Method of matted soil treatment and associated plough

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method provides for disking and ploughing. Disking is performed simultaneously with ploughing using flat disks and is realised by cutting turf layer into strip parallel to plough movement. Strip width is not equal. Widest strips are cut at the longest distance from landward edge of plough. Width of the most distant strip from landward edge is from half to two thirds of grip width. Each next strip has the same ratio. Plough includes frame, housing and disk knives. Disk knives are installed in front of each plough housing so that the farthest from landward edge disk knife shares the width of grip in ratio from half to one thirds of the given edge. Next knives share the remaining width between landward edge and neighboring knife in the same ratio. Rotational axes of adjacent disk knives are shifted with regard to each other in plough movement direction at the value, which less knife disk diameter.

EFFECT: reduction of power costs, increase of productivity and improvement of matted soil treatment quality.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to agricultural production and agricultural engineering, and in particular to methods of processing Saturnalia soil and machines for its implementation.

There is a method of primary tillage, including plowing with skimmers. While the Coulter cuts and stacks in the furrow of the upper part of the arable soil layer, and the main body raises the lower part, which is well into the blade and falls asleep reset skimmer upper part of the loose soil. This creates good conditions for decomposition of plant residues. (See the book "Farming with the basics of soil science and Agrochemistry". M.: Kolos, 1981, p.223).

This method is unsuitable for ploughing Saturnalia soils because of the large mass of roots penetrating the soil in all directions. In addition, it is sealed and has the highest connectivity, especially frequent in the upper topsoil.

Known the plow that contains a frame with the plow buildings, skimmers and a rotary blade which when plowing Saturnalia soil put in front of every body. This improves the quality of ploughing and reduces the tractive resistance of the plough. Slicing layer, knife reduces shedding walls of the grooves and produces clean bottom, and therefore, a uniform course of shells in depth. In addition, improved sealing plant on Titkov, the turnover of the reservoir and easier driving arable unit. The knife is mounted so that the plane of the knife is parallel to the course of the plough and separated from the field edge of the Coulter at a distance of 10-15 mm from the edge of the hull 10-25 mm in the direction of the field. (See the book Westamerica, Nofunc "Agricultural machines". M, spike, 1971, p.18-21).

Also known way when Saturnalia the soil before plowing disk, and when a dense sod of the disk along and across, then plowed plow with Coulter. (See the book "Farming with the basics of soil science and Agrochemistry". M.: Kolos, 1981, s-248).

The disadvantage of this method is its high energy consumption because of dvuhslojnogo preliminary disking. In addition, disking produce existing disk tools disk harrows, mainly heavy type BDG, which is equipped with a spherical disks. And the spherical disks in addition to cutting layer to produce a partial turnover and crushing, which before plowing is not required, but what consumes additional energy.

Sometimes Saturnalia soil plow without prior disking and without skimmers, especially when plowed field with high grass, because the skimmers in this case sgruzhat mass under the Dodger frame. In this case, residues zadelyvayte is bad and layers partially falling back into the furrow behind the last plough body, which further reduces the quality of ploughing, especially when the tractor wheels are on the bottom of the furrow prior to the passage of the plow.

The aim of the invention is to reduce energy consumption, increase productivity and quality of processing Saturnalia soil.

Under the proposed method sod layer simultaneously with the plowing cut into narrow, parallel the course of the plough tape flat disks, the width of the cut strips with different width of the plough body. The most wide belts are the greatest distance from the field edge of the plough body closer to which the width of the latter decreases.

The most rationally width farthest from field crop body tape to be between half and two thirds of the width of the hull, depending on the number of installed disks. The more drives installed, the narrower tape and less difference in the width of the adjacent tapes. When installing a single disk, the width of the cut tape is two-thirds of the capture body, when installing two or more disks each of them divides its width between the field edge and the adjacent disc in half. Traditionally mounted knife with a ledge at the edge of the plough body in the direction of the field does not establish that sposobstvuet the fence of the field edge of the casing soil through the roots formed by the walls of the furrow and powder this land with a lower content of roots previously laid in the furrow tapes darmowym layer.

