High-precision vacuum device and method of its production

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: tight block switching fixtures represent welded components with separate tight leadouts incorporating rigid conducting terminal extenders with a flat flange while coaxial tight leadouts incorporate flexible terminal extenders fitted on the rods arranged on the surface of ceramic plates in rows with the difference in height of top points of the flexible conducting terminal extenders between the first and every subsequent row h defined from the formula h=l·sinα, where l is the distance between the first and each subsequent row and α is the angle of inclination of a plane of the contact between the top points of the aforesaid flexible conducting terminal extenders to the ceramic plate plane. The terminal block comprises also cylindrical extender sleeves with tabs arranged on both end faces. Note that the said tabs of the lower end face are bent along the radius by the angle of 90° outward from the sleeve axis of symmetry. Note also that, at the top end face, the said tabs are vent two times by 90° towards the aforesaid axis of symmetry of the sleeve. To weld the aforesaid fixtures, a pulsed laser radiation makes a heating source.

EFFECT: high level of technological and operational properties of proposed tight block.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of radio and electrical engineering and can be used in avionics.

Known high-temperature insulating block for switching electrical circuits in terms of exposure to high temperatures, adopted as an analogue of [1].

Famous Shoe includes a housing (cuff), the ceramic insulator with holes, rigid contact pins (pins) with thread for connection of conductors. The ceramic insulator installed in the housing, and the contact pins are set into the holes of the insulator, the switching conductors are fixed nut on the pin.

The main disadvantage of the known pads is that the insulator in the housing and the pins in the holes of the insulator is not sealed, so you cannot use the block for switching electrical circuits objects inside the sealed volume, in particular inside high-vacuum devices. In addition, the ends of the pins are located in the same plane that do not allow them to be used for switching objects, such as flat pads that are located at different heights relative to each other. When using pads as a fork with a limited number of pins, the Assembly process of the pad with the response part (for example, socket dial-up object) n is complex, and if the number of pins increases and at the same time accumulates due to errors in the manufacture of total non-parallelism of the pins relative to each other and holes in the return part of the dial-up object, the Assembly process becomes much more complicated. Also known block does not contain such structural elements, such as screens, allowing you to use the instrument noise immunity circuit-switched signals.

Known design sealed pads conclusions [2], adopted as a prototype pads, which contains a ceramic plate with metal findings (germanywide), hermetically sealed in the body of the plate, and metallization in contact with the body (cuff), the pins are on the surface of the ceramic plate, applied by thick-film technology and is covered with an insulating layer of glass. The glass layer is coated with the layer of metallization (or tinned coatingand) for sealing soldering pads and body.

The main disadvantage of the known block is that the block can not be used for switching electrical circuits, facilities, operating at temperatures above 200°C. the current-carrying elements in the form of a flat metallic conductors (pins) made by thick-film technology, and it usually involves the use of ka is este spraying material of pure metals, such as copper, chromium and the like, thermal coefficients of linear expansion which ˜3÷4 times higher than that of ceramics or glass. Therefore, when the known heating pads to temperatures above 200°is a mechanical destruction of the findings with the breakage of the electrical connection. In addition, the ends of the pins are on the block at the same level that does not allow its use for commutation of such objects in a mate, as flat pads that are located at different heights relative to each other. Despite the presence of a metallization layer, which can be used as a screen for the group deposited conclusions separately each output does not contain such a structural element, such as a screen, the lack of which reduces the immunity of the switched signals.

A known method of manufacturing a hermetic node passed in as similar way [3]. According to the similar as insulator used glass. The method includes the manufacture of metal fittings, batch preparation and receipt of a glass material in powder technology, the site Assembly in the fixture, heating in a furnace to a temperature of education junction (800° (C), the shutter speed and the cooling of the glass-to-metal node.

The main disadvantage of this method is that as izoliruyuscikh the material used glass, characterized by low mechanical strength and low electrical properties, especially at high frequencies [4]. Resulting in complicated manufacturing technology and limited to the area of application of the pressurized nodes.

Known technology for manufacturing hermetic pads findings, described in [2] and adopted as the prototype of the method.

According to prototype the process of making sealed pads is in the manufacture of ceramic plates, manufacture of current-carrying elements (germanywide) and they are sealed by thick-film technology and sealing pads with housing (flange) low-temperature soldering through the layer of metallization or tinned coatingand.

