Demineralisation method of coal

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns method of coal demineralisation. Method includes stages of coal particles suspension receiving in alkaline solution, suspension holding at the temperature from 150 till 250°C at pressure which is enough for boiling avoidance, suspension separation for alkalified coal and spent alkaline leaching agent, receiving of acidified suspension of alkalified coal, acidified suspension is of pH 0.5-1.5, separation of acidified suspension for fraction, containing coal, and essentially liquid fraction, implementation for fraction containing coal washing stage, during which fraction containing coal is mixed with water and polar organic vehicle or with water and organic acid, with mixture formation. Received mixture is heated till temperature from 150 till 280°C at pressure enough for boiling avoidance. Then it is implemented coal extraction from mixture.

EFFECT: demineralised coal allows reduced content of ashes - till 0.01-0.2% wt, and can be used as fuel for gas turbine.

50 cl, 5 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates

The present invention relates to a method of demineralization of coal.

The level of technology

The literature describes several methods for production of demineralized or low ash coal for fuel and other industrial applications, but none of them reached the stage of constant industrial applications.

In Germany in the 1940s, has been developed a method of removing forming ash minerals from physically treated concentrates coal, comprising heating the coal in the form of paste with an aqueous alkali solution, followed by separation of solids/liquids stages of acid washing and water washing. Messages about this method lead more practical way chemical demineralization. The German experience shows that demineralized coal with the release of ash 0,28% could be produced from physically purified source of coal, which has an initial output of the ashes of 0.8%.

Original pasta from coal and alkali stirred at 40-50°C for 30 minutes, then pumped through a heat exchanger in a continuously operated tubular reactor, heated with gas, in which the paste is subjected to temperature 250°C for 20 minutes under pressure is the group of 100-200 atmospheres (10-20 MPa). Then the reaction mixture passes through the heat exchanger, discussed earlier, to transfer heat coming original substances, then further cooled in a heat exchanger cooled by water.

Chilled pasta diluted with softened water, then centrifuged for separation and extraction of the alkaline solution and padmalochan coal. The latter is dispersed in 5% chloride-hydrogen acid, then centrifuged to extract acidified coal and waste acid and re-dispersed in water. Coal is filtered off from the suspension was dispersed again in another portion of water and centrifuged to extract obtained low ash coal as a crude solid product.

American and Indian researchers widely use such chemical methods, differing in the details of the processing for the production of low ash coal from other source coal, most of which has a much higher initial levels of ash than coal, which was used by the Germans. Another American group (Battelle) declares advantages:

(a) mixed alkaline baselaceltli containing cations of at least one element from group IA and at least one element from group IIA of the Periodic table;

b) filtering or centrifugation padmalochan coal for separation from spent alkaline pixelates or at the reaction temperature, or after rapid cooling to less than 100°C, to minimize the formation of undesirable components, presumably sodalite or similar compounds;

(c) the application of the method to low-grade stone coals, which are soluble in alkali and which can be re-deposited at different pH of the mineral substances, thus making possible the separation and selective recovery.

Other researchers studied the scientific aspects of alkaline extraction of sulfur and minerals, including the relative advantages of various alkalis. Most of the work in America is aimed at removing sulfur rather than metal elements, and stage acid treatment is often missing. However, one of the American groups (Alcoa) chemically cleaned coal prior to ash, less than 0.1%, while achieving large reductions and low final concentrations of iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, sodium and calcium. The goal was the production of a very clean coal, suitable for conversion to an electrode coal for the aluminium industry. This was achieved through leaching powdered coal with a hot aqueous alkali solution under pressure (up to 300°C), then, successively, an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and an aqueous solution of nitric acid at 70-9° C.

Patent Australia No. 592640 (and the corresponding U.S. patent No. 4936045) describes a method of obtaining demineralized coal. This method includes the following stages:

(a) obtaining a suspension of particles of coal, preferably at least 50 wt.% these particles have a maximum size of at least 0.5 mm, in an aqueous alkali solution, this solution has an alkali content of from 5 to 30 wt.%, so the suspension has a mass ratio of alkali solution to coal, equal to at least 1:1;

(b) aging the suspension at a temperature of from 150 to 300°C, preferably from 170 to 230°C, during the period of time from 2 to 20 minutes, essentially, by spontaneously occurring hydrothermal pressure and fast cooling of the suspension to a temperature of less than 100°C;

(c) separating the suspension into podslushannyy coal and the spent alkaline solution pixelates;

(d) regeneration of the alkaline solution pixelates for reuse at the stage (a), above, by adding the oxide or hydroxide of calcium or magnesium, for the deposition of minerals;

(e) acidification padmalochan coal by treatment with an aqueous solution of sulphuric or sulphurous acid, to obtain a suspension having a pH of from 0.5 to 1.5 and a conductivity of from 10000 to 100000 ISS;

(f) separating the suspension is and acidified coal and waste acid, and the spent acid solution pixelates and

(g) washing the acidified coal.

Although the method described in patent Australia No. 592640, can be used to produce demineralized coal with ash content less than 1 wt.%, and even 0.50 wt.%, significant advantages achievable, if the ash content is reduced to even lower levels. If the ash can be reduced to levels even lower than those achieved in the patent Australia No. 592640 received demineralized coal can be used as fuel, burning directly in a gas turbine. This use of demineralized coal could replace natural gas as fuel for gas turbines. This demineralized coal can also be used as an alternative to heavy fuel and as a source of carbon of high purity for the production of metallurgical recarbonization, carbon electrodes for aluminium production and alternative reducing agents for the production of high purity silicon. The contents of U.S. patent No. 4936045 included here as a cross-reference.

Brief description of the invention

In the first aspect of the present invention provides for a method on the mineralization of coal, includes:

(a) obtaining a suspension of particles of coal in alkaline solution;

(b) aging the suspension at a temperature of 150-250°C at a pressure sufficient to prevent boiling;

(c) separating the suspension into podslushannyy coal and waste alkaline videocenter;

(d) obtaining the acidified suspension padmalochan coal specified acidified slurry has a pH of 0.5-1.5;

(e) separating the acidified suspension fraction containing coal, and essentially liquid fraction;

(f) stage leaching fractions containing coal, in which the fraction containing coal, is mixed with water and a polar organic solvent or with water and an organic acid, with the formation of the mixture; and

(g) separating coal from a mixture of stage (f).

Advantages are achieved if the coal stage (a) is a medium section or high-grade coal, the most preferred bituminous coal.

