Plant (versions), method of procession of carbon-containing materials and processed coal

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.

EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.

57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates mainly to a method of improving quality through thermal treatment of carbonaceous materials, such as sub-bituminous fatty coal or brown fat coal (lignite), peat or biofuels of different composition. More specifically the invention relates to improving the quality of carbonaceous materials using heat treatment method of direct contact with the heat medium and the removal of material moisture, such as hot water.

The level of technology

Patent US 5071447 in the name of Koppelman provides a method and equipment for processing carbonaceous materials of hot steam. The system proposed in patent US 5071447 involves the injection of water vapor in the upper part of the technological device.

Patent US 5769908 in the name of Koppelman offers processing of carbonaceous materials by injection of inert gas in the carbon-containing material in a vacuum or injection of water vapor in the carbon-containing material with or without using a vacuum, the parameters of which are controlled for more accurate processing of the mass of carbon-containing material.

Although the presently known methods of processing of carbonaceous materials proposed titrovannam above patents of Koppelman, has led to significant progress in this field of technology and helped to solve a number of technological problems associated with the heat treatment of such carbonaceous materials such as coal, in practice there is still a need to develop technologies that are guaranteed to reach the same final temperature of all surfaces of the mass of carbon-containing material, to minimize the amount of residual moisture in dried material and more efficiently removed from the carbonaceous material adverse impurities.

Disclosure of inventions

To achieve the objectives of the proposed installation for processing carbonaceous materials containing a technological device that has a camera download portions of material, the input device for the transfer of material into the chamber and an output device for discharging material from the chamber, at least one inlet device for the heat environment installed with the possibility of connection with the source of the heat medium, which is the means for supplying the heat medium under pressure into the technological apparatus for direct contact with the material, at least one discharge device connecting process unit with hydraulic system for draining water, at least one separator having a CL of the main device, United with at least one device for the removal of water from the process apparatus and which means separation of liquid and particulate material. When the heat medium may be a saturated steam or superheated steam.

In one embodiment, the installation further comprises a group of inlet devices for the heat environment, running the length of the technological apparatus. In the following embodiment, the installation further comprises a group of discharge devices for fluid along the length of the technological device.

In addition, the installation may further comprise a group of separators for separating liquid and solid material particles located inside the drying chamber. In fact, at least one separator may contain at least one rotating perforated table, located in a processing unit to perform a direct flow of liquid through the perforations in the tank for collecting liquid, which is connected with a drain device, and the moving direction of the material radially to the walls of the technological apparatus. In another preferred embodiment, at least one separator contains at least one perforated pipe positioned along at least part of the drying ka is a career between the input and output devices, moreover, the hollow space of the at least one pipe is connected with a drain device for liquids. In the following embodiment, at least one separator may contain at least one perforated cone coaxial with the chamber and having a vertex directed toward the input device, and a base attached to the walls of the chamber, and the hollow space of the at least one cone is connected with a reservoir for collecting fluid, which, in turn, is connected to a drain device for liquids. Preferably, at least one separator contains at least one truncated cone with perforated walls extending from the walls of the chamber toward the output device and ending with the hole, covering the vertical axis of the chamber, and the annular sump for collecting liquid located between the perforated wall of the cone and the wall of the chamber. In one variant embodiment of the installation further comprises at least one input rotary hopper having an input device receiving carbonaceous materials, and the output device, coupled with the login process apparatus, at least one output rotary hopper having an input device that is connected to the output of the technological device, and output device unloading clicks the spent carbonaceous material in a means of further storage. The installation may also optionally contain at least one inlet device in the camera technological device for gas installed with the possibility of connection with a source gas containing reactive oxygen. In fact, at least one inlet device for the heat medium may be mounted for connection with a source gas containing reactive oxygen. In the following embodiment, the installation further comprises at least one ventilation window in a processing unit installed with the possibility of selective removal of gases from the chamber technological device. The installation may also optionally contain an element of indirect heat exchange, located at a selected location inside the chamber technological device with indirect heating at least part of the loaded material. The installation may further comprise a system rehydration connected with the output device receiving the dehydrated material with the possibility of adding to the material moisture in a predetermined amount.

In addition, it offers an alternative installation for processing carbonaceous materials containing predominantly vertically oriented technological device that has an input device, the RA is put in the upper part of the apparatus, output device located in the lower part of the machine, and a camera for receiving portions of the material extending from the input device to the output device, the group of inlet devices for the heat protection, installed on the possibility of connecting with the source of the heat medium and which is the means for supplying the heat medium under pressure into the chamber technological device for direct contact with the material, the group of drain valves for liquids, a group of ventilation ducts in a processing unit, group separators, while the inlet for the heat environment are located in predetermined locations between the upper and lower parts of the apparatus, the group of drain valves for liquids is pre - certain places between the upper and lower parts of the apparatus with camera connection technological device with the hydraulic system to remove fluid, the group of ventilation ducts located in predetermined locations between the upper and lower parts of the technological apparatus with selective removal of gases from the chamber technological device, and group separators located in pre-defined locations inside the camera with the possibility of separation of water and particulate material, being the m each separator has a reservoir for collecting fluid, connected to at least one of the discharge devices. In one of the embodiments of this installation location of ventilation ducts in a processing unit is pre-defined with the possibility of removal from the upper part of the chamber technological apparatus of lighter-than-water non-condensable products of the vapor formed in the chamber technological device, and removed from the lower part of the technological apparatus heavier-than-water non-condensable vapors generated in the chamber technological device. In another embodiment, the location of the inlets to the heat medium is predefined by enabling rapid heating up to a predetermined working temperature of feed material supplied to the input device technological device, and a rapid transition in the state of the pair of free moisture on the surfaces of the loaded material before exiting technological device. Preferably the ventilation window in a processing unit located on the opposite side of the apparatus, but generally at the same height with the corresponding inlet devices the heat environment, and are a means of ensuring the effectiveness of the flow of the heat medium through the camera technology is one unit. The installation may further comprise a group of inlets for gas in camera technology device installed with the possibility of connection with a source gas containing a reactive oxygen, and along the technological apparatus. In the particular case of the location of the inlets for gas largely coincides with the location of the inlets to the heat environment. The inlet for the heat medium can be installed with the possibility of further connection with a source gas containing reactive oxygen. Preferably, each separator includes a first perforated conical surface located in the upper part of the chamber and extending radially and down, and the water collection tank under the first conical surface connected to the first drain device for water, at least one hollow tube with a perforated surface, passing down from the tank under the first perforated conical surface and connected with the bottom end with the second drain device for water separation table with a perforated surface, located in the lower part of the chamber under at least one hollow tube and having a reservoir for collection of fluid underneath the perforated surface, which is connected with the third drain us what device to water. The installation may further comprise a system rehydration connected with the output device technological device for receiving dewatered material, which means moisturize dehydrated material pre-defined amount of water.

