Hydro-pneumatic flexible element

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydro-pneumatic flexible element incorporates the main cylinder with a piston and a con-rod and the additional cylinder. The main cylinder head end accommodates a pneumatic chamber, while the rod end has a hydraulic chamber. The additional cylinder is arranged in a barrel and filled with fluid. The main cylinder con-rod free end is furnished, in the hydraulic chamber, with and end face piston. The two-wall additional cylinder inner wall is furnished with a channel, the said inner wall end being provided with an additional piston. At that the aforesaid barrel is fitted with a servo element designed to interact with the additional cylinder inner wall.

EFFECT: reduced impact loads on bearing structure, high anti-vibration strength, automatic adjustment of rigidity in response to impact loads, automatic adjustment of flexible element length, simple design and ease of manufacture.

3 cl, 10 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely, to designs of shock absorbing devices pneumatic suspension vehicles, and can be used as a hydro-pneumatic element with integrated level control of the body, as the elastic element in household appliances and industrial equipment to create resistance to vibronaladka and resonant vibrations.

Known suspension of a vehicle for the author's certificate of the USSR No. 1158389, CL 60G 11/26, 1985, containing the United respectively with the sprung and unsprung parts of the vehicle cylinder and placed it on the piston, limiting the cylinder chamber filled with an elastic fluid medium; an elastic Cup-shaped ring attached to the piston and mounted with a clearance relative to the cylinder. Cup-shaped ring facing toward the end face of the latter and is made with a hole in front of the line for supplying elastic fluid medium.

The disadvantage of this device is its lack of rigidity and resistance to vibration and resonance, as used as an elastic medium only fluid.

Known pneumatic elastic element suspension of the wheels of the vehicle on the author's certificate of the USSR No. 559844, CL 60G 11/26, 1977, adopted the applicant for the prototype. It contains the main cylinder with a hollow piston rod and the piston, which divides it into two cavities, one of which is filled with gas and the other liquid, the cylinder back pressure, located in the hollow shaft and separated by a floating piston in the gas and liquid chamber, the latter of which is connected through the passage in the rod, with the cavity of the main cylinder filled with liquid, as well as additional cylinder filled with gas and telescopically connected with the main cylinder, the free end of the rod has an adjustable elastic stop.

The main disadvantages of this item are insufficient rigidity, lack of fine adjustment of the stroke of the pistons, insufficient resistance to vibration and resonance.

An object of the invention is the creation of an elastic element that greatly reduces shock loads on the supporting structure, having a high resistance to vibration and resonance oscillations that have the ability to automatically calibrate depending on the force of impact loads, with the possibility to adjust the length of the elastic element when the relative simplicity of design and manufacturability.

The technical problem is solved by the fact that in the proposed solution the additional cylinder is placed in the Cup and saponangelo, and on the free end of the rod of the main cylinder in the hydraulic chamber has end piston, and the additional cylinder is made with a double wall, the inner wall of the channel, and on its end face an additional piston, on the glass installed servo element and configured to communicate with the inner wall of the additional cylinder.

Also, the additional piston is installed on the inner wall of the additional cylinder interoperable with the rod and the inner wall of the main cylinder.

In addition, the witness element is designed as a plate.

1 shows a General view of the hydro-pneumatic elastic element, a longitudinal section;

figure 2 shows a hydropneumatic resilient member in a free state;

figure 3 - operational state of the element at constant load;

figure 4 - the status of the item at full load;

figure 5 shows the increase in the volume of hydraulic fluid, which increases the softness of the suspension when changing the initial volume of hydraulic fluid, without increasing load;

figure 6 - operating state of the elastic element at constant load;

7 shows the decrease in the volume of hydraulic fluid, which increases the stiffness of odesk is;

on Fig - state element when adding air;

figure 9 - member status at constant load;

figure 10 - the state of an item with a significant air sampling.