The main disadvantage of the known techniques is that the scope produced by this method pads is limited to relatively low temperatures (200° (C) and a low degree of vacuum (>10-3mm RT. Art.). This is because, firstly, for forming a current-carrying element using thick-film technology and sprayed, as a rule, pure metal, the temperature coefficient of linear expansion which is harder compared to alloy, to agree with the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of the substrate (ceramics), which leads to a low heat-resistant the t current-carrying element, and, secondly, for sealing use the technology of soldering, eliminating the possibility of high-temperature obezvozhivanija products. In addition, the products obtained by thick-film technology have developed a residual porosity, which significantly affects the emission, complicating the process of obezvozhivanija. Therefore, for high-vacuum instruments with a residual pressure of <10-7mm RT. Art. and temperature obezvozhivanija parts and components exceeding 200°With this technology is not applicable.

The main task of the invention is to create a structure of the switching node - sealed pads for precision high vacuum device and method of its manufacture.

The technical result is to increase the quality and ensuring a high level of technological and operational properties of the switching node - sealed pads for precision high-vacuum device.

This result is achieved in that in a sealed pad precision high-vacuum device single and coaxial germanywide made of welded, with a single germanywide contain rigid current-carrying contact extension with flat flange and coaxial germanywide contain elastic conductive contact strips mounted on the article is Rini and grouped on the surface of the ceramic plate in series with the difference between the height of the upper points of the elastic conductive contact strips between the first and each subsequent near h, determined by the ratio

h=l·sinα,

where l is the distance between the first and each subsequent near,

α - the angle of the plane touch the top point of the elastic conductive contact strips to the plane of the ceramic plates

and installed on the screens of the cylindrical extension sleeve with petals on both ends and on the bottom petals are curved on a radius at an angle of 90° in the direction from the symmetry axis of the sleeve and in the center of each petal is made polevka, and on the top petals consistently curved double radius 90° in the direction of the symmetry axis of the sleeve.

In terms of how this result is achieved by the fact that single and coaxial germanywide lengthen, which is made of rigid conductive contact strips with flat flange, resilient conductive contact strips and a cylindrical extension sleeve with petals on the bottom and top ends, and on the bottom of the petals form a flange, to which the petals are bent radially at an angle of 90° in the direction from the symmetry axis of the sleeve and perform polevka on each of the petals, and at the upper end of the petals form an elastic contact, for which the petals twice sequentially bend radius at the angle of 90° in the direction of the axis of symmetry of the sleeve when the same is die conductive contact strips are mounted on rods single germanywide and weld pulsed laser welding, the elastic conductive contact strips are mounted on rods coaxial germanywide and group on the surface of the ceramic plate in series with the difference between the height of the upper points of the elastic conductive contact strips between the first and each subsequent near h, which is determined by the ratio

h=l·sinα,

where l is the distance between the first and each subsequent near,

α - the angle of the plane touch the top point of the elastic conductive contact strips to the plane of the ceramic plates

and weld pulsed laser welding, and a cylindrical extension sleeve mounted on the screen of the coaxial germanywide and weld pulse laser welded to the flange of the screen, combining a crosshair eyepiece welding installation with Central poklevki on the petal.

In figure 1, 2 and 3 show the construction of the claimed sealed pads for precision high-vacuum device. With respect to the portion not shown in the figures, designs precision high vacuum device, let's call her mate, which must be installed block and nodes which block should provide reliable communication, the pad has an external and internal parts: figure 1 shows the inner part, in figure 2 the inner part is located above the axis, and the outer frequent is located below the axis, figure 3 shows a cut petal 12 poklevki 13. The pad includes a ceramic insulator (plate) 1, the cuff 2, and a single 3 and coaxial 4 germanywide. The cuff 2, a single 3 and coaxial 4 germanywide hermetically brazed to the ceramic plate 1. Single germanywide consist of rods 3 and the rigid conductive contact strips 5 with flat flange and gold coating 6 on the surface of the flange. Coaxial germanywide contain a Central core 4, the ceramic insulator 7, a screen (cuff) 8, the elastic conductive contact strip 9 and the cylindrical extension sleeve 10. The elastic conductive contact strips 9 are arranged in series and mounted so that the plane touches the top point is inclined to the plane of the ceramic plate 1 pads at an angle α. I.e. each subsequent row contact strips 9 is set below (or above) the first series of contact strips 9 on the value of h, defined as

h=l·sinα,

where l is the distance between the first and each subsequent near,

α - the angle of the plane touch the top point of the elastic conductive contact strips to the plane of the ceramic plates.