In another aspect of the invention is disclosed a method of processing carbon-containing materials having the first level equilibrium moisture content, in which the direct contacting of the material with the heat medium under pressure to heat the material to remove the moisture from it to the second level of moisture content, lower than the first, and a lowering of the equilibrium moisture content to a value that is between the first level of equilibrium moisture content and the second level, and carry out the separation of released moisture from the material. In a preferred embodiment, exercise rehydration material to the third level of humidity that is higher than the second level of moisture, but lower than the first level of the equilibrium moisture content. The heat medium may be a saturated vapor. In one embodiment of the method, the material is heated to a temperature intermediate between the minimum temperature at which the structure of the particles of the material becomes elastic, and m is xymalos temperature, at which pyrolysis occurs. The minimum temperature can be set in the main 400°F (204.4° (C)and the maximum is mainly 500°F (260°). The material can be heated under a pressure of from about 247 pounds per square inch (1699 kPa) to about 680 pounds per square inch (4678 kPa). In other embodiments, the heat medium is a superheated steam or in part may be composed of hot water under pressure, the condensing of the saturated steam, and hot water under pressure, the condensing of the superheated steam. In one preferred options direct contacting of the material with the heat medium under pressure in the course of time, mainly from 5 minutes to 1000 minutes. In another embodiment, direct contacting of the material with the heat medium under pressure in the course of time, mainly from 15 minutes to 60 minutes. In the next version direct contacting of the material with the heat medium under pressure during the time from basically 20 minutes to 30 minutes. Preferably, the second humidity level was in the range of from about 20% to about 60% from the first level to the equilibrium moisture content. The third level of humidity is preferably in the range from about 101% to the example is about 125% from the second level of humidity. In another embodiment, the third humidity level is in the range from about 110% to about 120% of the second level of humidity. Rehydration should preferably be in a special chamber. In another embodiment, the rehydration is produced by pulverizing the dehydrated material water through at least one spraying nozzle. In the next version rehydration is produced by mixing the dehydrated material with damp raw carbon-based material. In the particular case you can add a gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat of the environment in a quantity sufficient for thermal oxidation of at least part of the organic volatile substances released from the material. In one embodiment, the add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat of the environment in a quantity sufficient to complete the oxidation reactions that lower the energy consumption for heating of the material. In another embodiment, add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat of the environment in sufficient quantity, cause passive oxidation of the reactive sites of the material to increase resistance to storage of dehydrated material. In the next version add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat medium in the amount from mainly 0.00005 fu is tov (0.02 g) of oxygen per pound (0,454 kg) of material to be processed (dry) up to 0.05 pounds (22.7 g) of oxygen per pound (0,454 kg) of material to be processed (dry). In one embodiment, the add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat medium in the amount from mainly 0.00001 pounds (0.0045 g) of oxygen per pound (0.454 kg) of material to be processed (dry) to basically 0.025 pounds (11.35 g) of oxygen per pound (0.454 kg) of material to be processed (dry). In the next version add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat medium in the amount from mainly 0.0005 pounds (0.227 g) of oxygen per pound (0.454 kg) of material to be processed (dry) to mainly 0.01 pounds (4.54 g) of oxygen per pound (0.454 kg) of material to be processed (dry). In the next version add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat of the environment in a quantity sufficient to lower the mercury content in the material. In case you can additionally heat at least part of the material by indirect heat exchange. It is preferable to sort the material before direct contact with the heat environment to achieve particle sizes of the material, intermediate between the pre-selected values of the upper and lower limits of the range of sizes. The particle size of the material is preferably distributed between the upper and lower limits of the range of sizes in accordance with and the code Rosen-Rammler for this material. In the particular case of carbon-containing material can be coal.

The following aspect of the invention disclosed coal, dehydrated using the above method.

The method preferably also to carry out ventilation non-condensable gases when heated material to establish a uniform temperature conditions throughout the mass of material. Ventilation can be performed continuously while heating the material. In another embodiment, the ventilation is produced periodically during heating of the material.

In accordance with the above goal setting to improve the quality of carbonaceous material includes technological device having a chamber for receiving portions of the material, an input device for feeding portions of the material into the chamber and an output device to output a portion of the dried material from the chamber. Technological device contains at least one inlet device for the heat environment, so constructed that it could be connected with the source of the heat medium for supplying fluid under pressure into the chamber technological device for the purpose of immediate contact with the material. Technological apparatus is further provided with at least one discharge device for fluid connecting the camera technological devices is and with the hydraulic system to remove fluid, and at least one separator designed to remove liquid from the mass of material and having an outlet for liquid connected with at least one drain device.

A feature of the invention is that installation to increase the intensity of the mass of carbon-containing materials uses vertically oriented technological apparatus equipped with the input device in the upper part of the device, the output device at the bottom of the apparatus and a camera for receiving portions of the material extending from the input device to the output device. Several inlets to the heat environment is designed in such a way that they can connect with the source of the heat medium for supplying fluid under pressure into the chamber technological device for the purpose of immediate contact with the portion of the material. While the inlet for the heat medium are positioned at predetermined locations between the upper and lower surfaces of the technological apparatus. Several discharge devices are removed from the material liquid connecting the drying chamber technological device with the hydraulic system to remove the water. They are placed in the most suitable locations between the upper and lower surfaces of the technological apparatus. Som is to ventilation ducts are placed in the most convenient locations between the upper and lower surfaces of process apparatus for removal from the camera technological device released in the process of processing material gases. Finally, several separators for separating liquid and solid material are placed inside the drying chamber, and each separator has a drip tray that is connected to at least one of several possible drain devices.

Another feature of the invention is that in the proposed method of improving the quality of carbonaceous materials in direct contact with the heat medium for heating the material under pressure and begins at the first level of the equilibrium moisture content, after which the processing amount of moisture in the material is reduced to a second level equilibrium moisture content lower than the first, resulting in a portion of the treated material, which is characterized by the level of steady-state moisture content between the first and second levels of equilibrium moisture content in the material. The liquid removed from the material, further purified.

Brief description of drawings

Objectives and features of the invention can be understood from reading the detailed description of the invention illustrated by the drawings.

Figure 1 shows the side view of technological device containing the input rotary hopper in the upper part of the machine and the output rotary hopper in the lower part of the apparatus in accordance with aseason invention.

Figure 2 shows the side view of technological device that contains two input sluice hopper and two output sluice hopper for continuous process in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 3 shows a partial cross section of a technological device, represented in figure 1, with the inlet and outlet devices, constructed in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 4 shows the cross-section of technological apparatus, presented in figure 1, with details in the design of the intake and exhaust device and the separation device that separates water and solid particles, in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 5 pokazyvayuschee image of perforated sections of the separation surfaces of the devices presented in figure 4.

5, 7 and 8 show views from above on technological device cross-sections A-a, b-b and C-C, marked in figure 4.

Fig.9 is a schematic diagram of a typical hardware configuration for rehydration and direction input, internal and output flows of material and rehydration medium in accordance with the present invention.

The implementation of the invention

In accordance with figure 1 technological system 100 includes an input rotary hopper 102, the location is hydrated in the upper part 104 of the technological apparatus 106, and the output rotary hopper 108, located under the lower part 110 of the technological device 106. At the entrance of each of the sluice bins 102 and 108 are valves 112 and 116, respectively, providing a seal sluice bins and support in a processing unit 106 is required to process the material pressure without contact with the ambient environment. Similarly, the purpose and exhaust valves 114 and 118 mounted at the exit of the respective sluice bins 102 and 108, which serve the same purpose.

Carbonaceous materials periodically served in the input lock hopper 102 through pipe 150 through the valve 112, which is in this moment in the open state, when the closed valve 114. Then the inlet valve 112 is closed and the pressure in shluzova hopper 102 rises to the level of pressure in a processing unit, i.e. the pressure determined by the technical conditions of processing of the material. After that, the valve 114 is opened, and a portion of the material under the action of gravity enters technological device 106. When the input lock hopper 102 is empty, the exhaust valve 114 is closed and the pressure in shluzova the hopper 102 is lowered to the level of atmospheric pressure. The inlet valve 112 is opened, and the input rotary hopper is ready to begin the next cycle of the load of material on trubor the water 150. The throughput of the apparatus per hour under normal conditions determined by the weight of material discharged through the drying chamber for each cycle, and the number of cycles per hour. Thus, this process provides intermittent flow of material through the drying chamber.

Figure 1 shows that the output rotary hopper 108 is arranged completely analogous input Shluzovaya the hopper 102. The output of lock hopper 108 sequentially removes portions of the dried material from technological device 106 through pipe 152. It is easy to see that during the cyclic process output rotary hopper 108 unloads dehydrated material in the pipe 152 for further processing already at atmospheric pressure. After unloading the exhaust valve 118 is closed, the pressure in shluzova the hopper is aligned with the pressure in a processing unit 106, and opens the inlet valve 116. After the output rotary hopper 108 is filled with material, the inlet valve 116 is closed and the pressure in shluzova hopper 108 is lowered to atmospheric pressure. The exhaust valve 118 is opened and the output rotary hopper 108 unloads another portion of the dried material in the pipe 152, and this completes the technological loop material. The pressure decrease in shluzova the hopper 10 also leads to rapid cooling of the carbon-containing material by the evaporation of water from its internal volume.

Technological device 106 can operate in the regime of sequential processing of individual portions of material and without the use of input and output of lock hoppers 102 and 108. For operation in this mode requires only the inlet valve 114 and the exhaust valve 116. The sequence of operations while retaining the same described above for the case of using the sluice bins, i.e. with a closed exhaust valve 116 at atmospheric pressure, the flow of material sent to the technological device 106 via the open inlet valve 114. When filling technological device 106, the valve 114 is closed, inside processing apparatus 106 is blown operating pressure and a working temperature, and after the desired time processing pressure in the processing unit 106 is reduced to atmospheric, the exhaust valve 116 is opened and unloaded from the apparatus a portion of the dehydrated material. After unloading technological device exhaust valve 116 is closed, and the next cycle begins processing the next batch of material. When using multiple technological devices operating in the sequential processing of the individual portions of the material, and with the proper sequence of cycles in each of the apparatus can be achieved that the total flow downloadable and R is sgruhaoo material, passing through the entire system, will be close to continuous.