Coal at the stage of (a) preferably has a total content of mineral matter, usually in the range of 2-15 wt.%. More preferably the content of mineral matter of coal should be as low as possible. Found that the consumption of chemicals, and hence the cost is the processing, for coals with low ash content coming to the stage (a) of this method is lower.

Preferably, coal stage (a) of the method according to the present invention have such a size so that 100% of the particles were smaller than 1 mm, more preferably 100% of the particles are smaller than 0.5 mm coal is also preferably contains a minimum number of fractions smaller than 20 microns, more preferably less than 5 wt.% particles smaller than 20 microns. Found that excessive amounts of fine fractions, such as smaller than 20 microns, can cause difficulties in the stages of separation of solids/liquids used in the present invention.

Stage (a) and (b) of this way is subjected to coal alkaline (or caustic) digestion. This leads to the fact that silicate minerals, including clay, dissolved at a re-deposition as minerals, soluble in acid.

Convenient to the suspension obtained in stage (a), would be the concentration of coal from 10 to 30 wt.%. Preferably, the concentration of coal is about 25 wt.%.

The concentration of alkali in the liquid phase of the suspension is preferably in the range from 8 to 20 wt.%, more preferably from 13 to 15 wt.% (calculated as the equivalent of NaOH). Selo the substance preferably represents NaOH, although other alkaline substances may also be used either individually or as a mixture of two or more alkaline substances. Preferably, the suspension is heated to a temperature of 150-250°C, more preferably 220-250°C. the Suspension is preferably maintained at this temperature for a period of from 15 to 60 minutes, more preferably for about 20 minutes.

Found that the heating rate of the suspension should preferably be maintained at a speed of less than 2°C / minute, in the range of temperatures from 150 to 250°C.

At stages (a) and (b) it is preferable to form a caustic slurry, which is then heated to the desired temperature.

The suspension on the stage (b) is conveniently supported in spontaneously occurring pressure of the heated suspension to prevent boiling of the suspension.

The suspension is also preferably mixed, especially gently mixed at the stage (b). The degree of mixing is preferably such that it minimizes or eliminates the precipitation of silicates of sodium, one form of which is sodalite (Na4Si3Al3O12(OH)), on the walls of the reaction apparatus. Mixing can be achieved using any suitable mixing means known to the person skilled in the art. The alternative is actively, or in combination with this, the recycling of caustic solution containing small seed crystals of silicates of sodium, can be used to accelerate growth of crystals of silicates of sodium, primarily in suspension and not on the walls of the reaction device.

Stage (c) of the method according to the present invention divides the caustic slurry from step (b) on podslushannyy coal and waste alkaline videocenter. This phase separation preferably takes place at a temperature of from 30 to 80°C. Particularly preferably, the suspension from step (b) is cooled at a cooling rate of less than 20°C/minute, more preferably less than 5°C/minute, even more preferably less than 2°C/minute, while the temperature of the suspension is in the range from 240 to 150°C.

Convenient to stage (c) included stage filtration. As indicated above, the stage filtration is preferably carried out at a temperature from 30 to 80°C.

The spent caustic/videocenter from stage (c) is preferably a process for the regeneration of caustic soda and extraction of minerals. For example, exhaust videocenter can be mixed with an amount of calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide, sufficient to precipitate the dissolved silicate and aluminate ions in the form of their Neretva imih salts with calcium, at the same time, simultaneously forming soluble sodium hydroxide, thus regenerating the alkaline videocenter for recycling. Instead oxide or calcium hydroxide can be used, the corresponding salts of magnesium or can be used mixed oxides or hydroxides of calcium and magnesium derived from dolomite.

Podslushannyy coal extracted at the stage (c), preferably washed to remove excess alkali. Coal is preferably washed at least 3 parts (wt.) water for each part (wt.) dry stone coal, more preferably 5 parts (wt.) water for each part (wt.) dry coal.

Podslushannyy coal from step (c) can also be treated for removal of silicates of sodium, such as sodalite, before sending it to the stage of impregnation of the acid. Sodalite can be separated from padmalochan coal by physical methods, such as fractional sieving, ways flotation-sedimentation of heavy environments or foam flotation. The aluminosilicates of sodium, such as sodalite, can provide valuable by-product, while removing them reduces the amount of acid required to stage (d).

Convenient to stage (d) of the method according to the present invention includes mixing the coal from step (c), more p is edocfile washed coal from step (c), with water or acid solution to obtain a suspension. The suspension preferably has a concentration of coal, which is in the range from 5 to 20 wt.%, more preferably equal to about 10 wt.%. As a rule, the higher the ash content of the original coal, the lower is the concentration of coal in the acidic suspension, with 10% suspension is a convenient source for coal with ash approximately 9%. If the suspension is obtained by mixing with water, it may be convenient to acidify it, mixing it with acid.

Stage (d) is preferably give a suspension, which contains a mineral acid, more preferably sulfuric acid or chloride-hydrogen acid.

The acidified slurry has a pH that ranges from 0.5 to 1.5, more preferably pH has a value of about 1.0.

The temperature of the suspension at the stage (d) is preferably in the range from 20 to 90°C, more preferably from 30 to 60°C.

It is convenient to mix the suspension in the acid solution.

Coal is preferably in contact with the acid solution in stage (d) during at least 1 minute, more preferably for at least 20 minutes, even more preferably about 60 minutes.

In one of the embodiments of the present invention after istace the Oia corresponding time coal in suspension from step (d) is separated in stage (e) and passed to the step (f). In a more preferred embodiment, the fraction of coal from step (e) re-suspended in water and the acid and bring the pH to a value in the range between 0.5 and 1.0, more preferably about pH 0.5, and for an additional period of time greater than 1 minute. In a more preferred embodiment, the first acid treatment is carried out at a pH of 1.0 to 1.5 for the minimum time sufficient to achieve essentially complete dissolution of the sodium aluminosilicate. The second acid treatment is carried out preferably at a pH of 0.5 to 1.0 during the time between 10 minutes and 3 hours.

Stage of re-suspension of coal may be repeated one to four times. For re-suspension can be used fresh acid solution.

Alternatively, re-suspension may contain phase mixing in a counter.

Stage (e) comprises separating the acidified suspension fraction containing coal and a liquid fraction. This can be achieved using any suitable means of separating solids and liquids, known to specialists in this field. Filtration is preferred. If compacted sediment from the filter must be re-suspended in the acid washing is not trebuet is as long while the time between the stage (e) and the second acid treatment to maintain a minimum, preferably less than 5 minutes. After the final stage of re-suspension in the acid condensed sludge from the filter may be subjected to a minimum of rinse water, so that, when compacted sediment re-suspended in fresh water, the pH of the solution is preferably about 2.