The described method is implemented in the design of the plough, which contains a frame, a plow body and a rotary blade and a rotary blade mounted in front of each building so that the far field crop body divides the width of the body from this crop in the ratio of one-half to one-third, and subsequent knives divide each remaining portion of the width of the housing between the field edge and adjacent the knife in the same ratio, the axes of rotation of adjacent disk blades are displaced relative to each other in the direction of movement of the plow in the amount less than the diameter of the blade of a knife.

Figure 1 shows the layout of disk knives on the width of the plough body relative to its field crop, figure 2 - packing scheme cut off disc blades tapes soil in the furrow formed by the passage of the previous case without crumbling soil layer.

On the frame of the plow has a housing with a ploughshare, the working part of the blade which is indicated by numeral 1, and a rotary blade 2 and 3. Field crop plough body forms a wall of the furrow along the line (x-x), wall of the furrow formed by the passages of the previous buildings, indicated by lines (u-u). The distance "a" is the width of the hull, the distance "b" is the distance from the line of field edge (x-x) to the plane of rotation is most remote from this edge of knife 2, "C" - rasstoyaniezamok from the line of field edge of a knife 3, neighboring knife 2, "R" is the distance between the axes of rotation of adjacent disks, "h" - diameter disk knife, "d" is the depth of plowing, (a-b) is the most remote and the most wide ribbon, (-) - next tape, (C) tape, cut off the field edges of the plow, 4 - part of the ground, from under which the field edge of the hull rolled away the tape (s).

Depending on the number of blades installed on the width of the hull, the distance "b" is chosen from one third to one half of the grip, and the more knives installed on width greater choose the distance "b". For example, for standard width housing 35 cm when installing one of the knife "b" is equal to 10 cm, with two knives, which is the most optimal for this width, "b" is equal to 15 cm, and "C" respectively 7 see

The distance between the axes of rotation of adjacent disks knives "p" is less than the diameter of the disk knife "h", thereby reducing thalipeeth inter-space soil and to refrain from installing the scraper, such as the installation of adjacent blades to enable movement of the overlapped projections of the knives on the plane parallel to the plane of rotation of the discs toward each other.

The plow works as follows. When the movement of the knife 2 is cut from the seam tape (a-b), the width and the height of which is substantially less than the width of the hull, as the depth of processing powerloom usually does not exceed seventy percent of the width. Therefore, when lifting and flipping the plow layer case this tape is laid on the bottom of the furrow almost parallel to it. Subsequent, even more narrow tape, cut with the knife 3, is placed on top of the previous one, and since it is not related to the root system, it lies parallel to the furrow bottom and both sides sprinkle soil that field crop body extracts from beneath the root system and the formation of the walls of the grooves and which will be plowed following the case in the first part (a-in) wide tape will be laid on the bottom of the furrow. As well as the most narrow tape (s) raised by field crop body, moves along the upper part of the blade and contains the smallest number of roots, i.e. the least associated root system, it will sit on top of the wider strips and sprinkled them loose layer of soil, which will create favorable conditions for decomposition of sod.

The application of this method allows even using commercially produced and used in agriculture plows by changing the position and the number of disk knives greatly improve the processing quality, reduce energy costs and improve performance when plowing Saturnalia soil.

1. The method of processing Saturnalia soils, including disking and plowing, wherein di is the interpretation produced simultaneously with the plowing flat discs by cutting the sward on the parallel course of the plow tape unequal width, with the wide ribbon cut at the greatest distance from the field edge of the plough body.

2. The method of processing Saturnalia soil according to claim 1, characterized in that the width farthest from the field edge of the plough body tape is from half to two-thirds of the width of the body, and each successive tape has the same ratio.