The use of two input sluice bins and two output sluice bins allows you to achieve real continuity loading and unloading technological device 106. Figure 2 shows the design of the equipment for the organization of such a continuous process. The feed material is fed through the inlet pipe 252 through the control valve 202, which directs the flow of material in one of the two sluice bins 204 or 206. For continuous load one of the sluice bins can be filled and ready to overburden material in the technological device 106 before the second bin will be empty. By handling equipment one of the output sluice bins 208 or 210 at this point should be empty and ready to receive the dehydrated material, while filling the second lock hopper. This sequence of operations makes it possible to continuously carry out the loading of technological device 106, and unloading technological device 106 is also continuous. Thus, technological device 106 operates in a fully continuous mode. However, the load in the input lock hoppers and discharging of the output sluice bins are not continuous, but only close to continuous, as is the time when one of the input sluice bins is full and waiting for discharge into the drying chamber, one of the output sluice bins must be empty and wait to receive the dehydrated material.

In accordance with the design of technological device 106, are presented in figure 2, the sequence of operations for organization of continuous process of loading should be following. The input rotary hopper 204 fills in material technological device 106 with a closed intake valve 212 and open the exhaust valve 214. The second input rotary hopper 206 at this time is filled with material, and the pressure therein rises to the level of the worker. In addition, the intake valve 216 and the exhaust valve 218 at this time should be closed. As soon as the input rotary hopper 204 is empty, the exhaust valve 214 is closed and simultaneously the exhaust valve 218 to the input shluzova hopper 206 is opened, the filling material technological device 106 and through the continuity of supply of the material in the drying chamber. Then the pressure in the input shluzova hopper 204 is reduced to atmospheric, the inlet valve 212 is opened, the control valve 202 is set to the position at which the material enters in the input rotary hopper 204, and the load continues to fill the entrance gateway of the hopper 20. This flow of material is stopped, the intake valve 212 to the input shluzova hopper 204 is closed, the pressure in the input shluzova hopper 204 is aligned with the value of the pressure in a processing unit 106, and the input rotary hopper 204 enters the standby discharge input gateway hopper 206. After that, the whole technological cycle can be repeated.

In accordance with the design of technological device 106, are presented in figure 2, the sequence of operations for continuous discharge of the output sluice bins 208 and 210 similar to that described above for the continuous loading of the sluice bins 204 and 206, with the exception that in one of the output sluice bins 208 (or 210) must remain working pressure at the moment when it is empty when you open the intake valve 220 and a closed lower valve 222, while the other output rotary hopper 210 (or 208) is filled with material. After completing the output of the gateway hopper 210 the control valve 224 directs the unloading process in the output rotary hopper 208. The inlet valve 226 to the output shluzova hopper 210 is closed, the pressure in the output shluzova hopper 210 is lowered to atmospheric exhaust valve 228 to the output shluzova hopper 210 is opened, and a portion of the dried material times rugaetsa in any desired storage or transport equipment through the output pipeline 250. After unloading the exhaust valve 228 to the output shluzova hopper 210 is closed, the pressure in the output gateway hopper 210 is aligned with the pressure in a processing unit 106, and the inlet valve 226 is opened. The output of lock hopper 210 is blank under pressure, while the second output rotary hopper 208 is filled with the material. Then the cycle repeats.

Figure 3 depicts in more detail the operation input lock hopper system with semi-continuous mode dehydration of carbonic materials. The intake and exhaust valves 112 and 114 perform the same functions on the input shluzova bunker, which is described above. Fittings for discharge pressure 302 and pressure relief 304 are used to control the pressure in the input shluzova the hopper 102. After unloading the contents of an input gateway hopper 102 in technological device 106 inlet valve 112 is closed, the exhaust valve 114 is also closed, but the input rotary hopper is under process pressure and contains a working gas, saturated with water vapor. Valve fitting pressure relief opens, and gas, saturated with water vapor, exits the input gateway hopper 102 into the atmosphere until the pressure in the input shluzova bunker is not aligned with the atmosphere, after which the valve fitting vent is closed. In usknow valve 112 on the input shluzova the hopper 102 is opened, and a lock hopper is filled with material. After filling, the inlet valve 112 closes and opens the valve fitting injection pressure 302. The internal pressure in a processing unit 106 is created by using a saturated vapor, superheated steam, air or other suitable gas. After you create the required pressure in the input shluzova hopper valve fitting injection pressure 302 is closed. Then the exhaust valve 114 to the input shluzova the hopper is opened and the material enters the technological device 106.

Noncondensable gases are continuously removed from the process apparatus 106 through the ventilation window 306, 308 and 310, shown in figure 3. Noncondensable gases appear due to volatile organic chemicals emitted carbonaceous materials in the process of dehydration, as well as through air or any other gas in contact with the material during dehydration of the material. Noncondensable gases normally present in the drying chamber technological device 106 in minimum concentrations as a component of the vapor. Thus, removal of non-condensable gases through the vent window is accompanied by a significant loss of heat. Part of this loss can be compensated in that case if going through ventiljats the traditional open the flow of gas to re-use wholly or partly as a working gas to increase the pressure in the input shluzova hopper 102 and the output shluzova hopper 108. Fittings pressure relief 304 and 312 on the input and the output of lock hoppers 102 and 108, respectively, allow you to remove the gas, which is often almost pure saturated steam formed during the dehydration of carbonic materials. This is also accompanied by a loss of energy. The use of vent gas streams from the process apparatus 106 to raise the pressure in the sluice bins allows to avoid additional energy losses in the process of dehydration, as the gas stream is recycled in the sluice bins, where already removed through fittings pressure relief 3-4 and 312.

As shown in figure 3, during normal operation of the system coolant or working gas enters the process tank through the inlet fittings 314 and 316 located on one side of the machine, while the ventilation window 306, 308 and 310 are located on the opposite side. And inlet fittings and ventilation window can have different positions and be located in different places, not just those which are shown in figure 3. Vent Windows are usually protected deflector shields a, 318b and s that allow gas to freely go outside, but prevent clogging of the vent window liquids and solid particles that may be in the gas stream. One limitation they are situated on the inlet fittings and ventilation ducts is necessary to avoid when injected through the inlet fitting gas immediately removed through the vent window. Another limitation is the need to create specific configurations of the gas flows within a technological device 106, which may be predominantly horizontal and descending or ascending for effective control over the removal of non-condensable gases from the process apparatus 106.

Under normal conditions, the power flux taleesha gas is determined by the pressure in a processing unit 106. If the pressure falls below the desired reference value, the flow of gas through the inlet fitting increases and compensates for the flow of gas. On the contrary, if the pressure rises above the desired reference value, the flow of gas through the inlet fitting is reduced. The exit gas from the process apparatus 106 through the ventilation window is usually monitored by measuring the concentration of non-condensable gases in a processing unit 106 and the setting of the corresponding control valve to achieve the desired value of the flow of non-condensable gases (together with saturated water vapor) from technological device 106 through each vent window placed in the necessary technical requirements. The gas stream from the process unit 106 through ve is tiscione window can vary considerably pulse. A large part of the volume of fluid performs the function of heating the material to a working state, the compensation of heat losses in the process and provides heat to the process of thermal dehydration of carbonic materials.

The preferred form of the heat carrier are either saturated steam or superheated steam injected into technological device 106 through the upper and lower inlet fittings 314 and 316, respectively, or through any other fitting, located on the external wall of the device 106. However, with the help of the pipeline talonaxe gas can be introduced into the inner volume 322 technological device 106 in a specially selected location determined by the technical requirements of the dehydration process, the localized supply of energy to the material.

Hot water under pressure can also be used as part of the heat medium. For example, when the relatively cold feed material enters the upper part of the technological device 106 through the input lock hopper 102, saturated steam immediately begins to condense, transmitting, in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics latent heat of condensation of the cold material. Hot condensate or hot water under pressure in this or another place within the technological apparatus 106 will always be grief is its loaded, and therefore, it will transfer heat to the cold material. If there is a suitable source of hot water, capable under pressure to pump water into a technological device 106 when thermodynamic conditions which ensure the functioning of the process, the hot water under pressure may be fed into the apparatus in many different places and be used as a source of energy necessary for the process. On the other hand, hot water under pressure can be used as an additive to saturated or superheated steam. One of the advantages arising from the use of saturated or superheated steam after he was slightly cooled, is that saturated steam is condensed isothermal. This means that the flow of steam flows spontaneously at any point inside technological device 106, if the temperature at this point is lower than the steam temperature. Steam itself penetrates into the material, provided that its porosity allows a couple to get to cold areas of the material inside its volume. The flow of superheated steam, until he ceased to be overheated, can be directed to any point within a technological device.

