Method of obtaining jewellery personificated diamond

FIELD: chemistry, technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention allows to obtain memorial diamond from pale-yellow to light-blue tint depending on content of admixture in it, which is identified with exact person and is an object, which reminds of him/her. Method includes processing of biological material belonging to exact individual, and growing on its basis artificial diamond by acting on it with high pressures and temperatures. Processing is performed by mechanical grinding, preliminary drying, chemical processing in hydrochloric acid, chemical processing with complex-former Trilon-B, chemical processing with mixture of mineral acids - hydrofluoric and nitric or sulfuric acids, repeated washing after each chemical processing with said reagents to neutral reaction, filtration and drying until pure highly-dispersive carbon of biological origin is obtained.

EFFECT: obtaining carbon of high purity with characteristic microelements for exact individual.

6 cl, 3 tbl

 

The invention is intended to obtain a memorial diamond (from pale yellow to blue shades depending on the contained impurities), which is identified with a specific person and is the subject of memory about it.

The invention is intended for use in the jewelry industry.

Currently, in chemistry there are several ways to highlight fine sooty carbon "loose" modification of natural carbon-containing substances, which is the basis for artificial diamond.

It is possible to select carbon of these substances in quantities of not less than 90% (this contains carbon tenths H2entire interest chemisorbed O2and from hundredths to tenths of mineral admixtures), which is clearly not sufficient to produce synthetic diamond.

The known method [1] processing diamondiferous ore concentrates, including loading, chemical enrichment of the concentrate by heating in alkali or their mixtures, cleaning product with water and acid, drying and unloading of the target product. The chemical enrichment of lead by single or multiple processing in acid and then alkali at a temperature (900-1000)°With inert gas. Processing in acids is carried out at a temperature (50-150)°C. as the acid I use is one of the possible: salt, sulphuric, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid or their mixture.

Also known method [2] polycrystalline diamond, including the impact on the carbon material of ultrahigh pressure when heated in the region of thermodynamic stability of diamond.

The carbon material used in this way, pre-ground, divide fractions and purified from impurities by acid solutions: boiling chlorine (30-70)% 10-20 hours; the mixture of salt (density 1.19 g/cm3), nitrogen (density of 1.40 g/cm3) and distilled water in the ratio 1:1:1 by volume within 2-4 hours; hydrofluoric acid (40%) for 1-2 hours, then washed with boiling distilled water with three times its replacement for 0.5 hours and dried for 10-20 hours at a temperature (100-120)°C.

The closest goals is the way [3], including the formation of the source for the growth of diamond from spectral pure graphite and treatment product hair containing heavy metals Sr, Cd, Sn, Ba, Pb, Bi.

Diamond is grown from the melt by the recrystallization of the seed. Determine the ratio of the concentrations of these elements in the grown diamond and compare their content in the product processing.

Personalized grown diamond jewelry contains selected from the hair of a specific person or animal heavy m is of Tallaght Sr, Cd, Sn, Ba, Pb, Bi, the ratio of concentrations which correspond to the ratios of the concentrations of these elements in hair of this person or animal. The invention also presents a method of obtaining personalized diamond jewelry, including hair treatment specific person or animal by mineralization of the hair at a temperature not exceeding 550°until complete decomposition of the organic components, the formation of the source for the growth of diamond from spectral pure graphite and treatment product hair containing heavy metals Sr, Cd, Sn, Ba, Pb, Bi, growing diamond from the melt by the recrystallization of the seed, determining the ratio of the concentrations of these elements in the grown diamond and comparing them with the contents in the product processing.

The main distinguishing feature of the claimed method is that the authors refused a known schema extraction of carbon from biological material and reduced the time for removing carbon and filtering the solution from which it is extracted.

The difference between the claimed invention (method) is that the carbon source for the growth of diamond is formed only from the provided biological material without the addition of spectral pure graphite or carbon nanometric sizes.

Thus, the schema and the elements used when the floor is the significance of the diamond miscellaneous: in the well-known inventions are the products of mineralization containing heavy elements in the claimed - carbon of biological origin.

The technical result consists in obtaining source material - carbon purity (99.9 percent) of the presented biological material belonging to a specific individual, obtaining personalized jewelry diamond.

The problem is solved by extracting pure carbon by purification of biological material (hair, skin, combustion products) from all inorganic impurities to almost pure carbon (99,9%). This dedicated carbon and used in the future for growing diamond. Thus obtained diamond contains all elements that are specific to the individual.

