execution of concerns according to figure 1 of a rail vehicle 1 moving gap 3 rail 2. Gap 3 rail 2 is the length of the arrow cross with a fixed cross-piece.

When moving rail vehicle at a certain speed in a certain direction through the gap 3, the acceleration sensor 4 mounted on the cover 5 of the bearing wheelset (or as close as possible to the point of contact of wheel and rail), registers the vibration acceleration occurring on the rail vehicle at the time of the move. Simultaneously, the navigation device 7, in particular satellite positioning us the device, records position, speed and direction of movement of the rail vehicle.

Device 6 performs data collection, primary processing and recording measurement signals of the acceleration sensor 4, and the navigation device 7 and accordingly evaluates them. Further, the device 6 data collection controls excess of the characteristic specified limit values of vibration acceleration. In case of exceeding of the limit device 6 data collection decides to subsequent, more thorough test measurement of the position and condition of structural elements of the arrow, in particular according to the instructions DS 8200605 B5 or BN 824.9005. After that revealed worn structural elements are maintenance and the re-invention test, which checks and controls the quality of maintenance of these structural elements.

The reference list of items:

1 - rail vehicle,

2 - rail,

3 - gap rail,

4 - acceleration sensor

5 - cover bearing wheelset,

6 - device data collection,

7 - the navigation device.

1. A method for the diagnosis and monitoring of worn-out and functional status of the arrows, and/or intersection, and/or switch, the/or rail joint rail track, characterized in that during the passage of the rail vehicle on the arrow, cross, switch or rail junction

on at least one structural element of the rail vehicle, in at least one spatial direction measure and memorize the vibration acceleration generated in a constructive element of the rail vehicle during its travel in direction of arrow, cross, switch or rail joint,

measure and memorize the speed of the rail vehicle, and identify and remember the direction,

identify and remember the location of the arrow, cross, switch or rail joint,

by located on the rail vehicle data collection devices process the measuring signals of the acceleration sensors, speedometer and navigation device, remember them and appreciate, while predicting the required period of repairs and associated costs for repair work,

and control excess characteristic specified thresholds measured vibration accelerations, and in case of exceeding the specified limit values of vibration acceleration decide later, more carefully the positive control measure structural elements of the arrows, crossing, switch or rail interface.

2. A method for the diagnosis and condition monitoring according to claim 1, characterized in that the measurement of vibration accelerations operate near the point of contact of wheel and rail.

3. A method for the diagnosis and condition monitoring according to claim 2, characterized in that the measurement of vibration acceleration is carried out in the area of the bearing cap wheel pair.

4. A method for the diagnosis and condition monitoring according to claim 1, characterized in that the measurement of vibration accelerations carry on a railway wheel in the region of the point of contact of wheel and rail.

5. A method for the diagnosis and condition monitoring according to claim 1, characterized in that the location of the arrow, crossing switch or rail junction is determined using a satellite positioning device.

6. Device for diagnosing and monitoring the status of the arrow, and/or intersection, and/or switch and/or rail junction of the track, characterized in that during the passage of the rail vehicle on the arrow, cross, switch or rail junction

on at least one structural element of the rail vehicle is at least one acceleration sensor,

on a track vehicle are the speed the EP and the navigation device

the data collection device located on the rail vehicle, processes, records and evaluates the measuring signals of the acceleration sensors, speedometer and navigation devices and predicts the time required repairs and associated costs for repair work.

7. The device for diagnostics and condition monitoring according to claim 6, characterized in that the acceleration sensor uses a piezoelectric acceleration sensor.



 

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FIELD: railway transport; testing facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for checking wear of rails on railways and streetcar tracks. Device for testing wear of rails includes pulse generator and recorder and second pulse generator. First and second pulse generators are made in form of electronic transducers furnished with spring-loaded rods with rack gears engaging with surfaces of rail and with gears on axles of which light breakers are installed, and with light emitting diodes connected by wires with photorelays. Recorder is made up of radio electronic elements, supply unit and control panel with push buttons and change-over switches. Pulse generators and recorder are connected by wires. First pulse generator is installed on base on edges of which bellcranks are mounted for rotation on joints. Position lock of bellcranks is installed between upper parts of bellcranks furnished with handles, position lock being made of concave parts and screw. Second pulse generator is installed lower than the base on one of bellcranks. Stops with slots and fastening screws are made in lower parts of bellcrank to secured their position relative to bellcranks.

EFFECT: improved safety, reduced possibility of breakdown in operation of rolling stock on railways and streetcar tracks.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; measuring facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to special purpose devices for measuring separate geometric parameters of reinforced concrete ties, i.e. propelling and canting of rail flats on reinforced concrete ties. Proposed device contains housing 1 with fitted-on transport handle 2, right-hand support 3 and left-hand support 4. First support screw 5 and second support screw 6 are installed on right-hand support 3, third support screw 7 and fourth support screw 8 are installed on left-hand support 4, right-hand catcher 9 and left-hand catcher 10 are installed on ends of housing 1, sensor 11 is secured on first support screw 5. Housing 1 carries also right-hand orientation handle 13 with pushbutton 15 and left-hand orientation handle 14. Base 16 is fastened in central part of housing 1, controller 17 and supply compartment 18 being secured on base 16. Device for measuring rail flat canting contains housing 1 with fitted-on transport handle 2, right-hand support 3 and left-hand support 4. First support screw 5 and second support screw 6 are installed on right-hand support 3. And third support screw 7 and fourth support screw 8 are installed on left0hand support 4. Right-hand catcher 9 and left-hand catcher 10 are installed on ends of housing 1, first sensor 11 is secured on first support screw 5, and second sensor 19 is installed on fourth support screw 8. Housing 1 carries right-hand orientation handle 13 with pushbutton 15, and left-hand orientation handle 14. Base 16 with fitted-on controller 17 and supply compartment 18 is secured in central part of housing 1. Moreover, support 21 is connected to housing 1 through vertical rods in central part.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of measurements, increased accuracy and provision of operative measurement of parameters under checking.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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