Waste acid can be processed to regenerate the alkaline solution and to obtain a controlled precipitation of minerals as by-products. For example, waste acid can be treated with calcium oxide with the regeneration of the caustic solution and precipitation of minerals.

Stage leaching stage (f) includes two options. One of them is the mixing of coal with the last stage of the stages of impregnation of the acid with a solution of water and a polar organic solvent. Convenient to the polar organic solvent mixed with water. The polar organic solvent is a preferably an alcohol, more preferably ethanol, but can also be used methanol and propanol.

Coal is preferably mixed with a solution of water and a polar organic solvent, so that the slurry has a solids content of PSP is that 10-30 wt.%, more preferably about 25 wt.%. Residual acidity after stage (stages) impregnation of the acid is preferably such that the pH of the suspension is in the range from 1.5 to 2.5, and more preferably has a value of roughly 2.0.

At stage (f), the suspension is preferably heated to a temperature of from 240 to 280°C, more preferably from 260 to 270°C. the Suspension is preferably maintained at this temperature for a period in the range between 1 minute and 60 minutes, more preferably about 5 minutes.

A suspension of coal/water/polar organic solvent is preferably heated at a heating rate in the range between 2°C / minute and 20°C / minute.

The pressure of the suspension is such that the boiling is prevented. The suspension is preferably heated at a spontaneously occurring pressure. At the preferred temperature, above, spontaneously arising pressure of approximately 8 MPa.

As indicated above, the preferred polar organic solvent is an ethanol. Particularly preferably, the liquid phase is mixed with coal to obtain a suspension, which contained 50 wt.% ethanol in aqueous solution. Option 1 stage washing lowers the level of Na, Si, Fe and Ti, but it is the act of the ate, primarily at lower levels of Na and Si. If you want a lower-tier only Na, the temperature used at the stage of washing, can reach 10°C, while the operation when the ambient temperature is particularly preferred.

The second option stage of leaching involves mixing coal with stage (stages) of the acid impregnation with an aqueous solution of an organic acid. Currently, citric acid is the preferred organic acid, it also can be used Chloroacetic acid, malonic acid and malic acid.

The citric acid solution preferably contains citric acid in the range between 5 and 20 wt.% (hydrates), more preferably about 10 wt.%. The concentration of coal in the slurry is preferably in the range from 10 to 30 wt.%, more preferably about 25 wt.%. The suspension is preferably heated to a temperature in the range from 240 to 280°C, more preferably between 250 and 270°C. the Pressure must be maintained at a level sufficient to prevent boiling. Convenient to the pressure was a spontaneously emerging pressure for the temperature range specified above, is approximately 8 MPa. The suspension is preferably maintained at high temp is the temperature during the period between 1 minute and 60 minutes, more preferably, about 5 minutes. The suspension is preferably heated to high temperatures when the heating rate in the range between 2°C / minute and 20°C / minute.

In another embodiment of the second variant, the suspension can be heated to a temperature in the range between 150 and 160°C. In this embodiment, Na and Fe will not be deleted.

When the stage (f) is carried out at elevated temperature, it contains stage hydrothermal leaching.

Not wanting to be limited by theory, the authors present invention postulate that at the stage of washing two mechanisms to further reduce the ash content can take place; they are:

(i) the balance of acid in coal from stage (stages) impregnation of the acid leads to the fact that the suspension on the stage (d) is acidified, for example, to pH between 1.5 and 2.5. This contributes to additional dissolution of minerals;

(ii) it is assumed that humic compounds are formed during the interaction of coal and alkali in the stages (a) and (b). On stage (stages) impregnation acid these humic compounds "collapse" and connect some of the Na. At the stage of washing, option 1, the alcohol gives the opportunity for hydrolysis of humic compounds with the release of Na. Na is transferred to the aqueous phase after separation of alcohol and water. Alcohol can Retz is to rolirovat, basically in a closed recycling, thus minimizing the consumption of alcohol. Option 2 citric acid facilitates the release of Na from humic compounds.

Still not wishing to be limited by theory, the authors present invention postulate an alternative mechanism, namely, that Na is distributed among functional groups, and is also included in the structure of coal, in particular in the structure of graphite. This follows from the higher amount of residual Na detected in the processing of coal a higher grade, which have a lesser amount of humic functional groups, but increased the proportion of graphite structures.

It is assumed that Na is associated and/or captured in the structure of coal, and that ethanol causes swelling of the structure and allows for the migration of Na out or, in the case of the functional groups (more than low-grade coal), participates in the formation of esters. Organic acids such as citric acid, should not be dissociate in the water so that dissolved, but still medicationabana molecule of citric acid also cause swelling of the coal. Heat also helps to give Na kinetic energy to release from any ties that hold it in coal. Diffuse the Na of the structure of coal, as expected, also plays a role.

Stage (g) of the method according to the present invention includes the allocation of coal from a mixture or suspension on the stage (f). This separation of solids and liquids can be achieved by using any well-known experts in this field means suitable for use. Filtration is preferred.

Preferably coal extracted at the stage (g), washed. Preferably for washing use at least one part of clean water per part of coal, mass.

The method in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention can provide product - demineralized coal having an ash content of 0.01 to 0.2 wt.%. The method also removes the Na and Si from coal and, thus, by lowering the Na content, the melting temperature of ash remaining in the coal, also mainly increases using this method. The melting point of the ash is important if demineralized coal should be used as fuel for gas turbines, because they require that the melting point of the ash was greater than 1350°C, more preferably greater than 1500°C.

The method according to the first aspect of the present invention is suitable for obtaining Demin is realizowanego coal, with ash content less than 0.2 wt.%, preferably from 0.01 to 0.2 wt.%, in experiments with the use of certain types of coal reached ash content of 0.01 wt.%. Stage (a)to(e) of the method according to the first aspect of the present invention suitable for the production of demineralized coal with ash content up to 0,3-0,4 wt.%. For some applications this ash content is acceptable, and further processing stage of leaching may not be necessary.

Accordingly, in the second aspect, the present invention provides a method of demineralization of coal, comprising steps (a)-(e) of the method described in connection with the first aspect of the present invention.

Stage washing, as it is known, also reduces the ash content of coal. It also assumes that stage leaching can be used as a stage in the method of demineralization, which includes a stage other than the stage (a)to(e), as described in connection with the first aspect of the present invention.

Accordingly, in the third aspect, the present invention provides a method of demineralization of coal, including stage alkaline digestion followed by impregnation with the acid, and in which coal from the stage of impregnation of the acid undergoes additional is Tadeu, as described in connection with the stage (f) of the first aspect of the present invention.