Experimentally determined that for typical dimensions (diameters) of the pad, not exceeding ˜80÷100 mm, the optimum range is the n angles Increasing the angle α 10° leads to an increase in height h and a corresponding overestimation of the size of the pads in this direction, and decrease the angle α less than 5° results in a complicated Assembly process and increase the likelihood of breakage of the elastic conductive contact strips 9 during Assembly. The elastic conductive contact strips 9 are welded to the Central rod 4 pulsed laser welding means of adapter sleeves 11. The lower ends of the cylindrical extension of the sleeves 10 contain the flanges, which are made in the form of three petals 12 polevkami 13 on each of them. The petals are bent radially outwards from the axis of symmetry of the sleeve 90°. The upper end of the cylindrical extension bushing 10 includes three petal 14, sequentially bent twice along the radius in the direction of the axis of symmetry of the sleeve 10 to 90° to provide an elastic contact. The number of blades 12 is determined by the conditions of the Assembly on the screen 8 and the required strength of the weld site, and the number of blades 14 is determined by the conditions in the alignment and ensure a reliable electrical contact with the node in the response of the instrument (i.e. a node) is inserted into the sleeve 10. In this case, as the experiments showed, enough for three petal on each end. Cylindrical extension sleeve 10 is welded on puckle the ke 13 pulsed laser welded to the flange of the screen 8.

The device operates as follows.

The main purpose of hermetic pads is to provide a high vacuum inside the device and electrical connections between components inside a high-vacuum device and external devices (not shown)connected to the power supply and processing the electrical signals of the device. Based on this fully-assembled block - this is a tight site with leakage ˜5·10-11l·mm RT. Art./s and obezvozhivanija at temperatures above 300°C. Single 3 and 4 coaxial conclusions pads - conductive structural elements and by applying to each of them operating voltage in the electric circuit of the measuring device is fixed to the flow of electric current. And between them and between the cuff and single coaxial conclusions pads provide infinitely large resistance (˜500 MW). Health check hermetic pads comes with its Assembly with the response part of the unit. In the process of assembling a sealed block its inner part must be installed in the return part of the device with slots, and pads, and the cuff 2 of its external part should be tightly welded with the housing unit. Hard conductive contact strips 5 provide contact with over the awn spring pads mate inside the device, and the elastic conductive contact strips 9 to be inserted into the socket. When this first mate (female) center of the elastic conductive contact strips 9, following the sequence: first, provide the touch and convergence with the slot of the extension 9, located in the 1st row, then the extension of the 2nd row and 3rd row. The presence of different heights between rows of contact strips 9 simplifies the Assembly of the pad with the response part, because the ends of the slots in the return part are located in one plane. The elastic conductive contact strips 9, installed in the socket, to provide electrical contact with the inner surface of the socket, and with the outer surface of the socket electrical contact is provided with lobes 14 of the cylindrical extension of the sleeves 10. Once all of the elastic conductive contact strips 9 will take its place in the nests, rigid conductive contact strips 5 can touch and feel the pressure of the spring ends of the pads mate with further convergence pads. After Assembly checks electrical circuits, for which single and coaxial germanywide on the outer side pads connect the appropriate connectors.

The number of rows of contact strips, as kolichestvoparkov with current-carrying extensions, depends on the design of the device and connect the required electrical connections (channels).

The method consists in the following.