Hydro-pneumatic elastic element contains the master cylinder 1 with a piston 2 and piston rod 3. Above the piston 2 is formed by a pneumatic chamber 4, and the piston rod 2 in the cavity formed by the hydraulic chamber 5. The main cylinder 1 is closed by the glass 6 and the cover 7 with drainage holes 8. At the top of the Cup 6 is made of overflow holes 9. Inside the Cup 6 in the hydraulic chamber 5 has an additional cylinder 10, which is made with double walls 11 and 12. At the free end of the stem 3 of the main cylinder 1 is end the piston 13. And end the piston 13 is placed in the hydraulic chamber 5 and is connected with the inner wall 12 of the additional cylinder 10 and the inner wall 12 near the bottom of the additional cylinder 10 made channel 14 for exit of fluid from the hydraulic chamber 5.

On the Cup 6 has a tracking element 15, which is arranged to interact with the inner wall 12 of the additional cylinder 10 and has a vertical through channel 16. The tracking element 15 made in the form of plates.

At the end of the inner wall 12 of the additional cylinder 10 is a piston 17, the being who m it is installed with the possibility of interaction with the rod 3 and the inner wall of the main cylinder 1.

At the top end of the main cylinder 1 has a hole where the valve 18 to regulate the amount of air in the pneumatic chamber 4.

The pneumatic chamber 4 formed in the main cylinder 1 above the piston 2 and has excessive air pressure.

On additional piston 17 and under the piston 2 of the main cylinder 1 is formed by an additional air chamber 19 with excessive air pressure.

And between the inner ends of the additional piston 17 and the end of the piston 13 is formed by the vacuum chamber 20. And on the stem 3 of the main cylinder 1 has a longitudinal channel 21 for connecting the vacuum chamber 20 and the additional air chamber 19 and the pressure equalization them in a free state of the elastic element.

In the glass 6 between its bottom and the butt of the additional cylinder 10 formed the control chamber 22, controls a servo element 15 with excessive air pressure.

The hydraulic chamber 5 is limited by the internal volume of the additional cylinder 10, the end of the piston 13, the walls of the main cylinder 1 and the additional piston 17.

Hydro-pneumatic elastic element operates as follows.

When driving over bumps the wheel compress-decompress the elastic element, inside of which depending on the situation, the following occurs.

Situation 1. Prijezda for roughness in the form of small bumps or depressions on low speed wheel sends a small shock force on hydro-pneumatic elastic element, when this glass 6 rises, compressing slightly the volume of air in the control chamber 22, and simultaneously raises the witness plate element 15, thereby increasing the flow area of the filling opening 9 for pumping the hydraulic oil chamber 5 from the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 through the channel 14 into the cavity 24 through the wall of the Cup 6 under additional piston 17 by the amount of compression of the air in the control chamber 22. Additional cylinder 10 receives from the compressed air volume in the control chamber 22 effort on the climb up. In the cavity of the hydraulic chamber 5 inside additional cylinder 10 occurs excessive oil pressure, and in the cavity 24 to the suction low oil pressure. Through slightly enlarged cross-section under the witness plate element 15 oil with slightly increased speed overflows from the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 into the cavity 24. Move up cups 6 moves up the rod 3 with the front piston 13 and the piston 2 oil cavity 23 additional cylinder 10. But, as the oil from the volume of the cavity 23 additional cylinder 10 is partially left in the volume of the cavity 24, the moving rod 3 with the pistons 13 and 2 fewer moving additional cylinder 10 on the volume of disposed oil. Moving into the main cylinder 1, piston 2 creates a slight positive Yes the pressure of air in the pneumatic chamber 4, which through the main cylinder 1 is transmitted to the attachment point hydropneumatic resilient element. An excessive air pressure in the additional pneumatic chamber 19 and the vacuum pressure in the vacuum chamber 20, which further affects the rod 3 with the pistons 13 and 2.