During thermal processing of carbonaceous materials in order to improve their heat will be especially useful to provide the I flow of superheated steam through the inlet port 316, located close to the bottom of technological device 106, at least two specific reasons. One of them is in the preliminary heating of the loaded material in dry form through the heat transfer material from the superheated steam or hot gas. This technique can be used to remove excess moisture from the surfaces of the loaded material, i.e. additional dewatering of the material from the conversion of moisture in saturated steam. The second is that the use of dry superheated steam in the area of the bottom of technological device also provides a "dry" state of the environment in the vicinity of the loaded material and substantial partial pressure difference between the pressure of the wet environment, the inherent loaded material, and the pressure in the relatively dry space around the solid particles of material that creates a dynamic force, contributing to the removal of internal moisture of the material.

Raising the pressure in the output shluzova hopper 108 through the inlet fitting 324 and the pressure drop through the outlet fitting 312 can be achieved and controlled in exactly the same way described above with respect to the input Shluzovaya the hopper 102. As already described, the gas discharged through the vent window 306, 308 and 310 may also use isometsa again to discharge pressure in the output shluzova hopper 108.

The process of dehydration of the material in a processing unit provides heating in a temperature range from the minimum temperature at which the structure of the particles of the material becomes elastic, up to the maximum temperature at which pyrolysis (thermal decomposition) of the material. The preferred temperature range is from 400°F 500°F (200°With up to 260° (C) at pressures from 247 to 680 psi (1700 kPa to 4600 kPa), i.e. if the conditions for the existence of saturated steam. Due to the possible presence of a certain amount of non-condensable gases in the drying chamber process apparatus, the temperature at any given pressure value may be somewhat lower than it follows from the conditions of existence of saturated steam. For example, if the total pressure in a processing unit is 500 pounds per square inch (3440 kPa) and the concentration of non-condensable gases is 10% of the volume of the working chamber), then the partial pressure of non-condensable gases will be 50 psi (344 kPa), and the partial vapour pressure of 450 pounds per square inch (3096 kPa). Therefore, the temperature of the non-condensable gases and saturated steam will be approximately 456°F (235°C), whereas in the case, if the camera p who was eastvaal only saturated steam, its temperature would be 467°F (240°C).

To ensure homogeneity of the steam flow to the cold regions of the drying chamber technological device and its isothermal condensation, and to provide a better separation of moisture and loaded into the device material, it is desirable to use properly sorted according to size, material, characterized by the necessary porosity. This is achieved by grinding and sieving the material, which limits the maximum particle size of the material. Some particles must be removed from the feed material, as they do not allow you to create the necessary density of particles in the drying chamber and create in the camera field of voids. Found that when properly selected, the ratio of mass to volume of material has a much greater area of the free surface than in the case when the material of the same weight consists of large particles. However, the increase in the area of the free surfaces of the loaded material increases and the area of the accumulation of moisture, which complicates the process of dehydration of the material. The size distribution of the particles of the feed material should correspond to the range from 0.00 inches (0.00 mm) up to a maximum of minus 4 inches (101.6 mm), more preferably to use a range of plus sizes from 0.125 inch (3.175 mm) to minus 3 inches (76. mm), and the most desirable range is from + 0.25 inch (6.35 mm) to minus 2 inches (50.8 mm) (when screening the size of chunks fraction passing through the sieve mesh, referred to as a "minus", the size of the pieces remaining on the sieve - the term "plus"). To ensure high efficiency of the technological process in this particle size range of the material, the feed material must be sorted by size so that the size distribution of particles between the upper and lower limits of the range was close to the distribution of Rosina-Rummler (Rosin-Rammler index)that are specific to the types of materials are usually subjected to dehydration.

Being in a processing unit 106, the carbon-containing material is exposed to the operating pressure and operating temperature. The average processing time of the material in a processing unit 106 is determined by the volume of the device 106, bulk density and weight of the material. Useful is the processing time in the range 5-1000 minutes, more preferred range of time is 15-60 minutes, and the most preferred range is 20-30 minutes.

The presence of superheated steam can increase the operating temperature in a processing unit in comparison with that which can be expected from the conditions of existence of saturated steam. As described above, when the ore, if the pairs in the device overheated about 11°F (-11.7°C), then the partial pressure of steam will be 450 pounds per square inch (3096 kPa), but the temperature of the mixture of steam and non-condensable gases will increase to 467°F (241.7° (C) or to a temperature of pure saturated steam at a pressure of 500 pounds per square inch (3440 kPa).

When working within the above ranges of temperatures and pressures significantly more energy can be obtained by the condensation of saturated steam than when cooling of superheated steam to the level of saturated steam or cooling water under pressure. Thus, the use of saturated steam and its isothermal condensation are the most preferred option heat transfer in technological device.

When reaching into the material in a processing unit, the desired temperature the material becomes more elastic, which contributes to exit the water with minimal destruction of the particles of the material.

In accordance with this invention, the moisture present in the loaded material is removed in several ways.

The first way to remove water is to volumetric expansion of water when heated material through contact with the surrounding material environment. Thermal expansion of water is faster than the pores of the material the material are filled with water, so water is no other space than the space outside of the material.

The second way is to squeezing water from the pores of the material, when the pores shrink each other in the material volume. Pores shrink each other by application of external pressure to the free surfaces of the material and due to the exit from the pores of the heated water.

The third path is provided by a differential pressure between the moisture and steam, which leads to the release of moisture in the area of low pressure in the chamber technological device.

Fourth, less desirable way is to exit ionized and (chemically) associated with water material that accompanies the achievement of thermal dynamic equilibrium when the temperature in the drying chamber. Removing water from the material this way should be minimized by limiting the maximum temperature in the drying chamber. If the shift in equilibrium with the temperature rise of the material is removed only water, it is quite acceptable. However, when the temperature of the material start to stand out also volatile organic compounds. The temperature increase leads to the fact that the amount of volatile substances in a processing unit starts to increase with increasing speed. Volatile substances released from a material or react with water with the formation of soluble or insoluble compounds or mixed with steam to form non-condensable gases. Any of these processes is undesirable, because organics, mixed with water or dissolved in it, increases the cost of water treatment before reuse and/or disposal and increases the concentration of non-condensable gases in a gaseous environment camera technological device.

The invention also provides for the possibility of indirect heating of the material. As an example, figure 3 shows the heat exchanger 350, which can be installed in any place of the technological apparatus in which there is a possibility of contact between the loaded material and the surface of the heat exchanger 350. As soon as the surface of the heat exchanger is more heated than the material, heat begins to flow in the material. Particularly useful may be the installation of heat exchangers near the bottom of technological apparatus, as shown in figure 3, where the surface of the heat exchanger is used for evaporation of excess surface moisture from the material before unloading. The source of coolant (not shown) should be connected to the heat exchanger or multiple heat exchangers 350 through connectors 352 and 354.

Carbon-containing materials with a high moisture content, such as sub-bituminous coal may contain up to 30 weight percent of water in the form of various compounds. After the zlecenia of coal mine marked by internal water content, which is close to the equilibrium for a given material and which is determined mainly by the level of humidity in the environment in which it is stored, despite the structural and chemical changes associated with removing it from the environment of origin. For example, coal, extracted from the reservoir, contains about 30% moisture. If you want to post it to dry in air with low humidity, the internal moisture content will be reduced, for example, up to 20%. However, if it is then put in a room with high humidity, then after some time we again get the coal from the equilibrium moisture content of 30%.

In most cases, the dehydrating material is structured in such a way as to lower the level of the internal moisture of the material to a level significantly lower than the equilibrium moisture level of the material. By sea transport or storage of such materials absorb moisture from the environment to an equilibrium level. If the absorbance is too fast, the material may overheat. This can lead to spontaneous combustion of the material during storage or transport.