3. Plow to handle reservoir Saturnalia soils containing a frame, a plow body and a rotary blade, wherein a rotary blade mounted in front of each plough body so that the far field crop corps knife divides the width of the housing in the ratio of one-half to one-third to this crop, and subsequent knives divide the remaining width between the field edge and adjacent the knife in the same relationship, with the axis of rotation of adjacent disk blades are displaced relative to each other in the direction of movement of the plow in the amount less than the diameter of the blade of a knife.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method implies introducing crushed sapropel mixed with herb seeds in the amount of 25-30 t/hectare as organic fertiliser onto the surface of cement production dumps and ploughing it at the depth of 4-6 cm.

EFFECT: reducing costs for biological reclamation, increasing protective properties of the reclaimed surfaces against water and wind erosion and producing fertile soil layer.

2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves primary and surface tillage, weeds elimination and fallow farming, secondary tillage, autumn sowing of cereal grass seeds and prevernal sowing of legume and cereal grass seeds. Tillage for fallows is carried out with strip farming on the overgrased pastures. Loam soils are tilled by subsurface cultivators at the depth of 20...22 cm in the first and second ten-day periods of September. In the prevernal period tandem disc harrowing is carried out as well as slits forming with a pitch of 0.7-1.1 m at the depth of 0.35-0.45 m and cultivation with harrowing at the depth of 8...10 cm. During summer cultivation by knife operation elements at the depth of 4...5 cm takes place together with simultaneous packing of soil by star-wheeled rollers. In autumn cereals grass seeds are sown at the depth of 2...3 cm with row spacing equal to 30 cm and seeding rate equal to 10...12 kg/ha, in the prevernal period mineral fertilisers, mainly ammophoska are introduced to the thawed-frozen soil with the rate of 0.2 t/ha. Legume and cereal grasses are sown after surface harrowing and presowing tillage at the depth of 4...5 cm for legume grasses and 2...3 cm for cereal grasses.

EFFECT: method allows improving degraded lands and reducing costs.

9 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method implies creation of liquorice plantations on the decontaminating lands. Rhizome cuttings of the 4-5-years-old liquorice with the length of 0.20-0.25 m and diameter of 8-20 mm with 4-6 axillary buds of the common liquorice Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch are planted at the depth of 0.16-0.22 m with wide row spacings of 2.1-2.8 m in two mutually perpendicular directions with planting rate of 21500-28600 pieces per hectare. During first two years trickle irrigation of the liquorice plants is carried out along the plant rows with trickle rate of application equal to 2-4 l/hour, the trickles are placed at 0.3-0.4 m from each other in the flexible irrigation pipes cavities. The vegetative mass is closely mown and laid into silage pits during September-October at the end of the third-year growth season of the liquorice and concomitant grass. Yearly at the beginning of the 4th, 5th and 6th years amaranth seeds of Bagryanyj grade are sown directly without tillage at the depth of 0.5-1.5 cm with the row spacing of 0.7-1.4 m and with seeding rate of 8·106-12·106 pieces per hectare. Yearly in August the vegetative mass of liquorice and amaranth is mown and crushed with following laying it into the above silage pit. Each 0.3-0.6 m layer of the ensiling mass is treated with saline solution of natural mineral bischofite with the density of 1.1-1.3 t/m3 with the rate of 200-400 l per ton of raw ensiling mass. From the 8th year on the liquorice root is gained at the depth of 0.4-0.6 m. Liquorice roots and rhizome are digged out to the daylight in strips 1.1-1.6 m wide in the direction of the liquorice cuttings planting. Virgin zone 0.6-0.8 m wide is left between the strips as a reservation zone for the liquorice population renewal by regeneration of roots in the treated strips and penetration of new roots out of the reservation zones. The liquorice root mass is subject to extraction, unmarketable parts of the liquorice roots and rhizome as well as extraction production wastes are mixed with ensiling mass of the liquorice and amaranth in the pits. In autumn the obtained organic fertiliser is applied to the surface of the treated strips when digging out the root mass. Upper soil layer in each strip is milled up to agronomically valuable soil aggregates by tillers at the depth of 0.10-0.16 m and packed by water-filled rollers with the pressure of 0.16-0.32 MPa. In a year secondary digging out of the liquorice root mass is carried out in the other direction of the liquorice cuttings planting.