When placed on top of the uneven air pressure in the control chamber 22 is reduced, which leads to the displacement of the glass 6 down relative to the additional cylinder 10. This decreases the flow area of the filling opening 9 for the overflow oil from the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 into the cavity 24 that leads to a fall in the rate of overflow oil quenching thereby resonant oscillations of compressed air.

At the exit of the uneven air pressure in the control chamber 22 drops below the working and the glass 6 is moved down relative to the additional cylinder 10, while lowering the witness plate element 15, thereby reducing the flow area of the filling opening 9 for pumping oil from the cavity 24 in the cavity 23 of the additional hydraulic cylinder 10 of the chamber 5 to the amount of movement. Excessive pressure in the pneumatic chamber 4 and the chamber 19 and negative pressure (vacuum) in the vacuum chamber 20 to move the piston rod 3 with the front piston 13 and the piston 2 and the additional cylinder 10 is a bottom, recycling at the same time the oil from the cavity 24 in the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 with a reduced speed through reduced flow section.

At the entrance wheel on a level surface pressure are balanced, the Cup 6 is lifted, occupying a working position, lifting the witness plate element 15, increasing the flow area of the filling opening 9. Additional cylinder 10 is slightly pressed on the end of the piston 13 through the oil hydraulic chamber 5, through which slightly increased the flow area of the filling opening 9 under the witness plate element 15 is pumped into the cavity 24. End of the piston 13 rises slightly, taking the initial operating position (Fig 3).

Because of the constantly changing flow area between the volume of the cavity 23 additional cylinder 10 and the cavity 24 is constantly changing speed pumping oil that does not develop oscillatory and resonant motion in the elastic element.

Situation 2. At the entrance to the unevenness in the form of convexity or concavity at high speed wheel passes a large impact force on hydro-pneumatic elastic element, and the glass 6 rises, compressing much air volume of the control chamber 22, and simultaneously raises the witness plate element 15, increases the thus the flow area of the filling opening 9 for pumping oil from the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 into the cavity 24 by the amount of compression of the air control chamber 22. Additional cylinder 10 receives from the air control chamber 22 effort on the climb up. In the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 hydraulic chamber 5 occurs excessive oil pressure, and in the cavity 24 to the suction low oil pressure. Through the greatly enlarged cross-section under the witness plate element 15 oil with a significantly increased rate of overflows from the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 into the cavity 24. Upon reaching the glass end of turn 6 the flow area of the filling opening 9 is reduced, the quenching speed pumping oil from the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 into the cavity 24, while simultaneously quenching the force of inertia of the sprung mass, thereby increasing the rigidity of the elastic element. Moving glass 6 by the end of his turn is possible only when a large shock load and for a very short period of time, as much excess air pressure in the control chamber 22 immediately transferred to an additional cylinder 10 and will also affect the glass 6, trying to press it from additional cylinder 10. Therefore, most of the time when it absorbs great shock the efforts of the flow area of the filling opening 9 will be increased (figure 4). Moving up additional cylinder 10 moves up the rod 3 with the front piston 13 and the piston 2 oil Polo the tee 23 additional cylinder 10. But as the oil from the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 is partially left in the cavity 24, it is moving less move more cylinder 10 on the volume of disposed oil. Moving into the main cylinder 1, piston 2 creates the average air pressure in the pneumatic chamber 4, through which the main cylinder 1 is transmitted to the attachment point hydropneumatic resilient element. An excessive air pressure in the additional pneumatic chamber 19 and the vacuum pressure in the vacuum chamber 20, which additionally act on the piston 2.

With the passage of the peaks of the irregularities of the possible separation of the wheel from the railroad bed. In this case, the air pressure in the control chamber 22 drops, which leads to a sharp movement of the Cup 6 down relative to the additional cylinder 10.

This dramatically decreases the flow area of the filling opening 9 for the overflow oil from the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 into the cavity 24, which contributes to a sharp drop in the rate of overflow oil quenching thereby resonant oscillations of compressed air and inertial forces of the suspension.