Demineralized coal may be subjected to briquetting process, without using a binder, to form a final product with improved consumer properties.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 is a block diagram of a method of one embodiment of the method of demineralization of coal in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention.

Figure 2 is a block diagram of the method of one of embodiments impregnation stage acid figure 1.

Figure 3 is a block diagram of a method of an alternative implementation of the impregnation stage acid figure 1.

Figure 4 is a block diagram of a method of one embodiment of the method of demineralization of coal in accordance with the second aspect of the present invention; and

figure 5 is a block diagram of a method of one embodiment of the method of demineralization of coal in accordance with the third aspect of the present invention.

Detailed description of drawings

When considering the drawings, note that the drawings are for purposes of illustrating preferred embodiments of the present invention. For this reason, the present from retina should not be construed as limited by signs, presented and described with reference to the drawings.

The block diagram of the method of demineralization in accordance with the present invention are presented in figure 1. Figure 1 is a suspension of 11 coal and caustic solution serves in the capacity of 10 to caustic digestion. Convenient to the tank 10 for caustic digestion was an autoclave or the capacity of the high pressure, which allows for heating the slurry caustic solution and coal.

Caustic solution 12, which serves in the capacity of 10 to caustic digestion, contains a solution of sodium hydroxide having a concentration of sodium hydroxide from 13 to 15%. Coal 11 and a solution of 12 sodium hydroxide serves in the capacity of 10 to caustic digestion in such quantities that the obtained suspension containing 25% of coal.

The slurry of coal and caustic solution in the tank 10 is heated to a temperature of 150-250°C, more preferably from 220 to 250°C. the Suspension is then maintained at this temperature over a period of time from 1 to 60 minutes, with the best 20 minutes. The suspension is incubated at spontaneously emerging pressure so that the solution does not boil.

Suspension caustic solution and coal is heated so that the rate of temperature increase does not exceed 2° in a minute, when the temperature of the coal is in the range from 150 to 240°C.

After the expiration of the required time of stay of the suspension is cooled at a cooling rate of less than 20°C / minute, more preferably less than 5°C / minute, even more preferably less than 2°C / minute, while the temperature is in the range from 240 to 150°C. the Suspension is removed from the container 10 caustic digestion and pass through line 15 to the node 20 of the filter. The node 20 of the filter can be any suitable for use node filtering, which can realize the separation of coal from the caustic solution. Belt filters and drum filters are particularly suitable for use. Will also be understood that other devices for separating solids and liquids can be used instead of the node 20 of the filter. For example, can be used precipitators or decanter.

The spent caustic solution 22, extracted from the node 20 of the filter is sent to the node 24 extraction of caustic soda. Node 24 extract the spent caustic caustic solution regenerate. For example, the spent caustic solution may come into contact with the calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, magnesium oxide or magnesium hydroxide to precipitate from it mines the minerals and regenerating sodium hydroxide. The regenerated sodium hydroxide may be re-used.

Then podslushannyy coal 26 washed with water in the tank 30 for washing with water. Capacity 30 for flushing water can be any container suitable for mixing liquid and solid products. Alternative and preferably, the washing water 30 is carried out, washing compacted sediment from the filter node 20 filtration. In this regard, if you are using a belt filter, a compacted sediment containing podslushannyy coal and the remaining caustic solution, is formed on a belt filter. This compacted sediment can irrigate with clean water 32. Because compacted sediment remains in contact with the node filtering, washing water is removed as removed flush water 34. Flush water 34 can also be sent to the node 24 for the regeneration of caustic soda.

Washed compacted sediment from the filter containing the washed podslushannyy coal 36, then injected into the process 40 impregnation acid. In the process 40 impregnation acid podslushannyy coal from node 20 filtration and water washing 30 is mixed with water to obtain the concentration of the suspension in the range from 5 to 25 wt.% coal, preferably 10 wt.% coal. The suspension is acidified with acid 42, preferably sulfuric what Isletas, obtaining a pH in the range from 0.5 to 1.5, preferably pH value of 1.0. The temperature of the acid suspension is maintained within the range of from 20 to 90°C, more preferably in the range from 30 to 60°C, over a period of time greater than 1 minute, more preferably greater than 20 minutes. Discovered that 60 minutes is a suitable time of contact of coal with acid solution. Coal should be stirred to facilitate the mixing of coal with an acid solution.

The process 40 impregnation of the acid washing may include a single contact between the acid solution and coal. However, it is preferable that the impregnation of the acid included more than a single contact of coal with an acid solution. Preferably coal comes into contact with the acid solution at a temperature and time above. Then coal and the acid solution is separated and coal additionally comes in contact with acid solution one or more times. 2 and 3 show block diagrams of some possible embodiments of the process 40 impregnation acid.

After 40 impregnation acid coal and acid solution are separated in the node 50 split. Convenient to the node 50 split was a Phi node is travunia, in particular, a belt filter or drum filter. The spent solution 52 acid are removed.

Then the extracted coal 54 is subjected to water washing 60. It is convenient to carry out water washing 60 irrigation compacted sludge belt filter or drum filter wash water 62. Wash water is removed from the compacted sediment in site filtering, and remote flush water is shown at number 64.

Washed compacted sediment from the filter 66, which contains processed bituminous coal and a small amount of residual acid solution, and then passed to the process 70 hydrothermal leaching. Washed coal 66, which enters the process 70 hydrothermal leaching, has a residual acid present in such quantity that, when washed coal 66 re-suspended in fresh water, the pH of the liquid phase is approximately 2.

In process 70 hydrothermal leaching water 72 and ethanol 74 is mixed with coal. Preferably, the water and ethanol are mixed in such a way that the solution is a 50% solution of ethanol in water. The amount of water, ethanol and coal coming into the process 70 hydrothermal leaching, so that they get a suspension having a load of solid products, equal to 25 wt.%. Preferably water, ethanol and stone the coal is mixed before introduction into the tank 70.

In the most preferred embodiment of the present invention, the suspension is in the process 70 hydrothermal leaching heated to a temperature of from 240 to 280°C, in particular from 260 to 270°C at a heating rate of between 2°C / minute and 20°C / minute. Heating is carried out at spontaneously emerging pressure that prevents boiling. When the maximum temperatures reached in the process 70 hydrothermal leaching, spontaneously arising pressure of approximately 8 MPa. Convenient to withstand the suspension at elevated temperature for a period between 1 minute and 60 minutes, preferably 5 minutes. In these conditions, the process of hydrothermal leaching reduces the level of sodium, silicon, iron and titanium in coal, while the main feature is a decrease in the levels of sodium and silicon.

