Method of making system for metal plating silicon semiconductor devices

FIELD: electronics.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to electronics, particularly to microelectronics, and can be used when making silicon semiconductor devices. The method of making a system for metal plating silicon semiconductor devices involves forming a dielectric film based on silicon dioxide on a silicon substrate with active regions, formation in this film of contact windows to active elements of the substrate, deposition of a film of molten aluminium with a given thickness, formation of the metal pattern and subsequent thermal treatment for obtaining ohmic contacts. Thermal treatment is carried out in a hydrogen atmosphere with addition of 0.5-3.0 vol.% water or 0.25-1.5 vol.% oxygen.

EFFECT: higher quality of the system of metal plating due to reduced defectiveness and improved electrical characteristics.

1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of electronic equipment, in particular to microelectronics, and can be used in the manufacture of silicon semiconductor devices.

The steady increase in the degree of integration of semiconductor devices, accompanied by a decrease in the size of their elements, leads to a significant increase in used working densities of electric current [1]. The increase in the density of electric current, in turn, leads to the degradation of the electric characteristics of the metallization systems and their failure. This is due to the fact that during the flow of electric current of high density, the phenomenon mass transfer conductor material in the direction of flow of electrons, causing it to rupture. This phenomenon has received the name of electromigration, and to date, the reliability and durability of most semiconductor devices in General is determined by the stability of their systems metallization to this phenomenon. Most semiconductor devices are manufactured in planar technology with use for electrical connections of the various elements between the conductive film systems desired geometric configuration. The main material for their production almost from the moment of occurrence and up to the present time are plait the key on the basis of aluminum.

The typical process of manufacturing the metallization system of the semiconductor devices are widely described in the technical literature and involves the successive formation on a silicon substrate with active regions of the dielectric film formation in the film contact Windows to the active areas, application of a film of aluminum, forming a pattern of electrical wiring and subsequent heat treatment to provide the desired electrical characteristics of the system [2-5].

The dielectric used is primarily based film of silicon dioxide of a thickness of from 0.3 to 1.5 μm. The film thickness of the aluminum is from 0.5 to 2.0 μm. The process of thermal treatment of the resulting system is conducted usually in an inert atmosphere at a temperature of 450-550°C for 5-30 minutes, It is intended to recrystallization of the aluminum film and the formation of ohmic contact of aluminum to silicon. An inert atmosphere is required to prevent corrosion of the metal film, resulting in a marked reduction of its electrical conductivity. Temperature range of the process is determined by the temperature of formation of eutectic aluminum-silicon (˜577°C)and the time - kinetics of their interaction, as well as rescission effect of aluminum with respect to silicon oxide. This is because the surface of Chi is that of silicon, including in the contact Windows, always covered with a thin film of silicon oxide due to the high chemical activity of silicon and oxidation him in the air. The silicon oxide is an insulator, so this film prevents the formation of high-quality contact between the aluminum conductor and the active area of the semiconductor. On the other hand, obtained by different methods of vacuum deposition of aluminum film is pretty loose and has a higher electric resistance. During the cycle of heat treatment of the resulting system metallization aluminum interacts with silicon oxide in the contact Windows with the formation of aluminum oxide and pure silicon. The resulting aluminum oxide is dissolved in the aluminum film, the contact area should be cleaned from the dielectric and is formed of high-quality contact of aluminum with silicon. Simultaneous recrystallization of the aluminum film with its seal and a substantial improvement of the electrical characteristics.

Thus, heat treatment of the resulting system metallization ensures the formation of ohmic contacts to the active regions and a minimum electrical resistance of the metal film. The time-temperature parameters of the heat treatment process is determined by the interaction of aluminum is silicon oxide and the silicon in the contact Windows to the active areas of the device and to date are accepted.

The disadvantages of this process due to the high mutual solubility of aluminum and silicon and mass transfer of the film material under the influence of technological factors in the manufacturing process of the devices, as well as under the influence of an electric field in the course of their operation. This results in conditions of heat treatment in a subsequent operation to excessive dissolution of silicon in aluminum and electric circuit p-n junctions located directly underneath the contact area of the metal with the semiconductor, the thinning of current-carrying paths of the metallization system and their destruction.

The obvious way to reduce the solubility of silicon in aluminum is doped aluminum film silicon. The concentration of silicon in aluminum when this is selected close to the composition of the eutectic (98,68% Al + 1,32% Si). Manufacturing technology system metallization of semiconductor devices with the use of aluminum alloys with the addition of 1-3% silicon practically does not differ from previous similar [6]. Perhaps the only difference of this method is to conduct additional surgery to remove the silicon chips with surface structures after etching the film of the aluminum alloy.