The average air pressure in the pneumatic chamber 4 and in additional pneumatic chamber 19 and a reduced pressure (vacuum) in the vacuum chamber 20 to move the end of the piston 13 and the piston 2, and the additional is hydrated cylinder 10 down recycling at the same time the oil from the cavity 24 in the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 at a low speed through the reduced the flow area of the filling opening 9. When you touch the wheel the road glass 6 begins to rise relative to the additional cylinder 10, simultaneously lifting plate tracking element 15 and increasing the flow area of the filling opening 9 - increases the speed of pumping oil from the cavity 24 in the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10.

Oscillatory motion extinguished because of a difference of the oscillating circuits of the oil-air and the velocity difference of the flow of oil under pressure.

At the entrance wheel on a level surface pressure are balanced, the Cup 6 is lifted, occupying a working position, lifting the witness plate element 15 (Fig 3).

For smooth and reliable operation of the proposed elastic element in a difficult operating conditions, the ratio of the volume of the cavity 24 and the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 is selected as 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, etc., i.e. the ratio of these volumes is less than or equal to 0.5. This ratio influences the motion of the rod 3 with the front piston 13 and the piston 2 and the progress of the additional cylinder 10. For example, if this ratio is 1/2, then the move additional cylinder 10 refers to the move of the piston 2 as 2/1.

Oscillatory movement of the Cup 6 extinguished by the witness plate element 15, the which is constantly in oil and has a vertical channels 16 for by-passing oil.

Due to the fact that the sharp blow to the wheel sharply increases the flow area of the filling opening 9 for the overflow oil from the cavity 23 of the additional cylinder 10 into the cavity 24, hydro-pneumatic elastic element has a low rigidity.

Due to the fact that the movement of the additional cylinder 10 is significantly greater than the movement of the pistons 13 and 2, the buildup of excessive pressure acting on the upper point of attachment of the hydro-pneumatic elastic element, slightly.

Due to the fact that the witness plate element 15 is fixed to the Cup 6, it monitors a greater degree of unevenness of the road, which affect the glass 6.

When cornering on hydro-pneumatic elastic element affects the centrifugal force from the body. Its growth more smooth, than from the railroad bed. Centrifugal force is smoothly distributed between the hydro-pneumatic elastic elements all wheels and inside of each of the elastic element between the different volumes of compressed air, so the rise of the Cup 6, together with the witness plate element 15 and increase the flow area of the filling opening 9 for pumping oil external to the rotation of the hydro-pneumatic elastic element is carried out by a small amount, which increases the rigidity of the claimed elastic ele is enta in turns.

Length change of hydraulic-pneumatic elastic element, i.e. increase or decrease ground clearance can be achieved with the use of additional auxiliary devices, with which you can change the amount of oil in the elastic element (5, 6, 7) or to change the volume of air (Fig, 9, 10). Design features of the proposed elastic element allows improving the technical characteristics of vehicles: permeability, stability and so on. Overcoming off-road ground clearance and the softness of the elastic element increases, with the passage of high-speed sections of ground clearance and the softness of the elastic element are reduced.

1. If the pneumatic chamber 4 (Fig) add air, the length of the elastic element increases. The pressure in the pneumatic chamber 4 will slightly increase, and additional pneumatic chamber 19 is reduced. In this regard, the rod 3 with the piston 2 and the end of the piston 13 will move slightly down. As in the control chamber 22, the pressure does not change, then the stiffness of the elastic element on oil will not change. At the same time will increase the softness of work on the air due to changes in pressure in the pneumatic chamber 4 and additional pneumatic chamber 19 at the initial displacement under compression-tension.

2. If pneumatic the Russian camera 4 (figure 10) to partially withdraw the air, the length of the elastic element is reduced. The pressure in the pneumatic chamber 4 is slightly reduced, and additional pneumatic chamber 19 will increase. In this regard, the rod 3 with the piston 2 and the end of the piston 13 will move slightly upwards. As in the control chamber 22, the pressure does not change, then the stiffness of the elastic element on the oil does not change. At the same time will increase the rigidity of the work on the air due to changes in pressure in the chambers 4 and 19.

