Method for vehicle driveline control

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: in transmission there is possibility to individually change speed ratio and torsion torques distribution among separate branches of driveline power flows. The method consists in optimisation of driveline operation by means of arranging of certain control algorithms for speed ratios and torsion torques distribution among various branches of driveline power flows.

EFFECT: individual distribution of torsion torques ratio among separate vehicle wheels and elimination of power circulation phenomenon.

4 dwg

 

The method of transmission control vehicles

The invention relates to transport machinery and vehicles, and can be applied mainly on two-axle, three-axle and four-axle vehicles intended for use in all road conditions and off-road, as well as in conditions requiring high maneuverability. In more detail, the present invention relates to a method for managing the distribution ratio of torque between the wheels of the vehicle.

U.S. patent No. 4987967, which is the closest prototype to the invention (a method of controlling a four-wheel vehicle), opened the unit to change the distribution ratio of torque. Describes the unit distributes engine torque between the front wheels and rear wheels, in order, through the differential mechanism, and contains two variable-speed drive transmitting torque respectively to the axes of the front and rear wheels. The unit can change the speed ratio between front wheels and rear wheels and to adjust the distribution ratio of torque. The differential mechanism unit absorbs all the difference in the rotational speed caused by the mismatch in aspect] is the solution of speeds. Furthermore, the unit includes sensors for detecting driving conditions of the vehicle, and controls a distribution ratio of torque in accordance with the detected driving conditions.

However, this method does not allow to achieve individual distribution ratio of torque between the individual wheels of the vehicle. The described method does not resolve the phenomenon of the circulation of power", resulting in aggregates and nodes transmission locked differentials, or the lack thereof, as it is impossible to regulate the angular speed and the input torque of each wheel separately.

This transmission provides infinitely variable regulation of traction on the wheels, but has a small gear ratio range and capable of transmitting a relatively small torque, which makes it difficult to use in heavy vehicles.

The present invention was developed, taking into account the preceding, to overcome the aforementioned obstacles. Thus, the object of the invention is a method to precisely control the distribution ratio of torque between all four wheels of the vehicle.

To achieve precise control the distribution ratio of torque on the number of the vehicle itself by using the transmission module to control the distribution ratio of torque.

The present invention is directed to expand the functionality of the transmission control, reduce load, increase efficiency, increasing unification of components and assemblies, increasing the density and reducing the complexity of the control continuously variable transmission of a vehicle.

Problem solving is achieved by the fact that the continuously variable transmission of a vehicle (figure 1) is a compact set of standardized modules. Continuously variable transmission of a vehicle includes a power unit including a power unit 1 with the electronic control unit and speed sensor 14, and the unit that allows you to break or transform the power flow 2 (torque Converter or clutch), transfer case 3 with the differential or without it (for vehicles with a number of leading axes more than one), shafts, connecting transmission units between the axle differentials 4 device remote lock, which may or may not be, the electronic control unit transmission 11, the pedal position sensor fuel supply 12, a sensor for measuring the steering angle wheel 13, the switch movement mode 19, two sensors of the longitudinal and transverse accelerations of the vehicle 18, located at the edges of the transport is about the means and one or more transmission modules, consisting of a Central bore of the gear 5 with differential and a device for remote lock the differential, two safety couplings 6, two variators 7 with metallic flexible elements with devices change the radius testbed leading pulleys 21, two additional gears 8, which may or may not be, the two axes 10, two wheel gear 9, which may or may not be, two sensors measure the torque 17, located between the Central gear and propulsion, two gauges of frequency of rotation of the driving pulley of the CVT 16, located in front of the drive pulley of the variator, and two gauges of frequency of rotation of the propeller 15. Torque from the power unit is supplied to the transfer case 3, which distributes torque through the transmission module. In the transmission module torque is applied to the input shaft of the Central gear. The leading elements of safety couplings connected to each of two output shafts of the latest and slave elements are installed in leading the pulleys of the CVT. The driven pulleys of the variator, in turn, transmits torque through additional gear wheel to the gearbox by means of axes, next to the propellers, so that the contact patch of the wheel with sen is Noah surface arise longitudinal forces, makes the vehicle move.

Each transmission module contains two safety clutch, necessary for the protection of variable-speed drives and other transmission units from overload, which can occur when driving the vehicle (for example, when the loss of one of the wheels contact with the ground).