EFFECT: method allows including contaminated lands around industrial plants into economic rotation.

24 dwg, 21 tbl

FIELD: transportation, agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method for controlling machine for tilling land involves movement and contact of actuating elements of the machine with the soil. The actuating elements are moved a step forward and then stopped. Support keeps the actuating elements from recoiling when other actuating elements and the machine are moved and these movements are repeated for the required number of times and without increasing number of actuating elements and passage on the ground. The load of the wheels of the machine is adaptively reduced without their skidding. When tilling the soil, resistance of the moving actuating element to recoiling is increased or by supports, so that the propulsive force coincides with the required value, or by self rotation of the moving actuating element, turning it into a support-anchor. The actuating elements are moved along the machine to increase speed with little grabbing across - for increasing the width of grabbing, or combining them, thereby increasing the grabbing width. By shifting supports or restrictors, the stepping motion of the actuating elements is reversed. The stepping actuating elements are moved in succession or together depending on the working conditions. When there is differential drive of the actuating elements, the stepping sequence and the speed of motion is determined by the resistance of the actuating elements. Low resistance actuating elements are put in front of elements with high resistance and maintain the working order or protection when obstacles are encountered. The machine for tilling land has a mechanism for movement and lifting actuating elements. The machine also has detachable stepping actuating elements for tilling the land, supports and drives for longitudinal movement, as well as supports and drives for transverse movement of actuating elements. The drive for actuating elements has an oscillation source which is in form of one ball and socket joint or off-axis roller. The machine also has guide actuating elements. Detachable moving actuating elements are in form of a plough, ripper, paring plough, cultivator, bulldozer, grader, grubber, brush breaker, or some other actuating element with supports for generating propulsion force. The detachable actuating elements are mounted on sections of the step pathway. Actuating elements are installed with provision for rotation for adjusting the row spacing.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of production and use.

11 cl, 51 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involving strip tilling of the upper soil layer. First strips are tilled to a maximum depth of 8cm at a certain interval so that a level flat bed is formed. After that interstrip areas are tilled to a large depth, cells filled with tilled soil are formed in the bottom of the interstrip areas, and the soil surface is levelled. After tilling and levelling a compacted layer is formed by continuous subsurface rolling at the strip cultivation depth, the maximum layer thickness in the strip being 1cm.

EFFECT: method provides accumulation and stabilisation of moisture in soil and efficient erosion protection.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to ecology. Method includes introduction of chemical production waste on soil surface. Waste is soda production sludge waste in amount 10-40 kg/m2. Ploughing then follows. After that additionally activated sludge of chemical plant treatment facilities is introduced in amount 4-5 kg/m2 with following plant seed sowing. Soda production sludge waste contains wt %: calcite (CaCO3) -79-97, aragonite (CaCO3)-1-2, dolomite- up to 1, quartz - 1-8, water - the rest. Activated sludge of chemical plant treatment facilities contains wt %: mineral substances-53-78, organic substances - 22-47 including total nitrogen up to 3.6 %, phosphorus up to 4.8 %. Plant seeds are preferably as follows: lady grass, meadow clover, Lucerne, spear-grass.

EFFECT: steady vegetative recover of affected soils, neutralisation of soil toxicity and utilisation chemical waste.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes simultaneous sowing of Lucerne, Esparcet and Phacelia seeds. Lucerne and Phacelia seeds are uniformly mixed and placed in one of seeder bunkers. Esparcet seeds are put to another bunker. Lucerne, Phacelia and Esparcet seeds are sow simultaneously in hectare norm ratio: Lucerne 10-14 kg, Phacelia 0.05-0.10 kg, Esparcet 1-1.5 kg. Method allows for production of Lucerne seeds already in the first year of cultivation and for increased Lucerne crop in the second year of cultivation.