3. If the cavity 24 (figure 5) add the oil, the length of the elastic element increases. The pressure in the pneumatic chamber 4 will slightly increase, and additional pneumatic chamber 19 will decrease. In this regard, the rod 3 with the piston 2 and 13 will move slightly upwards. Since the pressure in the control chamber 22 is not changed, the stiffness of the elastic element on oil will not change. At the same time will increase the softness of work on the air due to changes in pressure in the chambers 4 and 19 at the initial displacement under compression-tension.

4. If from the cavity 24 (7) to remove part of the oil, the length of the elastic element will decrease. The pressure in the pneumatic chamber 4 is slightly reduced, and additional pneumatic chamber 19 will increase. In this regard, the rod 3 with the piston 2 and 13 will move slightly down. As in the control chamber 22 Yes the pressure is not changed, the stiffness of the elastic element on oil will not change. At the same time will increase the rigidity of the work by air in connection with a change in pressure in the chambers 4 and 19.

The use of the proposed solution has allowed us to create the elastic element is a pneumatic action, significantly reducing shock loads from road irregularities on the supporting structure, having a high resistance to vibronaladka and resonant oscillations, which automatically adjusts its stiffness depending on the force of impact loads, and changes its length when using assistive devices depending on changes in the volume of air or oil, is located in the elastic element, while having a simple design and manufacturing technology.

1. Hydro-pneumatic elastic element that contains the master cylinder piston and rod in the piston cavity which is made from the air chamber, and the rod hydraulic chamber, bounded by the glass, extra cylinder, characterized in that the additional cylinder is placed in a glass filled with liquid, and at the free end of the rod of the main cylinder in the hydraulic chamber has end piston, and the additional cylinder is made with a double wall, the inner wall of the channel, and on its end face has the additional piston, on the glass is installed servo element and configured to communicate with the inner wall of the additional cylinder.

2. Hydro-pneumatic elastic element according to claim 1, characterized in that the additional piston is installed on the inner wall of the additional cylinder interoperable with the rod and the inner wall of the main cylinder.

3. Hydro-pneumatic elastic element according to claim 1, wherein the tracking element is designed as a plate.



 

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3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; suspensions.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pneumohydraulic springs with self-adjustable hydraulic resistance depending on amplitude and frequency of oscillations. Proposed pneumohydraulic spring of vehicle suspension contains cylinder with fitted-in piston and rod forming in cylinder piston and rod spaces, and hydraulic accumulator connected with cylinder space through valve. Valve is made in form of damping unit self-adjustable in amplitude and frequency of oscillations depending on pressure in spring and its change in time. Channel is made in valve body which accommodates spring-loaded step plunger forming with valve body, overplunger space, underplunger space and ring plunger space communicating with piston space and connected with space of hydraulic accumulator through main throttling channel with higher resistance and additional throttling channel with lower resistance, overlapped by larger step of plunger in extreme upper position. Spring installed in overplunger space engages with smaller step of plunger. Check valve installed in larger step of plunger connects ring plunger space with under plunger space. Outer groove made on lower part of plunger larger step communicates with ring plunger space through longitudinal throttling slot made on outer surface of plunger larger step, and with underplunger space through radial holes and filter installed in outer groove. Invention provides new damping system automatically self-adjustable in amplitude and oscillation frequency depending on pressure in spring and its changes in time and increase in damping force with rise of amplitude of oscillations over travel of suspension at any frequencies of road actions.

EFFECT: improved smoothness at any frequencies of road actions when riding practically along roads of any type.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic shock absorber struts of vehicle suspensions, particularly, to devices providing their adjustment, stabilizing of characteristics of suspension shock absorber struts at ambient temperature fluctuations within +40°C and -40°C. Proposed hydraulic shock absorber contains hydraulic cylinder with working medium, piston and rod. Piston and rod spaces are connected by channels made in piston and additional channel made in rod. Capacity of additional channel is made adjustable depending on temperature of working medium by means of rotary bushing with hole and spring made of bimetal or material with memorized shape effect and rigidly connected by one end with rod and by other end with adjusting bushing.