The method is as follows. Methods of machining (turning, milling) and the erosive treatment produced the reinforcement rods for single germanywide 3 and rods with bushings for coaxial germanywide 4, the ceramic insulator made by means of slip casting, and then check them for tightness. Using slip casting was obtained ceramic insulator (plate) blocks 1 with holes germanywide 3 and 4. Then the ceramic plate 1 was assembled in the Assembly fixture with the cuff 2, a single 3 and 4 coaxial with germanywide and performed high-temperature silver brazing alloys and cement. The resulting block was checked for tightness. Further methods of machining, stamping, molding produced armature current-carrying contact extension: fixed current-carrying contact strips 5 with flat flange, resilient conductive contact strips 9 extending sleeve 10 with the lobes 12 and 14 at the ends (on the three tabs on each end), the transition sleeve 11. On the surface of the rigid conductive contact strips 5 struck gold coating thickness of 1÷3 μm (allvoices.com way or by using a vacuum deposition). Flexible molded petals 12 and 14 at the ends of the extension sleeves 10. The 12 petals on the bottom straight along the radius in the direction from the symmetry axis of the sleeve 10 at the angle of 90° and the stamping was done on the petals 12 polevka 13 depth of 0.1÷0.2 mm and a diameter of 0.35÷0,50 mm Depth and diameter poklevki chosen empirically and consistent with the parameters of pulsed laser welding (wavelength of 1.06 μm, pulse duration ˜3 MS, pulse energy ˜5 j, the spot diameter of the heat ˜0.4 mm) thus, so that when the welding polewka was completely melted. The upper petals 14 twice in succession straight along the radius at the angle of 90° inside the sleeve to its axis of symmetry. From flexible wire was shaped resilient contact strips 9 and welded them contact welded to the sleeve 11. Next, perform the Assembly and installation of fabricated fittings with nuts. Elastic contact strips 9 were grouped in series, mounted on the rods and welded pulsed laser welding, starting with the 1st row and providing with accessories reduced height in each subsequent row by the value h, which was determined by the ratio

h=l·sinα,

where l is the distance between the first and each subsequent near,

α - the angle of the plane touch the top point of the elastic conductive contact onlineteen the plane of the ceramic plate, determined experimentally, was the amount of α˜5÷10°.

Next on the flange of the screen 8 is installed between the sleeve 10 and welded pulsed laser welding, focusing the radiation on polevka 13. Then, on a single germanised 3 installed hard conductive contact strip 5 and pulsed laser welding was welded to each other. The use of pulsed laser welding significantly reduce contamination of the welded surfaces and to simplify subsequent washing. Made the block was connected to the leak detector and checked for leaks, then check the electrical parameters and fit the block was sent to the Assembly of the device.

An example of performing the method.

Using slip casting, comprising preparing a mixture (composition VK-94-1), casting, annealing, grinding and soldering were made ceramic insulator (plate) pads 1 and the coaxial pins 4. Preparing a fixture for a single 3 and coaxial 4 germanywide: wire (alloy MRWA) cut the rods, ribbon (alloy 29NK) pressure got the screens 8, the cuff 2. Using silver solder and cement held high temperature brazing fittings and bushings (for coaxial output) and valve and coaxial pins with ceramic plate.

Further mechanical methods is the processing, stamping, molding produced reinforcement for live contact extension: fixed current-carrying contact strips 5 were performed with a flat flange, on which surface the galvanic method was applied gold plating thickness (1÷3) μm (coating can also be applied using vacuum deposition); flexible molded elastic conductive contact strips 9. Using turning made the transition sleeve 11 and the extension sleeve 10, the ends of the latter through the erosive processing performed lobes 12 and 14 (three petal on each end). The petals were shaped flexible: on the bottom straight along the radius in the direction from the symmetry axis of the sleeve 10 at the angle of 90° and shaped by stamping performed on them polevka 13 depth (0,1÷0,2) mm and a diameter of 0.35÷0,50) mm Upper petals 14 twice in succession straight along the radius at the angle of 90° inside the sleeve to its axis of symmetry. Was welded by resistance welding elastic conductive contact strips 9 with the sleeve 11. Next, perform the Assembly and installation of fabricated fittings with nuts. Elastic contact strips 9 were grouped in rows, starting from the 1st series, set on the rods, while using tool reduced height in each subsequent row to the first row on the value of h=l sinαthat was the first number: ˜(1,6÷3,2) mm for the second row and ˜(3,2÷6,4) mm for the third row and was welded pulsed laser welding. Next on the flange of the screen 8 is installed between the sleeve 10, which are exhibited in the angular position, orienting one of the petals 14 in the direction along the radius to the axis of symmetry of the sleeve 10, and welded pulsed laser welding, radiation was focused on polevka 13. Then, on a single germanised 3 installed hard conductive contact strip 5 and pulsed laser welding was welded to each other. The mounted pad was connected to the leak detector and checked for leaks by the method of blowing on a helium leak detector. The degree of leakage during the test was-size ˜6·10-11l·mm RT. Art./s, which corresponded to the requirements documentation. The sealing pad was tested for electrical parameters: the presence of the electric conductivity of the contacts, the electrical insulation between the contacts. All tests showed that the block meets the requirements of design documentation that apply to switching nodes precision high vacuum devices. After this block obessively and sent to the Assembly with the response part of the device.