EFFECT: increased Lucerne crop.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture. Method provides soil preparation, following sodding of space between rows with natural or sow grasses and formation of uniform mulching layer. Mulching layer is formed by periodic grass mowing during whole vegetation period. Grass mowing is performed at variable height. Within spring period grass mowing is performed at height 10-15 cm. During summer period mowing height is reduced to 5-10 cm. Grass mowing within autumn and summer period with forecasted incessant or frequent rains is performed at height up to 2-4 cm. If grass height exceeds mowing height by 15 cm and more, mowed mass is milled. During the last mowing for season grass mass is delivered from mowing rotors to support-feed spindle of mower attached along full length of running clamping rolled up to soil agricultural background of space between rows with minimum stubble remains. Such technology allows for higher labile humus fractions content in space between rows soil due to increased vegetative organic chemistry delivered to surface and top layer of soil, for improved microclimate and raised biological activity of soils.

EFFECT: improved microclimate and raised biological activity of soils.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: in this method ground is tilled, plant shanks from rhizomes of licorice with planting rate of 2-3 pieces on 1 running m at the age of 3-5 years, length of 0.20-0.25 m on depth of 0.15-0.25 m with distance between rows of 0.6-0.7 m in narrow strips in width of 1.2-1.4 m, and perform planting of vegetable cultures sprouts in wide strips to the same agroterms between narrow strips. Perform post planting compaction of plantation surface under the pressure of 0.15-0.20 MPa. Form site with drop irrigation on irrigated land, flexible distributive pipelines with stop valves and irrigation pipelines with built - in droppers are laid perpendicularly to an axis of the flexible distributive pipeline with interval of 4.8-5.6 m. Flexible irrigation pipelines with droppers built in them are laid annually. Irrigation of rows of vegetable cultures and licorice carry out with norm of irrigation water discharge for maintenance of a threshold of humidity of 70-80-70% HB in root horizon during the May-August period, also mineral supply conditions are kept up. Annually in wide strips after crop harvesting perform soil treatment with soil overturning or rotary tillage on depth of 0.12-0.18 m. Cleaning of distributive and flexible irrigation pipelines are performed after harvesting of vegetables. On the 5th year of licorice plants life on plantation, perpendicularly to the plantings, executed in narrow strips in width of 1.2-1.4 m, licorice shanks are planted, width of row-spacing makes 1.4-2.8 m. On 6-10 years of licorice plants life its plantations are used as fodder and haying grounds, and about 11-14 years after, industrial extraction of licorice roots is carried out from a layer of 0.4-0.6 m as liquorice raw materials.

EFFECT: method allows to create steady licorice communities on previously irrigated lands.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves moulding pipe line, sowing seeds in points where there are water outlet openings and vegetative irrigation. The first watering of the seeds is done by irrigation water-anolyte-electro-active water at a potential +600...+700 mV. The irrigation depth is calculated from the condition of bringing moisture of the ground to the least field moisture capacity. Further with reduced moisture of the ground, repeated watering is done by catholyte-electro-active water at potential -150...-300 mV. The next watering is done for maintaining moisture of not less than 70...80% least field moisture, periodically alternating anolyte at potential +500...+600 mV and catholyte at potential -150...-200 mV.

EFFECT: improvement of the quality of the agricultural product and increased yield.

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, abdominal surgery, and can be used in treatment of duodenum ulcers. Duodenum is exposed and dissected at the level of distal edge of ulcer. First row of sutures is applied between distal edge of ulcer and anterior wall of duodenum. Indenting from proximal edge of ulcer, cut 5-6 mm deep is made on contour of ulcer bottom, forming "peak" from healing tissue. Between "peak" and anterior wall of duodenum second row of sutures is applied with tamponade of ulcer bottom with anterior wall of duodenal stump. The third row of sutures is applied between healing tissues of pancreas and anterior wall of duodenum. Method allows to suture duodenal stump reliably and hermetically due to reduction of tension of duodenum anterior wall during suturing.