If necessary, expansion of the range of variation of torque can be achieved by application (optional KP, which can be combined with RK) two - or three-stage RK, which in order to reduce torque, passable through the variator, the higher level is made accelerating, and the lower - ratio close to unity. Axle and cross-axle differentials provide rotation of wheels with different angular velocities regardless of the load on the wheel, road, passable by each of the wheels, tread wear, air pressure in the tires, etc. Through the use of these differentials is possible equipment brake control vehicle anti-lock braking system, reducing the load on the control system when driving with an unlocked differential.

Regulation of the speed of the vehicle and the traction on the wheels is carried out by simultaneous changes of the radius of the rollers pulleys all variators 7, asked by an electronic control unit 11 that processes the signal from the pedal position sensor fuel supply 12, sensors for measuring torque 17, speed sensors of the engine 14 and the wheels of the vehicle 15, the speed sensors leading pulleys of the CVT 16, gauge, longitudinal and transverse accelerations of the vehicle 18. The differential mechanism unit absorbs all the difference in the rotational speed caused by the mismatch in speed ratio. When driving in turns information is also deducted from the sensor measuring the rotation angle of the steering wheel 13.

Installation of individual variable-speed drives near the leading wheels ensures the optimum distribution of torque on the axles and the wheels, providing better performance properties, such as controllability, stability, efficiency, etc. carried out by correcting the transmission ratio of the individual variable-speed drives, which can be made both in the unlocked and locked differentials. In addition, this decreases the torque transmitted by a single variable, while increasing torque developed power unit that allows you to apply a continuously variable V-belt transmission is not only light, but also on heavy vehicles.

Nl is through a fairly wide range of continuously variable traction on the wheels and thus the speed of the vehicle becomes possible to ensure the operation of the power plant on the maximum power, mode, minimum fuel consumption, etc.

Moreover, the method to control the distribution ratio of torque includes the step detection and step control. At step detection using sensor data is collected. At step control is the distribution ratio of torque in accordance with the received information.

To explain the principle of regulating torque to individual wheels or axles when unlocked differentials consider two front axles of a multi-axle vehicle with a differential connection between the wheels on each axis. Assume that the inter-axle and cross-axle differentials symmetric and are characterized by low internal friction. To simplify the next discussion we will assume that the radii of the rolling wheels do not depend on the applied torque and equal to each other, and the loss in transmission units do not depend on the mode of operation.

In straight-line motion of the vehicle with a constant velocity Vcuon a level support surface, the absence of slippage of the wheels and the equality of the ratios of all individual progressive transmission half-shaft gear all cross-axle differentials will rotate with the same velocity

where ωLSC/sub> ; ωSKP; ωDCrespectively the angular velocity of rotation of the left and right half-shaft gear and the differential housing k-th axis;

ukr- the gear wheel gear;

uvar- the gear ratio of the variator.

The moments applied to the left and right wheel of the first axis will be equal to

where- moments applied to the left and right wheel and the housing of the differential, respectively;

ηkr- the efficiency of wheeled gear;

ηvarthe coefficient of the variable.

While increasing the gear ratio of the variator right wheel of the first axle on the value of Δuvarand the reduction gear ratio of the variator left wheel first axis at the same value Δuvarequality (1) will be violated, and the angular velocity of rotation of the half-shaft gears of the left and right wheels of the first axle will be respectively equal to

where- the angular speed of rotation of the left and right half-shafts of the gear wheels of the first axis after the correction of the gear ratio of the CVT first axis.

Thus, the right half-shaft gear front axle will accelerate and the left process plants is seeking. However, the speed of rotation of the hull transverse differential first axis will remain the same

Despite the fact that the symmetric cross-axle differential splits the torque between pausetime gears equally, the moment applied to the right wheel of the first axis, in accordance with the increased ratio of the area of the transmission between the cross-axle differential and a sprocket wheel will be increased

and the point on the left wheel is reduced

when the same amount of torque supplied to the front axle

whereaccordingly moments applied to the left and right wheel and the body of the differential after the correction of the gear ratio of the CVT of the first axis (figure 2).

While increasing ratios of both variators first axis by the amount Δuvarand the reduction gear ratios of both variators second axis at the same value Δuvarthe angular speed of rotation of the drive shafts transmitting torque of the first and second leading axes, respectively, increase and decrease and will be equal to

where - the angular speed of rotation of the drive shafts transmitting torque to the first and second axis, respectively, after correction of the gear ratio of the CVT of the first and second axes;

ukr- the gear ratio of the Central gear.