Thus, declared instrukciya sealed pads and method of its manufacture to provide engineering and technical design requirements requirements for sealed switching nodes precision high-vacuum devices.

Sources of information

1. A.S. No. 1464229 4H01R 9/24, application No. 4167467/24 from 23.12.86, BI No. 9, 1989, p.236.

2. A.S. No. 1709427 5H01J 23/48, application No. 4779787/21 from 21.01.90, BI No. 4, 1992, s.

3. A.S. No. 1661158 SS 27/33, application No. 4426615/33 from 11.04.88. BI No. 25, 1991, p.88.

4. I Am Grochowski. Equipment high vacuum. M., Mir, 1975, pp.481.

1. Sealed pad precision high-vacuum device containing a ceramic plate with a single and coaxial germanywide and cuff, characterized in that the single and coaxial germanywide made of welded, with a single germanywide contain rigid current-carrying contact extension with flat flange and coaxial germanywide contain elastic conductive contact strips mounted on the rods and grouped on the surface of the ceramic plate in series with the difference between the height of the upper points of the elastic conductive contact strips between the first and each subsequent near h, defined by the ratio h=l·sinα,

where l is the distance between the first and each subsequent near,

α - the angle of the plane touch the top point of the elastic conductive contact strips to the plane of the ceramic plates

and mounted on the cylindrical screens ugly is shining sleeve of petals on both ends, and on the bottom petals are curved on a radius at an angle of 90° in the direction from the symmetry axis of the sleeve and in the center of each petal is made polevka, and on the top petals consistently curved double radius 90° in the direction of the symmetry axis of the sleeve.

2. A method of making sealed pads precision high vacuum device, including manufacturing ceramic plates, making the valve Assembly and soldering fittings, check for leaks, characterized in that the single and coaxial germanywide lengthen, which is made of rigid conductive contact strips with flat flange, resilient conductive contact strips and a cylindrical extension sleeve with petals on the bottom and top ends, and on the bottom of the petals form a flange, to which the petals are bent radially at an angle of 90° in the direction from the symmetry axis of the sleeve and perform polevka on each of the petals, and the upper end of the petals form an elastic contact, for which the petals twice sequentially bend radius 90° in the direction of the symmetry axis of the sleeve, while the rigid conductive contact strips are mounted on rods single germanywide and weld pulsed laser welding, conductive elastic contact ugly Italy mounted on the rods coaxial germanywide and group on the surface of the ceramic plate in series with the difference between the height of the upper points of the elastic conductive contact strips between the first and each subsequent near h, which is determined by the ratio h=l·sinα,

where l is the distance between the first and each subsequent near,

α - the angle of the plane touch the top point of the elastic conductive contact strips to the plane of the ceramic plates

and weld pulsed laser welding, and a cylindrical extension sleeve mounted on the screen of the coaxial germanywide and weld pulse laser welded to the flange of the screen, combining a crosshair eyepiece welding installation with Central poklevki on the petal.



 

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EFFECT: enhanced reliability of emitter material adhesion to heater surface and enhanced operating capacity of emitter at relatively low heating temperatures.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: high-voltage engineering, in particular, the sphere of electric insulation in particular, the sphere of electric insulation in vacuum, applicable in the electronic industry for enhancement of the quality of cathodes and the electric strength of electronic devices and constructions.

SUBSTANCE: the method for enhancement of the quality of the cathode surface of a vacuum gas consists in action of single nanosecond pulses at amplitudes providing for the break-down lag time equal to the duration of pulse. According to the preset cathode material and pulse duration, critical microstress Ecr of the electric field duration, critical microstress Ecr of the electric field is determined, the prebreak-down currents are measured, and field gain β on heterogeneities is computed, amplitude of the action pulse is computed, the action pulse of computed amplitude U is applied to the gap, then all the subsequent operations are repeated until the required value of gain β is attained, in case of an insufficient value of gain β the pulse duration is decreased and the all mentioned operations are repeated.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of the method due to monitoring of the state of the cathode surface during processing and optimization of the amplitude of each pulse.