The technical result is achieved by the method of obtaining jewelry personalized diamond, including the processing of biological material belonging to a specific individual, and cultivation on the basis of artificial diamond by exposure to high pressures and temperatures, the treatment is carried out by mechanical grinding, pre-drying, chemical treatment in hydrochloric acid, chemical processing complexing agents - Trilon B, chemical treatment with a mixture of mineral acids - plavix is howling and the nitrogen or sulfur, reusable by washing after each chemical treatment of these reagents to neutral reaction, filtration and drying to obtain pure superfine carbon of biological origin. Mechanical grinding of the biological material is carried to abrasion particles less than 500 microns for 10-15 minutes Pre-drying is carried out at a temperature of 300°C for 40 minutes. Chemical treatment with hydrochloric acid is carried out at the ratio of the processed material and reagent 1:1 by volume by boiling. The processing of complexing agents is carried out at the ratio of the processed material and reagent 1:3 by volume boiling and subsequent sedimentation. Chemical treatment with a mixture of mineral acids is carried out at the ratio of the processed material and reagent 1:2 by volume boiling in a glassy carbon ware with mandatory mixing.

Pure superfine carbon is produced by processing the original biological material, including a preliminary grinding and heat treatment is further cleaned of salts of iron and calcium and other impurities such as tin and aluminum, using the following techniques (extraction, precipitation, filtration, etc.). The degree of purification of the material will depend on the shade obtained is of lasa. For example, impurities of nitrogen to give the diamond is dull yellow tint, and an impurity of boron - blue.

Table 1 shows the main content of the impurities in the source biological material*.

Table 1.
The symbol of the elementImpurities
PMnMgFeNaCuZnPbCAToSi
Content in wt.%˜10·10-1˜1·10-3˜1·10-3˜1·10-3˜1·10-2˜1·10-3˜1·10-3˜1·10-3>10˜1·10-1˜1·10-2
* data semiquantitative spectral emission analysis.

Processing of biological material, which is identified with a specific individual, carried out as follows.

Presents biological material sieved through a 1000 micron sieve to remove mechanical impurities and dirt, crushed to particles less than 500 microns by East is Rania for 10-15 minutes in order to obtain a homogeneous mass and partial to the increased surface area for more complete extraction of carbon. The particle size less than 500 microns due to the fact that larger particles, more than 500 μm, require prolonged and repeated treatment with acid, which significantly lengthens the process in time. Minor abrasion, less than 10 minutes, possibly incomplete autopsy samples. With long-term abrasion material, more than 15 minutes, there is a remarkable aggregation of particles, which is also highly undesirable.

Known [4] additional processing of the biomaterial in the furnace of tammana in terms inert environment at a temperature of 800°and above leads to a significant loss of carbon in the source material. This procedure has replaced the conventional drying material in a drying Cabinet at T=300°in continuation of 40 minutes, This temperature allows you to remove the low-temperature impurity oxygen, hydrogen, etc. without chemical decomposition. At a higher temperature and shorter time begins burnout of carbon that is undesirable at lower temperatures and less time possible incomplete removal of gaseous impurities. More than 40 min unprofitable.

All parameters of mechanical and thermal treatments are chosen experimentally specifically for the biological material.

Further, the biomaterial is treated with concentrated hydrochloric acid in a volume ratio of 1:1 for a more complete extra the financing of carbon and boil. The ratio of acid and solvent enough to start a chemical reaction (with a smaller ratio of the chemical reaction does not take place before the end, with a larger proportion of the process extended in time). The formation of soluble salts. Suspension is precipitated, removed as much as possible the liquid part (i.e. the solution), and the residue is again treated with the same acid (the process can be performed using various inorganic acids such as nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and others). Carefully decanted several times with distilled water until neutral. This step allows you to bring the carbon content in the source material up to 90-95%.

Next, perform a processing material complexing agents to remove impurities of iron and calcium. The obtained residue (suspended) biomaterial pour complexing agents (Trilon B or any other linking cations of iron and calcium) in the ratio 1:3 by volume. An excess of complexing agents allows the most complete removal of undesirable elements in one step. If the above ratio is lower, this will entail repeated processing of the material.

The mixture is heated to boiling and defend. Formed stable water-soluble complexes of iron and calcium. The liquid part was removed, and the residue carefully Ave is myauth several times with distilled water until neutral.

The next stage is conducted strictly in a glassy carbon ware (type SU-2000, chemically inert to aggressive environments). This avoids the introduction of silicon in the material being processed. Process the remaining residue with a mixture of concentrated mineral acids: hydrofluoric, nitric, sulfuric, etc. at the rate of 1:2 by volume. This concentration is sufficient, since one part of the material has two parts acid. Practice has shown that increasing the concentration of the acid does not increase the yield of the final product, but only increases the consumption of materials, which is economically disadvantageous. At lower concentrations the process is delayed in time and requires several iterations. Boiling spend on low heat with periodic stirring of the contents of a glassy carbon crucible with a stirrer. Again, carefully decanted with distilled water until neutral, filtered.

