Quadrature photo-receiving device

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to optoelectronics and interferometry and intended for measurement of spatial distribution of light intensity in interference field formed by counter luminous fluxes. Quadrature photo-receiving device contains photodetector including four interferentially sensitive photoelectric element, two of which are reference ones. Difference of optical distances from the first photoelectric element to the plane that is perpendicular to measured luminous flux and that limits optically distant surface of photodetector for the first photoelectric element and from i-photoelectric element to this plane is calculated from the proposed formula, signals from odd photoelectric elements of photodetector being supplied to appropriate inlets of the first differential amplifier, and signals from even photoelectric elements of photodetector to appropriate inlets of the second differential amplifier.

EFFECT: increase in ratio signal/noise of quadrature photodetector, reduction of interference caused by permanent component of luminous flux (rather than by interferential component), reduction of interference caused by interferential component of luminous flux on lengths of waves that are different from length of registered radiation wave.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to optoelectronics and interferometry is to measure the spatial distribution of light intensity in the interference field formed by the opposing light waves.

Known photodetector [EN 2243615]. However, the known sensor has the following disadvantages: this sensor cannot register the quadrature signals in the interference field formed by the opposing light flows.

Known quadrature photodetector [US 4443107]containing a photodetector, comprising three detectors, two of which - interferenceand-sensitive photoelectric elements, and the third reference, two differential amplifier, one input of each of which is fed the signal from the reference detector of a sensor, and each second input of the amplifier the signal from the corresponding interferention-sensitive element of the photodetector [US 4443107 - 7].

This device is a prototype of the invention.

However, this device has the following disadvantages:

a) when the subtraction signal interferention-sensitive solar cell and the reference detector is a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio. The reference detector is used to compensate for the constant "dark" current. Therefore, he has a "dark" current equal to "Temnov the mu current interferention-sensitive photocell. "Dark" current is the main source of noise of any detector. The output of the differential amplifier ratio signal/noise is reduced because thermal noise interferention-sensitive solar cell and the reference detector are weakly correlated and are not deducted and are added together and the signal due to the reference detector is not added because it never registers the light.

b) because the detector does not register the light, then there is no compensation for the interference caused by the constant component of the luminous flux (not the interference component).

in the photoreceiver has no selectivity for the wavelength to the interference light signal.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the signal-to-noise quadrature photodetector, reducing interference caused constant component of the luminous flux (not the interference component), the reduction of interference caused by the interference component of the light flux at wavelengths that are not multiples of the wavelength of the detected radiation.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in quadrature photodetector device containing a photodetector, comprising three detectors, two of which - interferenceand-sensitive photoelectric elements, and the third reference, two differential amplifier, n is one input of each of which is fed the signal from the reference detector of a sensor, and each second input of the amplifier the signal from the corresponding interferention-sensitive element of the photodetector, it is new that the photodetector has four interferention sensitive photoelectric cells, two of which are reference, and the difference of optical distances from the first photovoltaic element to the plane perpendicular to the measured luminous flux and optical limiting far for the first photovoltaic element surface of the photodetector, and from the i-th photoelectric element to this plane is equal to

where

λ the wavelength of the detected radiation;

i=2, 3, 4 is the number of the photovoltaic element;

ki- any integers,

the signals from the odd-numbered photoelectric elements of the photodetector serves to corresponding inputs of a first differential amplifier, and the signals from the even-numbered photoelectric elements of the photodetector to corresponding inputs of the second differential amplifier.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the structural diagram of the quadrature photodetector device. Figure 2 shows a photograph of the vacuum quadrature photodetector, which are an example of performing quadrature fotopriemnik the and. Figure 3 shows the schematic drawing of the cathode box with the cathodes of the vacuum quadrature photodetector. 4 shows an interferometer, which employs vacuum quadrature photodetector. Figure 5 shows the graphs of dependences of stress from time obtained when working quadrature photodetector in the composition of the interferometer.

Quadrature photodetector operates as follows. Interferention-sensitive photoelectric elements 1, 2, 3, 4 sensor 5 (Fig 1) are in the interference field formed by opposing coherent light flows S1and S2with planar wave fronts parallel to the photosensitive elements. A luminous flux of S1may be a luminous flux of S2that passes through the photodetector 5 and reflected from the flat mirror.

The first photoelectric element is located at an optical distance from a plane perpendicular to the measured luminous flux and optical limiting far for the first photovoltaic element surface of the photodetector, is equal to l1optand each i-th photoelectric element is located at an optical distance from this plane, is equal to

.