The angular velocity of the body center differential will remain constant

where- angular velocity of the body center differential that distributes torque between the first and second axis, before and after the correction of the gear ratio of the CVT of the first and second axis, respectively.

As in the symmetric axle and cross-axle differential time is divided equally, the moment applied to the wheels of the first axis, in accordance with the increased ratio of the area of the transmission between the sprocket wheel and center differential will be increased (figure 3) and the points on the left and right wheel will be equal to

and to the wheels of the second axle is reduced

Similarly regulated the distribution ratio of torque between the trucks of the vehicle (figure 4).

Improving the fuel efficiency of the vehicle is achieved, first, by the operation of the power plant on the mode minimalna the fuel consumption, provided that the choice of an appropriate level in the transfer case and the average value of the ratio of the total number of CVT vehicles (average for all vehicles of the gear ratio of the CVT), and, secondly, the correction of the gear ratio of the CVT so that when the movement of a single vehicle at a constant speed to provide the rolling of each of the wheels in a free mode, when the torque applied to any of the wheels equal to the moment of rolling resistance of the wheels. The choice stage in the transfer box and gear ratios of the individual variable-speed drives is an electronic control unit 11 on the basis of information received from a pedal position sensor fuel supply 12, the torque sensors 17, sensors, longitudinal and transverse accelerations 18, the sensor measuring the rotation angle of the steering wheel 13, the sensors rotational speed of the crankshaft of the engine 14 and 15 thrusters.

The transition from the mode of operation, providing a minimum fuel consumption, driving with a maximum speed driver is forced by means of the switch 19 or automatically. The transition to other modes such as dynamic stabilization is performed automatically.

When the vehicle is cornering to reduce in which the probability of slip of the wheels at the same time increase the gear ratio of the CVT, causes external to the centre of rotation of the wheel, and accordingly increases the pull on these most loaded vertical force wheels, and on the inner unloaded wheels in the reduction gear ratios of the respective variable thrust is reduced.

If the demolition of the front axles or skidding rear axles happens a mode dynamic stability control system works as follows.

First, it reduces the torque applied to the sliding axis, and increases the torque supplied to the non-slip axis, which in the progressive sliding of the axes of the gear ratio is reduced, and progressive non-slip axis increase.

Secondly, redistribute the torque between the wheels of each of the axes so that the moment created by the traction wheels of the same axis, prevented the spread of the vehicle. When the demolition of the front wheels for all axes, or only on non-slip axles additionally increase the gear ratio of the CVT, along the side of a vehicle, in the direction of which is removed, and decrease the gear ratio of the CVT along the other side. When skidding rear axles on all axes or only on non-slip axles additionally decrease the gear ratio of the CVT along then what about the Board, in the direction which is skidding of the vehicle, and increase the gear ratio of the variator other side.

Thirdly, if necessary, reduced developed by the engine torque and decreases the rotational speed of a crankshaft of the engine.

Locking differentials by either driver manually, switch 19, or automatically by an electronic control unit 11 upon detection of slippage of the wheels.

Thanks to the application of this method it becomes possible to regulate the angular speed and the input torque of each wheel separately and locked differentials, therefore, the continuously variable transmission of a vehicle is able to eliminate the phenomenon of the circulation of power", resulting in aggregates and nodes of the transmission.

For proof of this fact is sufficient to consider the elimination of the phenomena of the circulation of power" on the example of the two-wheeled bike, doing curvilinear motion, the wheels of which are one and the same chain through the sprocket of the same diameter as the technique of eliminating this phenomenon is similar for all cases and does not depend on the number of wheels and their relative location.

Assumptions into consideration:

1. Not taken into account the factors turning of the wheels.

2. In total the first time, applied to the transmission at the time of passing the entire curved portion of the trajectory is not changed.

3. The rolling radius of the front wheel is equal to the rolling radius of the rear wheel.

So, find the torque acting on both wheels at different angles of rotation of the front wheel. This will simulate the rotation of the front wheel by changing the radii of the rolling both wheels by an amount dependent on the angle of rotation, in such a way that the sum of the radii of the wheels has not changed (the condition imposed by the nature of the phenomenon, against whom the invention).

X - value you want to change the radii of the rolling wheels to simulate rotation of a Bicycle;

rp0- the rolling radius of the front wheel;

rz0- the rolling radius of the rear wheels;

θ- the angle of rotation of the wheel;

rkp0=rp0+X;

rkp0- modified the rolling radius of the front wheel;

rkz0=rz0-X;

rkz0- modified the rolling radius of the rear wheel.