It is expected that careful control of the conditions of dehydration of the material produced in accordance with the present invention should result in a dry product, safe and resistant to pen Voske sea. However, if sub-bituminous coal contains from 20 to 30 percent of internal moisture, after dehydration in accordance with the present invention the equilibrium moisture content will be reduced to the level of 8-16 percent by weight. Experience shows that coal with internal humidity level of about 7% can no longer safely be transported on ships and stored in the warehouse, if there is a level of equilibrium humidity is much higher, for example, 15%. However, rehydration with level internal humidity 10% to 14% safe sea transport or storage can be achieved, which also depends on the type of material. Rehydration should occur in a controlled environment. For the reverse saturation moisture dehydrated material or by mixing dehydrated material with low humidity and wet raw or partially dehydrated material with high moisture content must be carefully controlled.

The injection process machine air or other gas containing active oxygen, it is useful for many reasons, each of which is associated with the possibility desirable vysokotekhnologicheskikh reactions between oxygen and some form of fuel material or a processing unit. In the presence of oxygen, at least part of the volatile organic compounds, highlight the category of processed material, can be oxidized. Excess surface moisture can evaporate. In addition, it is assumed that the oxidation reactions are undesirable by-products or impurities, such as mercury, can be easily separated from the material. Finally, selective oxidation of individual pieces of the processed material can make the material more stable during storage.

One undesirable consequence of oxidation reactions is the formation of excessive amounts of non-condensable gases that must be removed from the process unit through the ventilation window that discussed above, to control the effect of noncondensable gases on the temperature of saturated steam. The heat generated by any oxidation reaction, is passed couple and approximately compensates for the loss of energy from ventilation and removal of non-condensable gases. On the contrary, if it is desirable to have in a processing unit more non-condensable gases, the preferred source of oxygen for oxidation reactions is the air due to the high content of nitrogen (non-condensable gas), and also because of the fact that any oxidation reactions using oxygen, lead to the formation of non-condensable gases.

The purpose of the discharge in the technological apparatus of air or other gas containing active oxygen are obtained when oxygen concentrations from 0.00005 lb (0.02 g) reactive oxygen species (pound equals 0.454 kg) per pound of dried material to 0.05 pounds (22.7 g) reactive oxygen per pound of dried material (evaluation are given relative to the weight of dried material). A more preferred concentration range is 0.00001 to 0.25 pounds (0.0045-133.75 g) additional chemically active oxygen per pound of dried material, and the range 0.005-0.01 lb (2.27-4.54 g) additional chemically active oxygen per pound of dried material is the most desirable.

Figure 4 shows the details of the process of separation of water from the material inside processing apparatus 106. And the moisture removed from the material, and the vapor condensing from the gas-fluid must be continuously removed from the apparatus 106 in the form of hot water. This can be a difficult task, because the downloaded material and hot water at the same time tend to fall out of the camera apparatus 106 downward under the force of gravity. You must separate these two streams so that the dehydrated material was removed from the process apparatus 106 in the form of a single thread, and the hot water was removed as completely separate thread or threads.

There are at least five different types of equipment designed for the separation of material and hot water, moving down in a processing unit 106. For example: 1) upward separation cone 402, 2) vertical perforated drainage pipes a, 404b and s, are located in the internal space of the technological apparatus 106, 3) vertical perforated drainage pipe 406 located on the wall of the technological device 106, 4) downward separation cone 408 and 5) at least one horizontal rotary table 410.

These various separation devices can be used in many different combinations, with different locations within a technological device 106 to achieve the desired level of separation of water and solid material. Although the shape of the holes in the separating sieves shown in figure 5 round, these openings may have any shape and be a slit, squares, grids, grates, grids, perforations, etc., i.e. sieves can have any design that provides a flow of hot water down and delay the solid particles. The size of the holes is chosen from considerations provide better drainage while minimizing losses of solid material. In addition, it is desirable to give each hole a conical shape so that the side of the water hole would be slightly larger than that of the accumulation of solid material. In this case, increasing the likelihood that solid particles that may get stuck in the holes, slip the hole without clogging.

Upward separation cone 402 allows hot water freedoms is about to fall down through the separation of the holes on the surface of the cone 402, while the solid particles are directed radially to the walls of the technological device 106. After passing through the openings in the cone 402 hot water enters the tray 412 or other receiver water with similar functions, and then the hot water leaves the technological device 106 through the internal drain 414, which is connected with a drain pipe for hot water 416.

After the radial direction of the material to the walls of the apparatus the material is held down by internal drainage pipes, such as a, 404b and s that allow hot water to separate from the solid material and to flow into the perforations of each pipe. Cross section a-a figure 7 shows a view in plan of the inner space of the technological device 106, and shows that the internal drainage pipe 404 may be installed in the form of concentric circles, which provide hot water many ways to separate from the solid material. The corresponding intakes below each pipe collect hot water and direct it into the internal drain 420, through which hot water leaves technological device 106 through one or more drain pipes 422.

In the section a-a figure 7 also shows the design of the inner perforated pipes 406, cut in half lengthwise axis and mounted on the walls technologies the second device 106 circumference, so that the water can drain them from the downloaded material, is pressed against the walls of the drying chamber. Hot water flowing through these tubes and is collected in a tray at the bottom of the apparatus and further removed from the process apparatus 106 through the drain pipe 418. Part of a system of perforated pipes can be placed on the inner wall of the drying chamber coaxially with the camera so that the holes for the separation were focused inside technological device 106, the upper part of the tube is hermetically attached to the walls, and the bottom part is a drip tray hot water and discharge it through the discharge pipe 418 and 422.

Function upward separation cone 402 is to radially direct the flow of solid material to the chamber walls, while providing the opportunity for hot water to separate from the solid loaded material and to flow downward through the holes in the surface downward separation cone 408. The section b-b figure 6 shows a top view of inner downward separation cone 408, and demonstrates that the cone is placed coaxially with the camera and attached to the wall of the technological device 106. The cone forms an arched ceiling through the camera being attached along the perimeter to the wall of the technological device 106. Cone 408 may also be the condition is bowlen in segments and not to be continuous in this case. Hot water passes through the holes 409 cone 408 and is collected in the annular tray 424, installed coaxially with the chamber, where the hot water is discharged through at least one, but possibly more drain pipes from technological device 106. Two drain pipes a and 426b shown in figure 4 as an example.

Depicted in figure 4 separation device 402, a, 404b, s, 406 and 408 can be installed in various places. Their function is to be sent to a processing unit 106 moving down the stream of solid particles of a first material radially to the walls of the chamber and then radially to the axis of the camera, thus providing solid particles of material many ways on the surfaces of the separation device.

Section C-C on Fig is a top view of the horizontal separation table 410 with perforations 411, allowing hot water to flow down and collect in the pan 428, where it is sent from a technological device 106 to the outside through the internal drain 430 to the drain pipe 432. Although the separation table 410 is shown as a single device and is round in plan in figure 4 and Fig, it is possible to install several coaxial tables gradually increasing diameter in the form of a stack, in which each table is set below the table smaller d is ametra thus, to solid particles cascadeable were poured down from one table to another, moving from the center to the periphery. Depending on the location and diameter of the separation table or tables 410 the flow of particulate material will move through the outer edges of the tables in accordance with the angle of repose for this type of material, while the hot water will drain down through the perforations. Radial movement of solid particles can be made much easier if you make the separation tables 410 rotating. This will effectively lower the angle of repose of the material and improve the conditions of radial movement of the material. On the rotating table 410 can also place the dividing plows or similar elements also facilitate material radial movement and guides the particles of solid material to the edges of the table or tables.

One sieve in the form of a downward cone or perforated wall may be installed inside the chamber above the conical bottom 434 of the technological device 106 for additional separation of hot water from the loaded material before the release of material from a technological device 106 to the output rotary hopper 108 (Fig 3). In addition, for further separation of any of the separation device described above, which may be installed in the output shluzova hopper 108.

If the separation surface of the separation device, shown in figure 4, to produce not perforated and solid, such surface will form inside processing apparatus 106 of the inner chamber or pipe. If each camera is equipped with a separate inlet and outlet devices for the heat medium, the heat carrier can be submitted to the suction device, while the heat will be transmitted to the camera due to heat transfer and then be transmitted is loaded into the process apparatus 106 material indirectly through conduction, convection and radiation. Exhaust fluid can then be removed from the drying chamber or pipe, forcing it to move through technological device 106 that will complement the direct transfer of energy through the input device carrier 314 and 316 (Fig 3).

You can also reverse option is to not feed energy into the process apparatus 106, and remove it (i.e. cooling). This is achieved by the same means as described above, by replacing the heat medium for cooling.