The presence of silicon in the aluminum film slows down the process of dissolution of the substrate material in the metal and reduces mass transfer, due to the i.i.d. these phenomena. However, the mass transfer caused by the action of an electric field during operation of the device, thus practically not reduced.

This phenomenon is the subject of many works and it is established that the processes of electromigration occurs mainly at the grain boundaries of the conductive film. The grain boundaries are characterized by a high density of defects, showing electrical activity. Therefore, a further step to reduce mass transfer in metallization systems of semiconductor devices is the alloying of aluminum of different elements, i.e. the use of aluminum alloys [6]. Alloying elements are accumulated mainly at grain boundaries, thereby filling existing vacancies and reducing the density of electrically active defects in General. The choice of specific alloying element primarily due to the functionality and future operating conditions of the manufactured device.

The assessment of the sustainability of the system metallization of semiconductor devices to electromigration, usually by measuring the time tpwhere there is a rupture of conductive paths test test structures at elevated temperatures (up to 250° (C) and density flowing through the structure of the current (about 106And·cm-2). Velich is on t pis called the time of destruction or mean time between failure (UPE). Obtained under the conditions of test data extrapolate to normal conditions of operation of the device. Mathematically, the relationship between tpand test conditions is expressed as

where S is the cross-section, F is an empirical coefficient depending on the characteristics of the conductive system, the resistivity of the film material, the heat sink conditions, the characteristics of the test patterns, etc., j is the current density through the structure, Eandthe activation energy of the process of electromigration, k is the Boltzmann constant, T is the absolute temperature [7].

This shows that increasing the degree of integration, leading to a decrease in cross-sectional area of conductors S and increase the current density j, the stability of any system metallization to electromigration is reduced. Reserve to increase the reliability of the metallization system is to increase the activation energy Eandthe process of electromigration. With the increase of activation energy of only 0.1 eV, the reliability of the conductive system is increased 55 times. The value of Eais determined by the energy cost of separation of the atom from the crystal lattice and depends on the conductor material, and the perfection of its crystal structure. Improved the system metallization, in particular, the defects of the metal film is determined by its crystal structure, affects the activation energy of the process of mass transfer. With the increase of defects Eadecreases the mass transfer process is accelerated, which leads to reduction in EIT. Rupture of conductive paths and the failure of the device.

The use of aluminum alloys gives a noticeable positive effect by reducing the concentration of electrically active defects, however, is not a radical method, as it doesn't reduce the influence of defects to zero. Therefore, the system of metallization using aluminum alloys are also characterized by the presence of significant electromigration.

Closest to the invention, its prototype is the method of manufacturing systems metallization of silicon semiconductor devices, comprising forming on a silicon substrate with active regions of the dielectric film on the basis of silicon dioxide, forming in this film contact Windows to the active elements of the substrate, applying a film of an aluminum alloy of a specified thickness, forming a pattern of metallization and subsequent heat treatment in hydrogen atmosphere [8].

The time-temperature parameters of the process of thermal structures in hydrogen are the same as in the above cases. The thickness of the prisoner is to depend on the degree of integration of devices, determining the size of the active areas, and also meet the above intervals.

Passivation of the grain boundaries by hydrogen during the heat treatment of the metallization system is the most effective method of dealing with electromigration. Hydrogen has a small size of the atom, easily penetrates into the metal film exhibits high chemical activity in various structures and joins in on bonds. Grain boundaries are characterized by a large number of unsaturated bonds and a well adsorb hydrogen. This enables higher energy separation of the atom from the crystal lattice, which ultimately leads to an increase of the activation energy of the process of electromigration.

However, processing of the received system metallization of semiconductor structures in hydrogen has a negative side. This is due to the high reducing ability of hydrogen. Silicon dioxide at a high temperature is reduced by hydrogen to the oxide and silicon. Most susceptible to reduction with hydrogen defective areas, areas of high mechanical stress, the edges of the steps topological relief, etc. Recovered silicon when it is saturated with hydrogen, i.e. the resulting surface film is nothing other than hydrogenated amorphous to what emniem (other names: a-Si:H, α-silicon)having electronic conductivity. The thickness of this film is extremely heterogeneous and is negligibly small, but its influence on the electrophysical characteristics of the resulting metallization system significantly. The surface of silicon oxide between tracks metallization becomes conductive, there are uncontrolled parasitic leakage current. The amount of leakage depends on the type of film (e.g., plasma-CVD silicon oxide, phosphorothioate glass, pyrolytic silicon oxide and the like), technology access and other factors.

In addition, the hydrogen diffuses through the film of metal alloy and reacts with the silicon oxide located directly under the metal film. There is a partial recovery of the material of the dielectric isolation and the loss of its dielectric properties. The most intensive restoration dielectric observed in areas of various defects - pores, mechanically strained areas etc. In the course of further operation of the device this leads to the formation of conductive channels in the dielectric with a local heating up to the formation of pereplavlennyj areas. After penetration on the site of a conducting channel occurs funnel, and the leakage current through it disappears. Further, the situation is repeated in another the defect region. This process proticall the values of electrical voltage on the structure far below the breakdown voltage, leads to instability and failure. This phenomenon is called "healing" and is described in the literature [9].