EFFECT: provision of hydraulic strut of front suspension of VAZ car with constant characteristics at any temperature of ambient air which is important in winter.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pneumohydraulic springs with self-adjusted hydraulic resistance depending on amplitude and direction of oscillations. Proposed pneumohydraulic spring of vehicle suspension has cylinder with piston and rod forming piston and ring spaces in cylinder, and hydraulic accumulator connected with cylinder space through valve self-adjusted in amplitude and direction of oscillations. Valve is made in form of ring piston installed in cylinder for axial displacement along valve rod. One end of valve rod is connected with support secured on end face of cylinder. Ring piston travel limiter is installed on other end of rod, forming with cylinder a ring space of valve communicating with hydraulic accumulator through holes made in support and forming additional throttling channel and communicating with piston space through main throttling channel made in ring piston and through check valve installed at one of side of ring piston. Blind axial hole is made in piston with rod into which limiter gets at end of spring compression stroke, thus forming inner space of maximum vibration damper communicating with piston space. Invention reduces dynamic loads and increases free travel of spring rod at reduced damping without increasing overall dimensions, provides asymmetrical damping characteristics at compressing and rebound strokes and increased rigidity at end of compression stroke which simplified design, improves reliability and reduces heating of spring, provides smooth running on any road with small irregularities whose probable height does not exceed travel of spring rod corrected to wheel with reduced damping.

EFFECT: reduced dynamic loads, simplified design, improved reliability of vehicle running of roads of any type.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in suspensions of vehicles. proposed hydraulic damper consists of reservoir with eye plate, cylinder with intake valve, piston with relief valve of extension/rebound - compression stroke, rod provided with throttling hole and return valve, guide with adjustable throttling hole and set of guides and sealing cups and rings, and upper eye plate. Ball bearings are installed in eye plates. Guide and cover are assembled into one base part - guide, in which sealing cups and rings, guide polymeric rings and needle are installed. Said needle is designed to adjust resistance at throttling mode of extension/rebound stroke directly on test stand without disassembling of said damper. Damper contains additional polymeric ring installed in scraper. Said ring prevents contact of chromium coating of rod with metal of scraper and getting of hard foreign finely divided particles into sealing unit.

EFFECT: improved serviceability of hydraulic telescopic damper under unfavorable conditions, provision of convenience in its adjustment.

8 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle suspensions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed telescopic strut of suspension contains cylinder, rod, bushing and cup. Inner platform is made in upper of housing on which compensating ring is installed over cup. Cup is made with thickened upper part.

EFFECT: reduced difficulties in manufacture of strut, improved its tightness.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; spring.

SUBSTANCE: proposed pneumohydraulic spring contains cylinder with upper and lower covers filled with liquid and gas, piston with hollow rod which accommodates counterpressure chamber communicating through tube with ring space between walls of cylinder and hollow rod, and rod with groove secured in upper cover of cylinder and arranged in central hole of piston. Groove of rod made in its lower part connects overpiston space with counterpressure chamber when vehicle is not loaded. Spring is furnished with damping unit, self-adjusting depending on amplitude of vibrations and changes of pressure, including main throttling channel made on lower end of tube, additional throttling channel formed in lower part of tube by radial holes and outer groove, and spring-loaded plunger made in form of step sleeve installed on tube and provided with radial holes in smaller step. Larger step forms sealed ring plunger space with tube which accommodates compression spring of plunger overlapping by its smaller step additional throttling channel at stroke of piston out of zone of rod groove as a result of sharp increase or decrease of pressure in counterpressure chamber. Counterpressure chamber communicates with ring space through additional tube with check valve.

EFFECT: improved smoothness of riding.

2 dwg

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