Continuing the study of figure 4, note: if air or other oxygen-containing gas is pumped into the process apparatus 106 for the purposes of thermal oxidation of volatile substances released from the material, lowering the Tr is required power consumption or for to make the dehydrated material is more secure when stored, it may be desirable pre-mixing of air or other oxygen-containing gas with the heat medium before feeding it into the technological apparatus 106 via the input device 314 and 316. This approach is preferred, however, the air or oxygen-containing gas may also be introduced into the process apparatus 106 via any other inlet. In the case of pre-mixing air or other oxygen-containing gas should be used in an inert form and not be able to react with the heat medium passing through the pipes and then through inlet 314 and 316. Similarly, the air or other oxygen-containing gas should not be able to react with the materials of construction, piping and inlets. Once in the technological device 106, the air or other oxygen-containing gas can expand freely, to mix and react with various kinds of organic fuel (which is dried material), which is the desired purpose of use. If the condition of inertia of the heat medium is not performed, when the injection of air or other oxygen-containing gas into the process apparatus through choosing the proper inlet of the oxidation reaction may occur inside or around the nozzle inlet and damage the structural integrity of the structure due to excessive overheating, caused localized, but vysokoergonomichnoy reaction of oxidation of various organic fuels, which is taking place in the device.

Figure 5 shows the scheme of the structural organization of the proposed facility 500. The diagram shows the input, internal and output flows of material, which allows to understand alternative approaches to the process of rehydration material after exiting technological device 106 before storing or transporting by sea. After submission of material by pipeline 504 for rehydration can be used two hardware configurations. One of them includes a mixer 506, other means of rehydration 512, but it can be used both configurations together. The diagram in figure 5 shows that the mixer 506 is preceded by means of rehydration 512, but the sequence of their use can be reversed. Dehydrated material in the pipeline 504 after unloading from the output gateway hopper 108, shown in figure 3, may be unstable to storage, if the level of moisture in the material is substantially lower than the equilibrium moisture level. In this case, you should raise the moisture level of the material to secure the difference between these levels.

One of the methods of rehydration of the dried material is to be added partially the dried or wet material through the pipeline 502 to the dried material, supplied by pipeline 504, so that the resulting mixture had the desired average level of internal humidity. The final mixture should be fairly homogeneous, which requires the use of special equipment such as a mixer 506. For mixing, you can also use conveyor belt or other conveyor.

One of the materials that can be used as partially drained or undrained material in the pipe 502 is fine-grained fractions emerging from technological device 106 together with hot water. When mixed may be used as the source material, not the past dehydration containing moisture-free surfaces, especially the faction that is in the process of preparation of the material to be loaded into technological device 106 were useany when sorting by size, which was described above.

If the mixing of the solid materials to achieve the desired level rehydration therapy is ineffective, then water may be added to the dehydrated material directly in the form of liquid or vapor. The input stream moisturizing environment 510 may include hardware 512, for example, through spray nozzle. Equipment for rehydration 512 can be a hydrating chamber, agitator, mixer, or other device, providing the abuser quality uniform contact between the hydrating medium 510 and material coming in rehydration equipment pipeline 508 so that the moist material in the pipeline 514 contained the desired level of internal moisture.

EXAMPLES

In all subsequent examples, the level of humidity in the original coal and the level of moisture in the treated coal was measured by the American standard test method (ASTM) D3302, while the equilibrium moisture content was measured by the American standard test method (ASTM) D1412-93.

Example 1

Member sub-bituminous coal (ROM), produced at the mine Black Thunder near the town of Wright, Wyoming, was sorted by sieving through a sieve to fraction size from minus 1-1/2 inches (25.4-0.5 mm) to + 16 mesh (the number of holes in the sieve in one linear inch, 16 mesh corresponds to the mesh size of the sieve of about 0.9 mm). Sorted coal has a moisture content of 25.2 weight percent (wt.%), the equilibrium moisture content for him is 24.5 wt.%, the calorific value of the coal was 9010 BTU per pound (20957 kJ/kg). Coal was thermally dehydrated in an autoclave periodic operation with an internal volume of about 4 liters. The autoclave had a vertically oriented cylindrical housing with a removable strainer, located in the upper part of the body when the cell size of about 1/16 inch (1.587 mm). On the sieve was placed approximately 350 Gras the MOU coal. The autoclave was sealed, to create the desired operating conditions in use saturated steam created in the autoclave high pressure and a corresponding saturated steam temperature. Steam was condensed with evolution of heat and the resulting condensate together with the liquid that separates from coal, gathered at the bottom of the autoclave below the sieve. By the end of the scheduled heat treatment of coal-time steam was released from the autoclave, the pressure is reduced to atmospheric, the sieve with termoobrabotannom coal was removed, and the treated coal was sent for analysis. From the large number of tests conducted in this experiment, two were designed to demonstrate the effect of temperature on properties of dewatered coal. One was conducted at the temperature of saturated steam 430°F (221.1° (C)and the other at the temperature of saturated steam 460°F (237.8° (C)that corresponds to the pressure of saturated steam at approximately 344 pounds per square inch (2357 kPa) and 467 pounds per square inch (3213 kPa). Gauge pressure during the test was approximately 12.5 pounds per square inch lower than the absolute pressure. The heat treatment time is from the beginning of the steam injection prior to the venting of the autoclave was approximately 52 minutes for each test. Treated at 430°F (221.1° (C) the coal had urbanindustrial moisture 7.81 wt.%, the equilibrium moisture level 16.1 wt.%, the calorific value of the coal was 11397 BTU per pound (26509 kJ/kg). Processed at higher temperature 460°F (237.8° (C) the coal had the level of internal moisture 6.0 wt.%, the equilibrium moisture level of 14.1 wt.%, and the calorific value of coal 11674 BTU per pound (27154 kJ/kg). These two tests show that the processing of coal at higher temperatures (and pressures) has its advantages, especially for equilibrium moisture of the processed product.

It should be noted: on the calorific value of coal is influenced by many factors, such as the content of volatile substances, the presence of ash and sulphur, and not only the internal humidity. Because these examples have used different samples, the relationship between the internal moisture content and calorific value could not stay constant.

Example 2

The same type of coal that was used in the first example, was tested at the time of heat treatment in 17 minutes and a temperature of 460°F (237.8°). The analysis showed that the level of the internal humidity of the treated coal was very low and amounted to 6.3 wt.%, while the calorific value was relatively high and amounted to 11598 BTU per pound (26977 kJ/kg). This shows that the treatment duration less than 20 minutes than in the AI processing in 52 minutes gives acceptable results. The effect of processing time on the properties of coal was demonstrated on another coal sample with an initial level of internal humidity 24.1 wt.%, which was processed at a temperature of 460°F (237.8°C). The processing time in 19, 32 and 52 minutes led respectively to the levels of the internal humidity of the treated coal 8.8 wt.%, 8.4 wt.% and 8.7 wt.%. Although these humidity levels are high enough, you can tell that they are high for the entire group of samples, because the trials used different samples. However, the level of the final internal humidity practically do not differ in these three trials, where the processing time ranged from 19 minutes to 52 minutes. Another sample of coal from the mine Black Thunder was tested similarly as described in example 1 in a batch autoclave with a volume of about 10 pounds (at 45.36 kg) of coal at a temperature of 467°F (241.7° (C) for a very long time in 540 minutes. The level of moisture in the treated coal amounted to 6.2 wt.%, i.e. even excessively increased processing time does not greatly affect the final result. In the test samples, which lasted more or less control time in 52 minutes, the equilibrium level of humidity was not measured, but experience suggests that the level of equilibrium moisture directly, although non-linear, proportional to the level of internal humidity.

Example 3

In the two distinctions of the different tests with the same type of coal, described in example 1 and in which the concentration of mercury (dry coal) amounted to approximately 0.085 micrograms of mercury per gram of coal, we investigated the effect of air supply on the process. In one test, the air pumped into the drying chamber, the other was not. In the presence of air 72.1 wt.% mercury was removed from the treated coal, and when tested in the absence of air was removed only 51.6 wt.%. This shows that the injection of air improves the process for the removal of mercury. Injection of air in the autoclave was at the beginning of the test, i.e. before steam injection, and went on continuously throughout the test, however, we can conclude that the injection of air may be carried out in a semi-continuous or continuous mode, if the autoclave has ventilation for control of the partial pressures of the noncondensable gases.

In these two tests the temperature was the same, but the pressures were different. In the presence of air, it provides part of the total pressure, whereas the remaining part is provided by steam.