If you want to only decrease the level of sodium in the process 70 hydrothermal leaching temperature on stage hydrothermal leaching can reach 10°C, and it is convenient to represent the ambient temperature, in this case stage hydrothermal leaching can be described simply as the stage of washing.

A suspension of the process 70 hydrothermal leaching on line 76 is passed to the node 80 filtration. Node 80 filtrowanie the suspension of the process of hydrothermal leaching share on the fraction of coal 82 and the liquid fraction 84. The liquid fraction 84 may be sent to the node 90 extraction of ethanol, which, preferably is a distillation column. In the node 90 of the ethanol extract liquid fraction 84 is divided into a fraction 92 enriched water, and the fraction 94, enriched with ethanol. Conveniently fraction 94, enriched with ethanol, to return as stream 74 in the node 70 hydrothermal leaching 70.

Faction 82 coal is washed in the process 100 wash using fresh wash water 102. Wash water is removed as stream 104 and separate the extracted product 110 - ultra clean coal.

Product - ultra clean coal is preferably subjected to briquetting process without adding a binder, to obtain a product having improved properties during storage and transportation.

Product - ultra clean coal, extracted from the process depicted in figure 1, is usually to have the ash content in the range between 0.01 and 0.2 wt.%, with a melting point of ash, high enough to use ultra clean coal as fuel for gas turbines. When ultra clean coal is used for direct combustion in gas turbines as part of a gas turbine power plant with combined cycle, ultra clean coal can potentially reduce abrasi gas, greenhouse at 25%, when compared with modern thermal power plants that burn coal. If additional processing included in ultrapure coal, whereas, the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for the greenhouse effect, is also reduced by about 10% during the whole operation cycle.

As discussed above, the process 40 impregnation acid may include a first suspension of coal in the acid solution, followed by re-suspendirovanie coal, ranging from one to four times. Figure 2 shows one possible flowchart of a process 40 impregnation acid. Figure 2 podslushannyy coal 36 serves in the first container 140 for impregnation of the acid. A solution of 142 acid is mixed with padmalochan coal 36 in the vessel 140 within the desired time and at the desired temperature conditions. The acidified slurry of coal 144 is then passed into a separator 146. Thereafter, the spent acid solution 148 is removed and the fraction 150 containing coal, is introduced into the second tank 152 for impregnation of the acid. The spent acid solution may be directed to the stage 24 extraction caustic for regeneration of NaOH and extraction of minerals. A fresh solution 154 acid, under demanding conditions, is mixed with the fraction containing CA is built coal, in the tank 152. The acidified suspension 156 is sent to the second separator 158. The acid solution 160 is removed, and the fraction 162 containing coal, is sent either to the node 50 to separate, as shown in figure 1, or if you require additional stages of re-suspension will be sent to the additional capacity 164 for impregnation of the acid. The dotted line 165 show that the sequence of impregnation fresh acid solution, followed by separation may be repeated one or more times.

In the tank 164 faction 162 containing coal, mixed with fresh solution 166 acids within the desired time and under the desired conditions. Remote suspension 44 (which corresponds to line 44 of the suspension shown in figure 1) then passes into the separator 50 and the device 60 water washing, which correspond to the respective separator 50 and the device for water flushing 60 1.

Re-suspension of coal in a fresh acid solution preferably takes place within one to four times.

Figure 3 shows an alternative implementation of the process of impregnation of the acid in which the number of contacts between the acid solution and the fraction of coal. Figure 3 the process of impregnation acid carry out multistage counterflow contact between the Cam is authorized by coal and acid solution. The process involves contacting the fraction of coal with a solution of the acid in the number of contact tanks 240, 242. Dashed lines 244 show that there may be a greater number of contact tanks than those two, which are shown in figure 3. Coal 36 serves in a liaison capacity 240. Fraction 250 containing coal, served from the container 240 in contact capacity 242. Fraction 252 containing coal, contact capacity 240V then injected either in the node 50 separation (as shown in figure 1), or one or more additional contact tanks (not shown).

Similarly, a fresh solution of 260 acid serves in a liaison capacity (242, figure 3) at a later stage. The liquid fraction through line 262 from the container 242 then enter in the contact tank 240. The liquid fraction 264 from the contact vessel 260 is removed. The spent acid 264 may be directed to the regeneration of caustic (e.g., 24, figure 1) for the regenerate NaOH and extraction of precipitated minerals.

The method, shown in figure 3, can use any well-known expert in the field device, suitable for contact in countercurrent flow between solid food and liquid. Such a device is well known and does not need further description.

Figure 4 shows the block shamppoo in accordance with the second aspect of the present invention. For some applications the product coal produced after water washing 60, shown in figure 1, has an ash content, low enough to use without having to subject it to the process of hydrothermal leaching. For this reason, the method shown in figure 4, is essentially identical to that shown in figure 1, except that the faction 66 coal after water washing 60 is not introduced in the process of hydrothermal leaching, but, instead, goes to the water wash 100, where it is washed with wash water 102 with the product 110 - ultra clean coal. Product 110 - ultra clean coal figure 4 will have a slightly higher ash content than the product 110 - ultra clean coal figure 1.

Other features of the process, shown in figure 4, are essentially identical characteristics figure 1, and figure 4 uses the same numbers for these signs.

Figure 5 shows a block diagram in accordance with a third aspect of the present invention. On the block diagram depicted in figure 5, coal 300 is subjected to caustic digestion 302, and then stage 304 acid or acid impregnation. Caustic digestion stage 302 and 304 acid 5 can be the same or different than the corresponding stage described with reference and figure 1. Faction 66' coal after impregnation 304 acid serves to process 70' hydrothermal leaching with subsequent separation of the node 80' filter on the liquid fraction 84' and faction 82'containing coal. The liquid fraction 84' share on the fraction 92', containing water, and the fraction 94' extracted ethanol.

Faction 82', containing coal, washed in the node 100' rinse and extract the product 100' - ultra clean coal. The stage of processing and process conditions 70' hydrothermal leaching, depicted in figure 5, are essentially identical to the process 70 hydrothermal leaching, with reference to figure 1.

Specialists in this field will recognize that the invention described herein may be subject to variations and modifications other than those specifically described. It is clear that in the process of hydrothermal leaching is possible to use an organic acid instead of a polar organic solvent, while citric acid is preferred. If in the process of hydrothermal leaching is used citric acid, the preferred conditions are as given in the description of the first aspect of the present invention, and the process of extracting ethanol can be excluded.