Such filtering suspended solids from reusable processing the mixture of acids allows for a small period of time to obtain fine sediment, in which the carbon content is not less than 99.9%. The precipitate carefully collected and dried at room temperature.

The quality of the resulting powder was tested for the presence of impurities of various instrumental methods - atomic emission, roentgenologic entnum, X-method.

Existing traditional concepts for the synthesis of superhard modifications of carbon required high pressure and temperature. Further from the obtained carbon was grown diamond on the standard equipment in the presence of a catalyst at high temperatures and pressures [5].

Thus, the extraction of pure carbon from the biomaterial is achieved based on the conditions of preparation of this material, production methods, relevant chemical reactions occurring in solution during the extraction of carbon.

The resulting material is almost pure carbon, with minor content of N2and traces characteristic of the source of biological material.

The data of the treated material are shown in table 2.

Table 2
The symbol of the elementPMnMgNaCAToSi
The impurity content in wt.%*˜1,0·10-5˜1,9·10-5˜3,0·10-6˜1,0·10-5˜1,5·10-5˜1,7·10-5˜2,0·10-6
* The gas content of impurities was not determined

Examples of specific implementations of the method of obtaining jewelry personalized diamond allow a better understanding of the proposed solution.

Examples describing the essence of the technical solutions for the extraction of carbon, are shown in table 3.

Examples # 1 and # 5 are outside the scope of the proposed technical solutions. Example No. 6 performed by the technological method prototype.

Table 3

The processing parameters of the biological material and its final properties
# exampleAbrasionPre -

drying
The ratio of reagent and obrabecim. materialThe ratio calculation and obrabecim. materialThe ratio calculation and obrabecim. materialThe carbon content in the target biological material, wt.%
particle size (µm)time (min)time (min)t °CUsed hydrochloric acid, % by volumeUsed complexones. - Trilon B, % by volumeUsed a mixture of mineral is the slot hydrofluoric and nitric or sulfuric, % by volume
1>5005302001:0,51:21:190,0
2<50010403001:11:31:299,9
3<50012403001:11:31:299,9
4<50015403001:11:31:299,9
5>50020504001:21:41:393,0
6the placeholder--500---90,0

Growing diamond of pure 99.9% of the carbon of biological origin obtained in examples No. 2, 3, 4, were performed in the chamber from a source of carbon, surrounded by iron-containing catalyst, increases the diamond, it is necessary to maintain a pressure of 50 thousand atmospheres and a temperature of 1300 degrees Celsius.

Got a clean glass diamond jewelry quality with platnost the Yu 3.50 g/cm 3, hardness 10, and a refractive index of 2.45.

The purity of the diamond is determined by atomic emission spectral method, the rate of hardness was determined by the Mohs scale, density was determined by hydrostatic method, the refractive index was calculated by the Fresnel formula.

An advantage of the claimed invention (method) in comparison with the known methods is the following:

The invention (method) allows you to refuse the use of several intermediate steps in the purification of biological material for the purpose of extraction of pure carbon, which reduces the cost of the final product. By the present invention using a dedicated carbon fine "active" state.

- There is no need to use complex and expensive equipment and complex tooling.

- Small power consumption.

- Low operating costs.

- Provided environmental cleanliness

The list of used literature

1. Patent No. 2286945 EN, CL. SW 31/06 from 10.11 2006.

2. Patent No. 1775357 SU, CL. SW 31/06 from 15.11 1992.

3. Patent No. 2282584 EN, CL. SW 31/06 from 10.11 2006.

4. Patent No. 2223220 EN, CL. SW 31/06 from 01.11 2000.

5. US 2003017932 A1, 23.01.03.

1. The method of obtaining jewelry personalized diamond, including the processing of biological material belonging to a particular individual is uumu, and cultivation on the basis of artificial diamond by exposure to high pressures and temperatures, wherein the treatment is carried out by mechanical grinding, pre-drying, chemical treatment in hydrochloric acid, chemical processing complexing agents - Trilon B, chemical treatment with a mixture of mineral acid - hydrofluoric and nitric or sulfuric, reusable cleaning after each chemical treatment of these reagents to neutral reaction, filtration and drying to obtain pure superfine carbon of biological origin.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mechanical grinding of the biological material is carried to abrasion particles less than 500 microns for 10-15 minutes

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the preliminary drying is carried out at a temperature of 300°C for 40 minutes

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the chemical treatment with nitric acid is carried out at the ratio of the processed material and the reagent is 1:1, by boiling.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the processing of complexing agents is carried out at the ratio of the processed material and reagent equal to 1:3, by boiling, followed by settling.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the chemical treatment with a mixture of eve is lnyh acids is carried out at the ratio of the processed material and the reagent, equal to 1:2, by boiling in a glassy carbon ware with mandatory mixing.



 

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