For example, if the total pressure in a processing unit is 466 pounds per square inch (3206 kPa), and the air is 20% of the total volume (volume percent,%), and couples the remaining 80%vol., the partial pressure of steam is only 373 pounds per square inch (2566 kPa)that meet the t temperature of saturated steam of about 437° F (225°C), but not 460°F (237.8° (C)that would be expected if steam had filled the technological apparatus 100 vol.%. Because the oxygen consumed in the oxidation reaction, the oxidation products is equal to the volume of consumed oxygen, which is not accompanied by a change in temperature due to changes in the partial pressure of steam. The volume of injected air was about 0.06 weight parts per one weight part of coal, but it must be remembered that the air pumped into the batch autoclave. For these reasons, the influence of the relationship of the volume of air to volume of steam at a steam temperature may explain the effect on the temperature of the volume or concentration of non-condensable gases as oxygen and nitrogen are non-condensable gases are exactly the same as the oxidation products of type carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) or carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide). Although carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are related to non-condensable gases, only the oxygen in the composition of carbon monoxide remains chemically active under those conditions, which provide the technological process in accordance with the present invention. Other volatile substances released from the material during the process, can also be non-condensable gas type methane, propane, hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulfide), is ioxide sulfur (sulfur dioxide), etc.

Example 4

In another series of two different tests of the same type of coal, which is described in example 1, the air constantly blowing into the drying chamber in one trial and was not used very different. By analogy with example 3 technological device was continuously ventilated. In both tests the process conditions were the same, were the same operating temperatures and processing times. After the liquid collected in the two trials consisting of moisture released from the coal, steam and condensate soluble volatile organic compounds was analyzed, it was found that obtained when tested in the presence of air fluid contains a lower concentration of total organic carbon is approximately 278 milligrams per liter (μg/l), whereas the liquid obtained from testing in the absence of air contains about 620 μg/l total organic carbon. This indicates that the oxygen in the air react with organic substances which, issuing from coal, either before or during contact with water. The same was evident due to the lighter coloring of the water-soluble organic compounds in the test with air injection. Partial oxidation of organic substances in a processing unit in General is useful, as it is in the future is nijaat the cost of using and cleaning water. The volume of air, zakachivatsya in technological device during this test was about 0.002 weight parts per one weight part of coal in continuous flow throughout the test.

Example 5

In the test described in example 1, in the upper and lower sections of the autoclave were thermocouples. As the steam condenses isothermal at the temperature of saturation after heating coal to operating temperature, it can be expected that both thermocouples should show the same temperature during thermal drying of coal, but actually it is not. In the analysis of coal on the quantity of volatile substances before and after processing is shown that from 1 wt.% up to 5 wt.% the weight of the coal is lost due to evaporation of volatile substances in the test mode MAF (the presence of free fluid and ash). Thus, the analysis of non-condensable gases generated in the drying process of the coal when tested in the absence of air flow, shows that about 95% vol. lost of volatile substances is carbon dioxide. In trials in the autoclave any non-condensable gas generated in the process, usually not removed from the drying chamber until the end of the test. If carbon dioxide is uniformly mixed with the steam, it can be expected that the two thermocouples at the top and bottom of the autoclave will register the same is the temperature, however, if the camera has one non-condensable gas, it will be somewhat smaller than one would predict on the basis of the pressure of saturated steam (see example 3). In all trials in an autoclave, in which the liquid is removed from the drying chamber during the test, the lower thermocouple first shows the same temperature as that of the upper thermocouple, but in the process of testing the lower thermocouple begins to show a lower temperature than the upper, and the difference can reach 35°F (1.7°C). According to the results of the volumetric measurements it is known that the temperature drop in the lower thermocouple is not connected with the processes in the liquid and is caused by processes in the space filled with vapor above the liquid layer. In one of the tests it was decided to remove the fluid before the end of the test, which immediately led to equalization of the temperatures recorded by both thermocouples and the subsequent drop in temperature as the fluid began to accumulate again until the next removal of water. This test procedure and the observations were repeated many times, giving the same result when various designs of technological equipment. Now it is clear that gases with high molecular weight, such as carbon oxide with a molecular weight of 44, not mixed homogeneously with water vapor having a mol the molecular weight 18, and instead fall down in the form of a thin layer. As in the tests had accumulated a layer of carbon dioxide, the temperature of saturated steam, measured by thermocouple, consistently decreased due to the decrease in the partial pressure of steam (see example 3 for a discussion of the influence of non-condensable gases on the temperature of saturated steam). While carbon dioxide is concentrated in a thin layer directly above the liquid surface. When the liquid surface is lowered due to the removal of liquid, the carbon dioxide were not removed, but the position of the layer of carbon dioxide decreased, allowing thermocouple to measure the temperature of the gas, which was mostly water vapor, and not a mixture of water vapor with carbon dioxide. In order to ensure the removal of non-condensable gases with high molecular weight of the processing apparatus, it is necessary to use special procedures. Of course, the reverse situation can also occur for non-condensable gases whose molecular weight is less than that of water vapor, such as hydrogen with molecular weight 2.

Example 6

Coal is also thermally processed in semi-continuous mode in a processing unit having an internal diameter of 6 inches at a height vertically 60 inches (1.524 m) and equipped with a gated input hopper and the output is a diversified gateway hopper with the appropriate valves. In the apparatus was loaded with approximately 12 pounds (5.4 kg) of coal every 12-14 minutes to maintain the level of material in the apparatus when the total duration of the technological process in 50-55 minutes. Two tests showed undoubted usefulness adequate removal of water prior to discharge of the technological apparatus. In the trials used coal from the mine Black Thunder in size from minus 1 inch to plus 8 mesh with moisture content of 25.8% and a calorific value 9078 BTU per pound (21115 kJ/kg). The coolant used was saturated with water vapor at a temperature of 459°F (237.2°C) and pressure 462.5 pounds per square inch (3182 kPa). When removing the liquid that separates from coal, and steam condensate from the bottom of the camera technological device and the ventilation chamber before discharge to the output rotary hopper level of internal moisture of the dried coal after unloading amounted to 5.0 wt.% when the calorific value 11554 BTU per pound (26875 kJ/kg). If the liquid was not removed properly from the bottom of the camera technological apparatus and dried coal was unloaded together with the accompanying liquid, the level of internal moisture in the material after unloading was much higher and amounted to 12.6 wt.% when the calorific value 10791 BTU per pound (25100 kJ/kg).

A detailed description of the invention given here is only an example. The spirit and purpose of the invention should be considered, based on the proper interpretation of the claims.

1. Installation for processing carbon-containing material, characterized in that it contains a technological device that has a camera download portions of material, the input device for the transfer of material into the chamber and an output device for discharging material from the chamber, at least one inlet device for the heat environment installed with the possibility of connection with the source of the heat medium, which is the means for supplying the heat medium under pressure into the technological apparatus for direct contact with the material, at least one ventilation window in a processing unit installed with the possibility of selective removal of gases, at least one discharge device, connecting technological device with the hydraulic system for draining water, at least one separator having a discharge device is connected to at least one device for the removal of water from the process apparatus and which means separation of liquid and solid particles of the material.

2. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat medium is a saturated water vapor.

3. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat medium isone superheated steam.

4. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally contains a group of inlet devices for the heat environment, running the length of the technological device.

5. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally contains a group of discharge devices for fluid along the length of the technological device.

6. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally contains a group of separators for separating liquid and solid material particles located inside the drying chamber.

7. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one separator contains at least one rotating perforated table, located in a processing unit to perform a direct flow of liquid through the perforations in the collection tank of liquid connected to the drain of the device, and with the possibility of moving direction of the material radially to the walls of the technological device.

8. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one separator contains at least one perforated pipe positioned along at least part of the drying chamber between the input and output devices, and the hollow space of the at least one pipe is connected with a drain device for the liquid.

9. Installation according to claim 1, distinguished by the lasting themes at least one separator contains at least one perforated cone coaxial with the chamber, and having a vertex directed toward the input device, and a base attached to the walls of the chamber, and the hollow space of the at least one cone is connected with a reservoir for collecting fluid, which in turn is connected with a drain device for the liquid.

10. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one separator contains at least one truncated cone with perforated walls extending from the walls of the chamber toward the output device and ending with the hole, covering the vertical axis of the chamber, and the annular sump for collecting liquid located between the perforated wall of the cone and the wall of the chamber.

11. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises at least one input rotary hopper having an input device receiving carbonaceous materials, and the output device, coupled with the login process apparatus, at least one output rotary hopper having an input device that is connected to the output of the technological device, and output device discharging the treated carbonaceous material means further storage.

12. Installation according to claim 1, the tives such as those that it further comprises at least one inlet device in the camera technological device for gas installed with the possibility of connection with a source gas containing reactive oxygen.

13. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one of the intake device for the heat medium mounted for connection with a source gas containing reactive oxygen.

14. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that it further contains an element of indirect heat exchange, located at a selected location inside the chamber technological device with indirect heating at least part of the loaded material.

15. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a system rehydration connected with the output device receiving the dehydrated material with the possibility of adding to the material moisture in a predetermined amount.

16. Installation for processing carbon-containing material, characterized in that it contains predominantly vertically oriented technological device that has an input device located in the upper part of the device, the output device located in the lower part of the machine, and a camera for receiving portions of the material extending from the input device to the output device, the group of inlet devices for the heat protection, installed on the possibility of connecting with the source of the heat medium and which is the means for supplying the heat medium under pressure into the chamber technological device for direct contact with the material, and the inlet for the heat environment are located in predetermined locations between the upper and lower parts of the machine, a group of drain valves for liquids, a group of ventilation ducts in a processing unit, group separators, while the inlet for the heat environment are located in predetermined locations between the upper and lower parts of the apparatus, the group of drain valves for liquids are located in predetermined locations between the upper and lower parts of the apparatus with camera connection technological device with the hydraulic system to remove fluid, the group of ventilation ducts located in predetermined locations between the upper and lower parts of the technological apparatus with selective removal of gases from the chamber technological device, and group separators located in pre-defined locations inside the camera with the possibility of separation of water and particulate material, and each separately a reservoir for collecting fluid, connected to at least one of the discharge devices.

17. Installation according to item 16, characterized in that the arrangement of ventilation ducts in a processing unit is pre-defined with the possibility of removal from the upper part of the chamber technological apparatus of lighter-than-water non-condensable products of the vapor formed in the chamber technological device, and removed from the lower part of the technological apparatus heavier-than-water non-condensable vapors generated in the chamber technological device.

18. Installation according to item 16, wherein the location of the inlets to the heat medium is predefined by enabling rapid heating up to a predetermined working temperature of feed material supplied to the input device technological device, and a rapid transition in the state of the pair of free moisture on the surfaces of the loaded material before exiting technological device.

19. Installation according to item 16, characterized in that the ventilation window in a processing unit located on the opposite side of the apparatus, but generally at the same height with the corresponding inlet devices the heat environment, and are a means of ensuring the effectiveness of the thread t is planetusa environment through the camera technological device.

20. Installation according to item 16, characterized in that it additionally contains a group of inlets for gas in camera technology device installed with the possibility of connection with a source gas containing a reactive oxygen, and along the technological device.

21. Installation according to claim 20, characterized in that the location of the inlets for gas largely coincides with the location of the inlets to the heat environment.

22. Installation according to item 16, characterized in that the inlet for the heat environment installed with the possibility of further connection with a source gas containing reactive oxygen.

23. Installation according to item 16, characterized in that each separator includes a first perforated conical surface located in the upper part of the chamber and extending radially and down, and the water collection tank under the first conical surface connected to the first drain device for water, at least one hollow tube with a perforated surface, passing down from the tank under the first perforated conical surface and connected with the bottom end with the second drain device for water separation table with a perforated surface, located in the lower part of the chamber under at least one Polo the pipe, and having a reservoir for collection of fluid underneath the perforated surface, which is connected to the third drain the device water.

24. Installation according to item 16, characterized in that it further comprises a system rehydration connected with the output device technological device for receiving dewatered material, which means moisturize dehydrated material pre-defined amount of water.

25. The method of processing carbon-containing materials having the first level equilibrium moisture content, characterized in that the installation according to claim 1 or 16 direct contacting of the material with the heat medium under pressure to heat the material to remove the moisture from it to the second level of moisture content, lower than the first, and a lowering of the equilibrium moisture content to a value that is between the first level of equilibrium moisture content and the second level, and carry out the separation of released moisture from the material.

26. The method according A.25, characterized in that exercise rehydration material to the third level of humidity that is higher than the second level of moisture, but lower than the first level of the equilibrium moisture content.

27. The method according A.25, characterized in that the heat medium is a n is sydeny pairs.

28. The method according to item 27, wherein the material is heated to a temperature intermediate between the minimum temperature at which the structure of the particles of the material becomes elastic, and the maximum temperature at which pyrolysis occurs.

29. The method according to p, characterized in that the minimum temperature is set mainly 400°F (204,4°C), and the maximum is mainly 500°F (260°C).

30. The method according to clause 29, wherein the material is heated under a pressure of from about 247 pounds per square inch (1699 kPa) to about 680 pounds per square inch (4678 kPa).

31. The method according A.25, characterized in that the heat medium is superheated steam.

32. The method according to item 27, wherein the heat medium is partly out of hot water under pressure, the condensing of the steam.

33. The method according to p, characterized in that the heat medium partly consists of hot water under pressure, the condensing of the steam.

34. The method according A.25, characterized in that the direct contacting of the material with the heat medium under pressure in the course of time, mainly from 5 to 1000 minutes

35. The method according A.25, characterized in that the direct contacting of the material with the heat medium under pressure for a time generally from 15 to 60 minutes

36. The method according A.25, characterized in that the direct contacting of the material with the heat medium under pressure over time from mostly 20 to 30 minutes

37. The method according to p. 25, wherein the second humidity level is in the range from about 20 to about 60% from the first level to the equilibrium moisture content.

38. The method according to p, characterized in that the third humidity level is in the range of from about 101 to about 125% from the second humidity level.

39. The method according to p, characterized in that the third humidity level is in the range from about 110 to about 120% of the second humidity level.

40. The method according to p, characterized in that the fluids are produced in a special chamber.

41. The method according to p, characterized in that the fluids produced by pulverizing the dehydrated material water through at least one spraying nozzle.

42. The method according to p, characterized in that the rehydration is carried out by mixing the dehydrated material with damp raw carbon-based material.

43. The method according A.25, characterized in that add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat of the environment in a quantity sufficient for thermal oxidation of at least part of the volatile organic substances, videsussees material.

44. The method according A.25, characterized in that add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat of the environment in a quantity sufficient to complete the oxidation reactions that lower the energy consumption for heating of the material.

45. The method according A.25, characterized in that add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat of the environment in sufficient quantity, cause passive oxidation of the reactive sites of the material to increase resistance to storage of dehydrated material.

46. The method according A.25, characterized in that add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat medium in the amount from mainly 0,00005 pounds (0.02 g) of oxygen per pound (0,454 kg) of material to be processed (dry) mainly to 0.05 pounds (22.7 g) of oxygen per pound (0,454 kg) of material to be processed (dry).

47. The method according A.25, characterized in that add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat medium in the amount from mainly 0,00001 pounds (0,0045 g) of oxygen per pound (0,454 kg) of material to be processed (dry) to basically 0.025 pounds (11,35 g) of oxygen per pound (0,454 kg) of material to be processed (dry).

48. The method according A.25, characterized in that add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat of the environment in quantities is mainly from 0,0005 pounds (0,227 g) of oxygen per pound (0,454 kg) of material to be processed (dry) up mainly of 0.01 pounds (4,54 g) of oxygen per pound (0,454 kg) of material to be processed (dry).

49. The method according A.25, characterized in that add gas containing chemically active oxygen, in the heat of the environment in a quantity sufficient to lower the mercury content in the material.

50. The method according A.25, characterized in that it further heated at least part of the material by indirect heat exchange.

51. The method according A.25, characterized in that sort of material in front of the direct contact with the heat environment to achieve particle sizes of the material, intermediate between the pre-selected values of the upper and lower limits of the range of sizes.

52. The method according to § 51, characterized in that the particle size of the material is divided between the upper and lower limits of the range of sizes in accordance with the distribution Rosina-Rummler for this material.

53. The method according to p. 25, wherein the carbonaceous material is coal.

54. The method according A.25, characterized in that exercise ventilation of non-condensable gases when heated material to establish a uniform temperature conditions throughout the mass of material.

55. Coal, characterized in that it is dehydrated by using a method according to item 53.

56. The method according to item 54, wherein the ventilation is produced continuously during heating of the material.

57. The method according to item 54, distinguish the different topics the ventilation is produced periodically during heating of the material.



 

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