The specific device used in the present method include any suitable device, investiacatania in this area. For example, the container 10 to caustic digestion may include any suitable reactor, including a tubular flow reactors, autoclaves with stirring, running in periodic mode or continuous feed and withdrawal, in single-stage or multi-stage schemes, or countercurrent or heterophase system. Because the device can be used in the method according to the present invention will be well known to the person skilled in the art, it should not be described further.

It will be clear that the invention described and defined here extends to all alternative combinations of two or more individual features discussed in the text or drawings or clear of them. All of these different combinations constitute various alternative aspects of the present invention.

1. The way demineralization of coal, including

(a) obtaining a suspension of particles of coal in alkaline solution,

(b) aging the suspension at a temperature of 150-250°at a pressure sufficient to prevent boiling;

(c) separating the suspension into podslushannyy coal and waste alkaline videocenter;

(d) obtaining the acidified suspension padmalochan coal, the connection is Sienna suspension has a pH of 0.5-1.5;

(e) separating the acidified suspension fraction containing coal, and essentially liquid fraction;

(f) for the fractions containing coal, stage of leaching, which

(i) a fraction containing coal, is mixed with water and a polar organic solvent or with water and an organic acid with the formation of the mixture; and

(ii) the resulting mixture is heated to a temperature of from 150 to 280°at a pressure sufficient to prevent boiling; and

(g) allocation of coal from a mixture of stage (f).

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the coal is provided at the stage (a), shall be of such size that 100% of the particles are less than 1 mm.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that coal provided at the stage (a), shall be of such size that 100% of the particles are smaller than 0.5 mm.

4. The method according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the coal is provided at the stage (a)contains 5 wt.% particles smaller than 20 microns.

5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the suspension obtained in stage (a)has a concentration of coal from 1 to 30 wt.%.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the concentration of coal in the slurry is about 25 wt.%.

7. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the concentration of alkali is the liquid phase of the suspension is in the range from 8 to 20 wt.% (calculated as the equivalent of NaOH).

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the concentration of alkali is from 13 to 15 wt.% (calculated as the equivalent of NaOH).

9. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the suspension is heated to a temperature of 220-250°at the stage (b).

10. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the suspension is at the stage (b) is maintained at an elevated temperature over a period of time from 15 to 60 minutes

11. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the heating rate of the suspension support at speeds of less than 2°in a moment, in the temperature range of 150°, 250°C.

12. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the suspension is at the stage (b) is maintained at spontaneously occurring pressure of the heated suspension to prevent boiling of the suspension.

13. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that stage (C) is carried out at a temperature of from 30 to 80°C.

14. The method according to item 13, wherein the suspension from step (b) is cooled to a temperature of 30-80°when the cooling rate is less than 20°C/minute, and 2°per minute, at a time when the temperature of the suspension is within 240-150°C.

15. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it further podslushannyy coal, extracted from stage (C), washed with water to remove excess alkali before carrying out stage (d).

p> 16. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it further podslushannyy coal from step (C) prior to the step (d) is treated to remove sodium aluminosilicates.

17. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that stage (d) comprises mixing coal from step (C) with an acid solution to obtain a suspension having a concentration of coal, which is in the range from 5 to 20 wt.%.

18. The method according to 17, characterized in that the suspension has a concentration of coal about 10 wt.%.

19. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the suspension on the stage (d) contains a mineral acid.

20. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that the mineral acid is a sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid.

21. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the suspension on the stage (d) has a pH that ranges from 0.5 to 1.5.

22. The method according to item 21, wherein the pH of the suspension is about 1.0.

23. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the temperature of the suspension at the stage (d) is in the range from 20 to 90°C.

24. The method according to item 23, wherein the temperature is in the range from 30 to 60°C.

25. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the coal is in contact with the acid solution in stage (d) in those who prolong the period of time, equal to at least 1 min

26. The method according A.25, characterized in that the coal is in contact with the acid solution in stage (d) during the period of time of about 60 minutes

27. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the fraction of coal from step (e) re-suspended in water with the acid and the pH adjusted to a value in the range between 0.5 and 1.0 for an additional period of time greater than 1 min

28. The method according to item 27, wherein the stage of re-suspension of coal is repeated one to four times.

29. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that stage (f) includes mixing the fractions containing coal with a solution of water and an organic solvent selected from ethanol, methanol, propanol or mixtures thereof.

30. The method according to clause 29, wherein the organic solvent is an ethanol.

31. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that in stage (f) coal is mixed with water and a polar organic solvent so that the formed suspension having a solids content of products 10-30 wt.%.

32. The method according to p, characterized in that the suspension has a pH of 1.5 to 2.5.

33. The method according to p, characterized in that in stage (f), the suspension is heated to a temperature of from 240 to 280°C.

34. The method according to p different t is m, what suspension is maintained at elevated temperature during the period of time between 1 minute and 60 minutes

35. The method according to p, characterized in that a suspension of coal/water/polar organic solvent is heated at a heating rate in the range between 2°With a minute and 20°in a minute.

36. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that stage (f) includes a stage of mixing the fractions containing coal, with a solution containing water and an organic acid selected from citric acid, Chloroacetic acid, malonic acid, malic acid or mixtures thereof.

37. The method according to p, wherein the organic acid is a citric acid and a citric acid solution containing between 5 and 20 wt.%, citric acid (hydrous), add the fractions containing coal.

38. The method according to clause 37, wherein the suspension is heated to a temperature in the range between 240°and 280°C.

39. The method according to clause 37, wherein the suspension is heated to a temperature in the range between 150°and 160°C.

40. The method according to § 38 or 39, characterized in that the pressure is maintained at a level sufficient to prevent boiling.

41. The method according to any of p-40, characterized in that the suspension is at an elevated temperature during the period is in the range between 1 minute and 60 minutes

42. The method according to any of PP-41, characterized in that the suspension is heated to high temperatures when the heating rate in the range between 2°With a minute and 20°in a minute.

43. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the coal extracted from the stage (g)and washed with water.

44. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the demineralized coal, extracted from the stage (g), has an ash content of 0.01-0.2 wt.%.

45. The way demineralization of coal, including stage alkaline digestion followed by impregnation with the acid, and in which coal from the stage of impregnation of the acid is subjected to a stage of leaching, in which a fraction containing coal, is mixed with water and a polar organic solvent or with water and an organic acid with the formation of the mixture, which is heated to a temperature of 150-280°under sufficient pressure to prevent boiling, and allocation of coal from a mixture.