As a feature of the actuator due to the equality of the angular velocities of the front and rear wheels, the rolling radii will be equal and increment offset by twisting or slipping of the wheels in different directions of rotation. Find real radius rolling adjusted pastiprinajumu torque:

rk - the actual rolling radius of the wheels;

λR - coefficient of tangential elasticity of the front wheel;

λz - coefficient of tangential elasticity of the rear wheels;

M is the total torque.

Now find the torques acting on the wheels:

Mr torques acting on the front wheel;

Mz - torque acting on the rear wheel.

The figure 5 shows the graphs of possible dependencies torque acting on a wheel turning angle of the front wheels. They illustrate the phenomenon of the circulation of power". To find such increase in the angular speed, saying that it will be possible to equalize the torques acting on the different wheels, before finding this increment to the radii of the rolling element:

rr - value correction of the radii of the rolling;

Δω - the value of the correction angular velocity of the wheels.

Now we adjust the torques acting on the wheels:

The figure 5 shows the graphs of the adjusted torque, acting on different wheels. It follows that the phenomenon of "circulational" fully resolved.

Control principle torque to individual wheels to completely blocked transmission consider the example of steady rectilinear motion of the vehicle, when the translational speed of the axes of all wheels are equal and equal to the translational speed of the vehicle Vvehicle.If slip no wheels and the wheels rotate with different angular velocities due to the different gear ratios of the individual variable, then the above equality speeds can only be achieved due to circumferential deformation of the wheels, taking place under the action of torque and corresponding changes of their radii. Therefore, when considering the blocked transmission unlike a fully differential transmission mandatory account for the dependence of the radius of the rolling wheel input torque

where- the rolling radii of the wheels in the slave mode and the actual rolling radii of the wheels;

Mi- torque wheels;

λi- change factors range from rolling torque;

n is the number of axes.

At the same time, the rolling radii of the wheels associated with the translational speed of the vehicle by the equation

where uprocedures defined in the TPI- the total gear ratio of the i-th branch of the transmission, the transmitting torque from the engine to the i-th wheel;

uTr- the same for all branches of the transmission common factor, equal to the product of the gear ratio of all units arbitrary branch transmission except for the variable.

Now if we neglect the losses in the transmission, then from equations (2) and (3) by simple algebraic transformations can be obtained expression for determining when the i-th wheel depending on the gear ratio of the i-th variable in steady rectilinear motion of the vehicle with the locked transmission.

Analysis of equation (4) shows that to increase torque at the i-th wheel required to increase (decrease) ratio of the i-th variable.

The figure 1 shows a continuously variable transmission of a vehicle and a control system to her, and in figures 2, 3, 4 schematically shows a possible scheme of redistribution of torque between the propulsion of the vehicle, where:

1 - power unit electronic control unit;

2 - the unit that allows you to break, to transform and to take out the transmission part power flux;

3 - transfer case, which includes differe ciali with device lock and reversing gear;

4 - inter-axle differential (blocked);

5 - pass the Central gear wheel differential and a device to remotely lock;

6 - safety clutch;

7 - CVT with flexible metal element;

8 - additional gearbox;

9 - wheel reducer;

10 - PTO or another transfer capable of transmitting rotary motion at a distance;

11 - electronic control unit transmission;

12 is a sensor that determines the position of the pedal fuel;

13 is a sensor measuring the rotation angle of the steering wheel.

14 is a sensor for measuring the rotational speed of the engine;

15 is a sensor for measuring the rotational speed of the propeller;

16 - gauge of frequency of rotation of the driving pulley of the variator;

17 is a sensor for measuring torque;

18 - sensors longitudinal and transverse accelerations of the vehicle;

19 - switch driving modes;

20 - mover;

21 - the device changes the radius of the running of the pulleys of the variator.

Described in this application a method of controlling a continuously variable transmission of a vehicle is not only possible to implement the invention and achieve the above technical result and does not exclude other methods, containing a collection of characteristics that are included in an independent paragraph the claims.