The signals from the odd-numbered photoelectric elements are received at the inputs of differential the territorial amplifier 6, and even to the inputs of the differential amplifier 7.

Counter luminous flux of S1and S2form an interference field, the intensity of which varies along the direction of propagation of sinusoidal with a period equal to λ/2.

In uniform motion relative to each other along the direction of propagation of light beams, the photodetector and the interference field at the outputs of the photodetector are formed four sinusoidal signal. If you take the phase shift of the signal formed by the first photovoltaic element, zero, the remaining three signals of the photodetector have a phase shift ϕ2=2k1π+π/2, ϕ3=2k2π+π, ϕ4=2k3π+π+π/2.

The outputs of the differential amplifiers 6 and 7 are formed signals Sϕ=0and Sϕ=π/2which have a mutual phase shift π/2. The inputs of the differential amplifier receives signals in which the interference component at the wavelength of the detected radiation is out of phase, i.e. at the output of the differential amplifier is a signal in which the interference component at the wavelength of the detected radiation is formed, and the constant components formed through reinterpreting component (what amnuay current, the backlight) is deducted. Because each interferention-sensitive photoelectric element gives the contribution to the signal is proportional to its effective volume reduction of the signal-to-noise does not occur, compared with the ratio signal/noise, obtained from a single photovoltaic element doubled the effective volume. [Alexander A. Ivanenko, Nick P.Shestakov, Anatoly M.Sysoev, Vasily F.Shabanov, "New photodetector - meter of the correlation function of optical signals", Proceeding of the SCI-2003, V.10, pp.124-129].

Attenuated and the interference component at wavelengths different from the wavelength of the detected radiation, in which the phase difference of the signals at the inputs of the differential amplifiers is different from 180° [Alexander A. Ivanenko, Vasily F. Shabanov, Anatoly M. Sysoev, Nikolay P. Shestakov, Interference sensitive selective photodetector. Proceedings of SPIE/Ukraine Volume 6, No.1-6, p.480-488, 2006. (Current Research in Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from the International Conference on Advanced Optoelectronics &Lasers (2005))]. I.e. doubling of the signals at these wavelengths does not occur, in contrast to signals on the wavelength of the detected radiation.

On this principle was developed vacuum quadrature photodetector 2 is on the external photoelectric effect. The cathode box 3 the photodetector contains: 1, 2, 3, 4 - electrodes photocathodes, 5, 6, 7, 8 - photocathodes, 9 - layer MgF2optical thickness λ/8, 10 - layer MgF2optical thickness λ/4, 11 - layer MgF2the optical thickness of 3λ/8.

Vacuum the quadrature sensor was tested in the interferometer 4. The beam of a helium-neon laser 1 passes through the vacuum quadrature photodetector 2, falls on the mirror 3 fixed to the piezoelectric element 4, and then is reflected and again passes through the photodetector 2. Between the mirror and the laser is formed a standing light wave with a sinusoidal intensity distribution along the propagation rays.

Figure 5 shows the graphs of dependences of stress from time to time, received at this facility. Figure 1 shows the dependence of the voltage on the piezoelectric element of time, which has a triangular shape. According 2-5 signals at the inputs of the differential amplifiers are about 2 times smaller amplitude than the quadrature signals 6, 7 on the outputs of the differential amplifiers.

Quadrature photodetector capable of measuring displacements with respect to the direction of movement, with high resolution. The device is intended for interferometers with a counter direction of the rays in the registration.

The work was supported by INTAS Ref. No. 04-80-6791.

Quadrature photodetector containing a photodetector, comprising three detectors, two of which - interferenceand-sensitive photoelectric elements, and a third anchor, two differential amplifier, one input of each of which the signal from a reference photo detector is a receiver, and each second input of the amplifier the signal from the corresponding interferention-sensitive element of the photodetector, wherein the photodetector has four interferention-sensitive photoelectric cells, two of which are reference, and the difference of optical distances from the first photovoltaic element to the plane perpendicular to the measured luminous flux and optical limiting far for the first photovoltaic element surface of the photodetector and from the i-th photoelectric element to this plane, is equal to

,

where λ the wavelength of the detected radiation;

i=2, 3, 4 is the number of the photovoltaic element;

ki- any integers, while the signals from the odd-numbered photoelectric elements of the photodetector serves to corresponding inputs of a first differential amplifier, and the signals from the even-numbered photoelectric elements of the photodetector to corresponding inputs of the second differential amplifier.



 

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