46. The method according to clause 29, wherein the temperature in stage (f) is equal to 10°C to ambient temperature.

47. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 44, characterized in that the spent alkaline videocenter from stage (C) process for the regeneration of caustic soda and for the extraction of minerals.

48. The method according to p, characterized in that the spent alkaline Vasilache the ü process, mixing it with one or more compounds of calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide or a mixed oxide or hydroxide of calcium and magnesium derived from dolomite to precipitate the dissolved ions of the silicate and aluminate and obtain soluble sodium hydroxide.

49. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the essentially liquid fraction from step (e) process for the regeneration of the alkaline solution and to extract minerals.

50. The method according to § 49, characterized in that the essentially liquid fraction is mixed with one or more compounds of calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide or a mixed oxide or hydroxide of calcium and magnesium derived from dolomite.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: cleaning of low-grade coal not suited for production of reduced metal by standard carbon-composite method.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of cleaned coal for production of high-quality reduced metal. Coal is first kept in organic solvent simultaneously with heating, thus obtaining cleaned coal suitable for metallurgy which possesses higher thermoplasticity as compared with starting coal. Then, mixture of cleaned coal and starting material is subjected to agglomeration in agglomerator and agglomerate thus obtained is reduced at heating in furnace provided with movable hearth; then, it is molten by further heating, thus obtaining reduced melt which is cooled and hardened in furnace provided with movable hearth, thus obtaining solid material, after which reduced solid material is withdrawn from furnace. Then, slag is removed with the use of screen and reduced metal is extracted.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; improved quality of reduced metal.

21 cl, 9 dwg, 10 tbl, 7 ex

The invention relates to a method of producing regenerated humic acids from coal by sukhoputnaja oxidation using oxygen or oxygen-nitrogen mixtures

FIELD: oil and gas production industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to coke-chemical and blast-furnace operations area. Furnace coke processing method that consists of processing pieces of furnace coke unloaded from coke furnace, slaked and sorted at temperature 20-50°C and placed in shipment hoppers by spraying with 2-20% water solution of borate selection from the range: sodium pyroborate, potassium pyroborate, calcium pyroborate. Water solution of pyroborate of concentration required for coke processing is prepared by simple mixing in process vessel of calculated weight of pyroborate and water. The volume of finished solution used for processing shall ensure that amount of dry pyroborate in coke corresponds 0.05-0.5% (weight) in terms of coke. Calculated volume of solution to surface of coke pieces is applied by spraying through nozzles with use of pump.

EFFECT: improved strength of coke after reaction and reduced reactivity.

2 tbl, 14 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.

EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.

57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to compositions for producing a granulated fuel for pyrolysis on the base of peat with modified additives and can be used in minor energetics and housing and communal services. The invention facilitates efficiency of the granulated fuel for pyrolysis. The assigned task and the said technical result are achieved by means of the fuel containing peat as an organic filling material and aluminium silicate material as a modifying additive at a following composition of elements, mas.%: aluminium silicate material 2-30% and peat 70-98. Granules can be made from 5 to 30 mm size by the method of balling on various types of granulators. A betonite clay, clay marl, Cambrian clay, kaolin clay, synthetic zeolite H-Beta-25 or synthetic zeolite H-MORD can be used as an aluminium silicate material.

EFFECT: increased combustion value of the fuel facilitating its efficient implementation at low temperature pyrolisis.

9 cl, 9 ex, 2 dwg, 10 tbl

FIELD: cleaning of low-grade coal not suited for production of reduced metal by standard carbon-composite method.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of cleaned coal for production of high-quality reduced metal. Coal is first kept in organic solvent simultaneously with heating, thus obtaining cleaned coal suitable for metallurgy which possesses higher thermoplasticity as compared with starting coal. Then, mixture of cleaned coal and starting material is subjected to agglomeration in agglomerator and agglomerate thus obtained is reduced at heating in furnace provided with movable hearth; then, it is molten by further heating, thus obtaining reduced melt which is cooled and hardened in furnace provided with movable hearth, thus obtaining solid material, after which reduced solid material is withdrawn from furnace. Then, slag is removed with the use of screen and reduced metal is extracted.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; improved quality of reduced metal.

21 cl, 9 dwg, 10 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: power-supply processes and equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises providing furnace having combustion chamber, wherein coal is combusted in presence of oxygen, supplying coal and metal-containing combustion catalyst to combustion chamber, and supplying oxygen to combustion chamber in amounts reduced relative to those required in absence of metal-containing combustion catalyst, which reduced amounts of supplied oxygen constituting up to 50% of the amount of oxygen above its stoichiometric amount.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of oxygen without losses in thermal efficiency and burning stability.

9 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: treatment of coal for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions during burning of coal.

SUBSTANCE: coal at high content of sulfur is placed in low-pressure medium for cracking of part of coal by extraction of atmospheric fluids entrapped in coal. Then cracked coal is brought in contact with aqueous composition of colloidal silicon oxide oversaturated with calcium carbonate and larger part of aqueous composition is brought out of contact with coal, after which coal is acted on by high pressure in carbon dioxide medium during period of time sufficient for penetration of calcium carbide into cracks in coal. Description is also given for coal cracked in vacuum which contains about 0.5 wt-% of sulfur and additionally contains calcium carbonate deposited in cracks in coal in the amount sufficient for obtaining Ca:S molar ratio equal to at least 0.5. Specification contains also description of obtaining energy in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur at simultaneous reduction of sulfur dioxide in emissions. Specification contains also description of increase of calcium sulfate obtained in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur and aqueous composition used for treatment of such coal. Specification contains also description of preparation of aqueous composition for treatment of coal at high content of sulfur in combustion products. Description is also given for device for treatment of coal at pressure.

EFFECT: considerable reduction of sulfur dioxide and other toxic gases formed during burning of coal.

25 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex

Cooker // 2280213

FIELD: domestic cookers to be used in tourism, hunting, in homes and working under field conditions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cooker has body made from combustible material which may be used both as fuel and device for its burning. This body is provided with at least two intersecting vertical slotted passages having common line of intersection inside body which is close to center of its upper base. Length, width and height of vertical slotted passages is dictated by possibility of continuous burning of inner surfaces of body forming vertical slotted passages; burning-out of device accompanied by forming of supports for cooking reservoir.