EFFECT: ensuring possibility to suture duodenal stump reliably and hermetically.

4 dwg, 3 ex

Plow body // 2317665

FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: plow body has tine with shoe, share, moldboard, and landside plate. Mellowing members fixed to moldboard working surface are made in the form wedge-shaped knives and arranged in offset relation with respect to one another, with apexes of said members being oriented toward share point. Mellowing members are made scimitar-shaped and equipped with flexible sweepers fixed to their upper parts. Flexible sweepers are formed as lengths of anchor chains. Two pins of different length are attached at different acute angles to direction of advancement on each chain length link. Angle of inclination of pins is smaller than friction angle of soil against steel.

EFFECT: improved quality of soil due to improved mellowing of soil layer.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, heavy soil tillage technique.

SUBSTANCE: plow has frame, casing with shortened moldboard and rotating moldboard mounted above shortened moldboard and provided with knives fused thereto by means of hard alloy. Knives are made curved in their upper parts along parabola, with apex oriented downward. Lower parts of knives, not in the excess of one third of knife height, are curved along hyperbola, with apex oriented upward. For overcoming of loads connected with operation on heavy soil and for uniform rotation, rotating moldboard is equipped with impeller.

EFFECT: improved quality of soil tillage.

2 cl, 1 dwg

Plow // 2297746

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, tillage and preparing of soil for sowing procedure.

SUBSTANCE: plow has frame, disks, working tool designed for rotating and placing of soil layer into furrow and provided with helical working surface, and mellower. Shaft with corrugated disks and mud scrapers is mounted on tines on frame. Working tool is made in the form of half-screw whose inner side is extending centrally of horizontal straight line from leading end to working tool end and outer helical working surface terminates in shank beveled at an acute angle to horizontal plane. Mellower attached to front side of working tool is made in the form of hoe. Replaceable harrows joined to shank are comprised of plates beveled at an acute angle on their front sides. Working tools with right-handed and left-handed direction of rotation of ground are alternatively mounted on frame. Supporting compaction roller with mud scraper is mounted rearward of frame on tines. Mounted on frame are also shaft height adjustment mechanism and supporting roller height adjustment mechanism for adjusting height of roller and supporting mechanism relative to frame.

EFFECT: improved quality of soil tillage, reduced erosion processes and increased efficiency in weed controlling.

2 dwg

Plow-digger // 2236771
The invention relates to agricultural machinery, in particular to rotary plows rippers, and is designed for primary tillage, and for digging potatoes, i.e

Plow forest // 2219688
The invention relates to forestry and is intended to prepare the ground for plantations

The invention relates to the measurement of technological parameters of the processed areas of the soil, namely the determination of the relative trajectory of the material on the triangular wedge tillage body

The invention relates to agricultural machinery, in particular to devices machines for grinding wood material and sealing the resulting mass in the soil

Plow // 2182750
The invention relates to the agricultural industry and can be used for primary tillage

The invention relates to the agricultural industry, particularly to plows

Plow // 2297746

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, tillage and preparing of soil for sowing procedure.

SUBSTANCE: plow has frame, disks, working tool designed for rotating and placing of soil layer into furrow and provided with helical working surface, and mellower. Shaft with corrugated disks and mud scrapers is mounted on tines on frame. Working tool is made in the form of half-screw whose inner side is extending centrally of horizontal straight line from leading end to working tool end and outer helical working surface terminates in shank beveled at an acute angle to horizontal plane. Mellower attached to front side of working tool is made in the form of hoe. Replaceable harrows joined to shank are comprised of plates beveled at an acute angle on their front sides. Working tools with right-handed and left-handed direction of rotation of ground are alternatively mounted on frame. Supporting compaction roller with mud scraper is mounted rearward of frame on tines. Mounted on frame are also shaft height adjustment mechanism and supporting roller height adjustment mechanism for adjusting height of roller and supporting mechanism relative to frame.

EFFECT: improved quality of soil tillage, reduced erosion processes and increased efficiency in weed controlling.

2 dwg

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