The method of controlling the transmission of the vehicle by changing the speed ratios and the distribution ratio of torque on the different branches of power flow transmission having a power unit with an electronic control unit it unit that allows you to break, to transform and to take out the transmission portion of the power flow, the switch movement mode, transfer case, electronic control unit transmission, propeller or other transmission capable of transmitting rotary motion at a distance, connecting the transmission units, variable speed with flexible metal elements and devices changes the radius of the rolling pulleys of variable-speed drives, sensors measure the rotational speed of the leading pulley variator, the gauge of frequency of rotation of the output the shaft of the power plant, inter-axle differential, the pedal position sensor fuel, propulsion, characterized in that provide individual change in the speed ratio and the distribution of torque between the individual propulsion of the vehicle, while the transfer case transmits torque from the power unit to the transmission modules, and if the transmission has a number of leading axes more than one, the transfer case may have on the well, or a larger number of stages, which may include differentials with device lock, reversing gears, mechanisms, PTO, sensors, recording modes, transfer case, differentials, the mechanisms that control the modes of operation of the transfer case, two or more propellers, and each transmission module consists of a Central bore of the gearbox with differential and a device for remote lock the differential, two safety couplings, two variable-speed drives with flexible metal elements with devices change the radius testbed leading pulleys, two additional gears, two axes, two wheel gearboxes, two sensors measure the torque distributed between the Central gear and propulsion, two gauges of frequency of rotation of the driving pulley of the variator, located in front of the drive pulley of the variator, and the two speed sensors propulsion, and torque is applied to the input shaft of the Central gear, where the leading elements of safety couplings connected to each of two output shafts of the latest and driven elements mounted wheel variator pulleys and the driven pulleys of the variator transmits torque via an additional gear wheel to the gearbox by means of the mechanism hereinafter to DV the residents and changing the radius of the running of each pulley of the variator is set by the electronic control unit transmission processing a signal from a pedal position sensor fuel delivery, sensors for measuring torque, speed sensors of the engine and wheels of the vehicle, speed sensors leading pulleys of variable-speed drives, sensors, longitudinal and transverse accelerations of the vehicle, the sensor measuring the rotation angle of the steering wheel.



 

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16 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for automatic control of brake systems of vehicles. According to proposed method, clutch set into action from outside force operates to partially interrupt transmission of torque between drive engine and at least one wheel of vehicle. It is determined, whether speed of vehicle at operating drive engine and forward gear shifted-in is zero, or vehicle rolls backwards. If vehicle rolls backwards, transport system of vehicle is set into action from outside force without use of driver's energy to create brake force and transmission of torque between drive engine and wheel of vehicle is interrupted.

EFFECT: simplified control of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption.

11 cl, 2 dwg

Gear shifter // 2280569

FIELD: mechanical engineering; transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in hydraulic control systems of vehicles furnished with step gearboxes with friction clutches and booster for each gear. Proposed gear shifter contains spool-type hydraulic distributors, driven electromagnets, camshaft and rockers. Hydraulic distributors are hydraulically series-connected to each other and to pressure source and independently connected with boosters and with drain line. Spools are either electromagnetically or manually controlled, each spool being constantly connected directly with corresponding electromagnet, and through rocker and camshaft, with manual control. In initial position, camshaft does not prevent shifting of spools and rockers by drive electromagnets, and in other positions of camshaft, spools are shifted by rockers.

EFFECT: simplified design, improved operating characteristics of car.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: caterpillar and wheeled vehicles furnished with automatic movement controlling and adjusting system.

SUBSTANCE: system for adjusting continuity of switching transmissions of caterpillar and wheeled vehicles equipped with automatic movement controlling system has internal combustion engine, oil tank, oil pump, electric magnets, slide valves, first friction device, transmission, second friction device, commutation unit, microprocessor control unit, and controlled throttle. Throttle is located in pressure pipeline between oil tank and friction devices and is electrically connected with output of commutation unit whose input is connected to output of microprocessor control unit. Outputs of commutation unit are connected through electric magnets to inputs of slide valves, whose outputs are connected to inputs of friction devices. Adjustment system is further equipped with vehicle movement sensor connected to wheel drive, engine crankshaft rotational speed sensor, device designed for sensing oil pressure in transmission hydraulic control system and connected to inputs of friction devices, device designed for sensing oil temperature in hydraulic system and located in pressure pipeline. Outputs of said sensors are connected to respective inputs of microprocessor control unit.

EFFECT: provision for impact-free switching of transmissions and reduced dynamic loading of transmissions during switching thereof.

3 dwg

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: vehicle comprises driving engine, device for transmitting torque provided with first actuator, and gear box with driving and driven shafts and second actuator. The gear box has pinion blocks that define the transmitting members. The first and second actuators are made for permitting can be actuated automatically by means of the control device.

EFFECT: improved synchronization.

33 cl, 13 dwg

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