2 dwg

FIELD: medicine; domestic appliances; biological engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device for producing negatively charged nano-particles has power supply, casing, controller and electron emitter. Power supply is connected to electron emitter and to controller. Device has one electron emitter named as super-small electron emitter. Emitting part of the emitter has size of micron or submicron level. Emitter has to be electrode with only one potential applied to electrode. Value of potential of electrode is chosen within -2kV to -29kV range. As a result mentioned electrode emits electrodes due to tunnel effect. Radiated electrons combine with nano-particles in air to form negatively charged nano-particles. Method of production of negatively charged nano-particles is also described.

EFFECT: improved reliability of operation.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: vacuum engineering; vibration damping in vacuum units using various rotary evacuating devices under laboratory conditions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has vibration damping bellows with evacuating apparatus on end loosely suspended from vacuum chamber. Disposed under evacuating apparatus are platform and balancing weight affording pump hanging and its movement along vertical axis under working pressure conditions within bellows elastic deformation limits. In addition, evacuating apparatus has vibration damping spring and second balancing weight loosely suspended by means of this spring from evacuating apparatus base. Vibration damping spring and its weight are disposed along axis crossing gravity center of evacuating apparatus; parameters of vibration damping spring and its weight should meet following condition: C = mω2, where C is vibration damping spring stiffness; m is weight mass; ω is cyclic velocity of evacuating apparatus rotor.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of vibration damping.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electronic devices and their impregnated cathodes.

SUBSTANCE: impregnated cathode manufacturing process includes mixing of powder W with rhenium acid (HreO4) to paste condition, coating of cathode base of Mo, W, or their alloys with Re having clean and roughened surface with this paste, and sintering at temperature of 1800 ±50 °C for 3 - 5 minutes followed by impregnation with thermally emissive active material and smoothing by dry polishing. Cathode work function is maximum 2 eV and mechanical endurance at 2250 °C is over 11 000 h.

EFFECT: facilitated manufacture of cathodes of all sizes and shapes.

1 cl

FIELD: high-voltage engineering; electrical insulation and vacuum discharges.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method that can be used in electronic industry to increase electric strength of vacuum insulation of high-voltage electronic and photoelectronic devices and structures includes aging of vacuum gap by single high-voltage pulses of shorter length compared with that of operating voltage, polarity corresponding to that of operating voltage at amplitudes maintaining breakdown delay time equal to conditioning pulse length. Upon termination of aging electrode gap is minimized, pulse aging is resumed, and gap is enlarged to original value.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of method due to increasing electric field strength at optimal aging conditions of high-voltage electronic devices and structures.

1 cl

FIELD: microelectronics including vacuum microelectronics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electron source that can be used in field-effect emissive devices, and field-effect emissive cathodes in particular, as well as in other emissive devices, such as field-effect emissive displays, sources for electron guns, microwave devices, and the like has its field-effect emitter formed by whisker epitaxially grown on substrate. Ballast resistor and active area are provided within field-effect emitter and/or on its surface. Ballast resistor can be implemented in the form of n-n+ or p-p+, or p-n semiconductor junctions, or insulating layer transverse to charge-carried flow. Control components for such electron sources are disposed vertically.

EFFECT: enhanced stability and uniformity of electron flows.

48 cl, 7 dwg, 3 ex

Planar radiator // 2262771

FIELD: planar radiators.

SUBSTANCE: proposed planar radiator has front plate and rear section; front plate is spaced apart from rear section by means of taut struts, and gaseous filler is inserted in space between front panel and rear section; filler is held at pressure lower than ambient atmospheric pressure; front plate is made of glass. Novelty is that such light-weight planar radiator has its front plate and/or rear section made in the form of glass plate which is at least partially pre-stressed by using thermal or chemical method, or else front plate and/or rear section is made in the from of glass plate at least partially coated with plastic polymeric material.

EFFECT: reduced mass.

9 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: microelectronics and nanoelectronics; emitters for active parts of microelectronics and nanoelectronics, that is diodes and transistors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed emitter has emitter base disposed on substrate and made of catalytic material layer whose surface mounts nanometric carbon tubes arranged perpendicular to emitter base surface, catalytic material layer end being used as emitter base and disposed between non-catalytic material layers. Such design makes it possible to develop planar blade-shaped emitter whose base thickness can be adjusted between 1 and 50 nm by varying thickness of catalytic layer; This emitter is assembled of nanometric tubes whose diameter is not greater than thickness of base.

EFFECT: provision for developing planar emitter.

1 cl, 4 dwg

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