EFFECT: simplified construction; reduced consumption of labor; avoidance of preparation of fuel.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: methods of simultaneous reduction of forming NOx, CO and carbon at combustion of fuel containing coal by addition of effective amount of manganese compound.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes combining coal and additive with manganese-containing compound for forming their mixture which is burnt in combustion chamber. Manganese-containing compound is present in effective amount for reduction of NOx, CO and carbon formed in the course of combustion of coal in combustion chamber in fly ash. Provision is also made for additive for coal at reduction of amount of carbon and NOx formed in the course of combustion of coal. Additive contains manganese compound which is added to coal in the amount of from 1 to 500 parts/min. Proposed method includes also stabilization of combustion of coal in presence of manganese-containing additive. Amount of carbon and NOx in fly ash is reduced relative to their amounts obtained at combustion of coal at absence of manganese-containing additive.

EFFECT: improved combustion of coal at simultaneous reduction of NOx, CO and carbon in fly ash.

21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: briquetting brown coal in regions remote from consumer.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with binder and molding. Coal is mixed with binder at pyrolysis of coal fines and "chocolate"-shaped plates are molded in between polymer films.

EFFECT: reduced wear of briquettes in transit; reduced consumption of binder.

FIELD: metallurgy, oil refining industry and coke-chemical industry; calcining of carbon-bearing materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of calcined carbon-bearing materials, in particular, to production of graphitized electrodes and anodic mass and may be used in metallurgical, oil refining, coke-chemical industries. A method of calcinations of the carbon-bearing materials provides for a preliminary heating of materials. Simultaneously with the process of calcination they conduct preheating of the material in a heater in the mode of a counter-flow of heat produced during reburning of a waste gas generated during calcination of the carbon-bearing material. The preliminary heating of the material preferably should be realized at the temperatures not exceeding 350-400°С. The invention allows to increase the furnace performance by 20% and to reduce a specific consumption of fuel by 50%.

EFFECT: the invention ensures significant increase of the furnace productivity and high reduction a specific consumption of the fuel.

2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy, oil refining industry and coke-chemical industry; calcining of carbon-bearing materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of calcined carbon-bearing materials, in particular, to production of graphitized electrodes and anodic mass and may be used in metallurgical, oil refining, coke-chemical industries. A method of calcinations of the carbon-bearing materials provides for a preliminary heating of materials. Simultaneously with the process of calcination they conduct preheating of the material in a heater in the mode of a counter-flow of heat produced during reburning of a waste gas generated during calcination of the carbon-bearing material. The preliminary heating of the material preferably should be realized at the temperatures not exceeding 350-400°С. The invention allows to increase the furnace performance by 20% and to reduce a specific consumption of fuel by 50%.

EFFECT: the invention ensures significant increase of the furnace productivity and high reduction a specific consumption of the fuel.

2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: briquetting brown coal in regions remote from consumer.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with binder and molding. Coal is mixed with binder at pyrolysis of coal fines and "chocolate"-shaped plates are molded in between polymer films.

EFFECT: reduced wear of briquettes in transit; reduced consumption of binder.

FIELD: methods of simultaneous reduction of forming NOx, CO and carbon at combustion of fuel containing coal by addition of effective amount of manganese compound.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes combining coal and additive with manganese-containing compound for forming their mixture which is burnt in combustion chamber. Manganese-containing compound is present in effective amount for reduction of NOx, CO and carbon formed in the course of combustion of coal in combustion chamber in fly ash. Provision is also made for additive for coal at reduction of amount of carbon and NOx formed in the course of combustion of coal. Additive contains manganese compound which is added to coal in the amount of from 1 to 500 parts/min. Proposed method includes also stabilization of combustion of coal in presence of manganese-containing additive. Amount of carbon and NOx in fly ash is reduced relative to their amounts obtained at combustion of coal at absence of manganese-containing additive.

EFFECT: improved combustion of coal at simultaneous reduction of NOx, CO and carbon in fly ash.

21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

Cooker // 2280213

FIELD: domestic cookers to be used in tourism, hunting, in homes and working under field conditions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cooker has body made from combustible material which may be used both as fuel and device for its burning. This body is provided with at least two intersecting vertical slotted passages having common line of intersection inside body which is close to center of its upper base. Length, width and height of vertical slotted passages is dictated by possibility of continuous burning of inner surfaces of body forming vertical slotted passages; burning-out of device accompanied by forming of supports for cooking reservoir.

EFFECT: simplified construction; reduced consumption of labor; avoidance of preparation of fuel.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: treatment of coal for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions during burning of coal.

SUBSTANCE: coal at high content of sulfur is placed in low-pressure medium for cracking of part of coal by extraction of atmospheric fluids entrapped in coal. Then cracked coal is brought in contact with aqueous composition of colloidal silicon oxide oversaturated with calcium carbonate and larger part of aqueous composition is brought out of contact with coal, after which coal is acted on by high pressure in carbon dioxide medium during period of time sufficient for penetration of calcium carbide into cracks in coal. Description is also given for coal cracked in vacuum which contains about 0.5 wt-% of sulfur and additionally contains calcium carbonate deposited in cracks in coal in the amount sufficient for obtaining Ca:S molar ratio equal to at least 0.5. Specification contains also description of obtaining energy in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur at simultaneous reduction of sulfur dioxide in emissions. Specification contains also description of increase of calcium sulfate obtained in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur and aqueous composition used for treatment of such coal. Specification contains also description of preparation of aqueous composition for treatment of coal at high content of sulfur in combustion products. Description is also given for device for treatment of coal at pressure.

EFFECT: considerable reduction of sulfur dioxide and other toxic gases formed during burning of coal.

25 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: power-supply processes and equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises providing furnace having combustion chamber, wherein coal is combusted in presence of oxygen, supplying coal and metal-containing combustion catalyst to combustion chamber, and supplying oxygen to combustion chamber in amounts reduced relative to those required in absence of metal-containing combustion catalyst, which reduced amounts of supplied oxygen constituting up to 50% of the amount of oxygen above its stoichiometric amount.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of oxygen without losses in thermal efficiency and burning stability.

9 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: cleaning of low-grade coal not suited for production of reduced metal by standard carbon-composite method.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of cleaned coal for production of high-quality reduced metal. Coal is first kept in organic solvent simultaneously with heating, thus obtaining cleaned coal suitable for metallurgy which possesses higher thermoplasticity as compared with starting coal. Then, mixture of cleaned coal and starting material is subjected to agglomeration in agglomerator and agglomerate thus obtained is reduced at heating in furnace provided with movable hearth; then, it is molten by further heating, thus obtaining reduced melt which is cooled and hardened in furnace provided with movable hearth, thus obtaining solid material, after which reduced solid material is withdrawn from furnace. Then, slag is removed with the use of screen and reduced metal is extracted.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; improved quality of reduced metal.

21 cl, 9 dwg, 10 tbl, 7 ex

Up!