Further thermal operations for forming patterns of a semiconductor device (for example, the formation of pestiviruses coverage) is not always recovers lost dielectric properties. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is formed on the dielectric surface during the heat treatment in hydrogen, while not completely oxidized. And in cases where further thermal operation is not provided, the quality of the metallization system and remains at a relatively low level.

Thus, the disadvantage of the prototype is the relatively low quality of the metallization system due to the leakage of electric current for insertion defects dielectric isolation.

The task of the invention is to improve the quality of the metallization system by reducing its defects and improve electrical characteristics.

The problem is solved in that in the method of manufacturing systems metallization of silicon semiconductor devices, comprising forming on a silicon substrate with active regions of the dielectric film on the basis of silicon dioxide, forming what this film contact Windows to the active elements of the substrate, applying a film of an aluminum alloy of a specified thickness, forming a pattern of metallization and subsequent heat treatment to obtain ohmic contacts, a heat treatment is carried out in an atmosphere of hydrogen with the addition of volume % 0,5-3,0 water or % by volume of 0.25-1.5 oxygen.

The essence of the proposed technical solution is the suppression of the recovery process of silicon dioxide with hydrogen in the formation of ohmic contacts and the crystalline structure of the metal film.

The process of chemical interaction of hydrogen with silicon dioxide, which is the main component of the dielectric takes place in accordance with the reactions:

SiO2+H2→SiO+H2O↑.

SiO+H2→Si+H2O↑.

Si+H2→Si:H.

The total reaction is:

SiO2+nH2→Si:H+mH2O↑.

The final products of the reaction is αsilicon and water. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon remains on the surface of the dielectric, and the water carried away by the stream of hydrogen. To detect the presence of α-silicon on a dielectric surface is very easy on the phenomenon of wetting the silica is wetted, water vapor on its surface to form a continuous film, and αsilicon is not wetted in water vapor on its surface are formed droplets.

As the process thermobreak is formed a growing number α -silicon. The continuous removal of the reaction products (water) from the zone of interaction provides a process flow only in the forward direction, although in fact it is reversible. The claimed technical solution to prevent the formation of a-Si:H is its constant oxidation due to additives in the reaction mixture of water or oxygen, providing for interaction with hydrogen equivalent amount of water according to the reaction:

2H2+O2=2H2O.

In this case, the heat treatment is accompanied by two competing processes. On the one hand, there is the interaction of silicon dioxide with hydrogen with the formation of a-Si:H, and on the other a-Si:H immediately oxidized with water vapor to the original dioxide. Maintaining speeds of these processes on the same level is ensured by the choice of the water vapor concentration in the reaction mixture. It is found experimentally that the optimum concentration range of the water in the hydrogen is 0.5 to 3.0 volume percent, which corresponds approximately to 0.25 to 1.5 volume percent of oxygen. When this concentration is provided, the passivation of the grain boundaries of the metal film by hydrogen and prevents the formation of a conductive film of a-Si:H on the surface of the dielectric. The use of lower concentrations of water and oxygen, such as 0.1 volume PR is cents not prevent the film a-Si:H. Bógreater same concentration, for example, the corresponding 5 volume percent water, lead to a deterioration of the conductivity of the metal film due to its oxidation.

Thus, the use of the proposed method for the formation of the crystalline structure of the metal films metallization of silicon semiconductor devices prevents the formation on the surface of the dielectric thin conductive film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, which improves the quality of the metallization system as a whole.

The inventive method was implemented in the manufacture of devices TL431M. The active elements of a structure formed by standard methods in accordance with the requirements of the current technical documentation. As interlevel dielectric insulation used different dielectrics on the basis of silicon dioxide. The specific dielectric type specified in the table. After opening contact Windows on the entire surface of the plate was applied a film of aluminum alloy. The thickness of the obtained film and the type of alloy is indicated in the table. Further standard methods formed the desired topological figure conductive system and have it heat treated to obtain the desired crystal structure. the composition of the atmosphere and heat treatment temperature and time parameters specified in the table.

Simultaneously with the workers formed a test structure for monitoring system parameters metallization, including the breakdown voltage dielectric isolation U1the voltage U2at which the current through the structure has reached 1, and the activation energy of electromigration. The presence on the surface of the dielectric a-Si:H was assessed by its wettability in water vapor. The presence of the effect of "healing" was observed in the microscope and directly on the screen of the device PNHT-1 during the measurement process. On the screen was observed surge current and voltage drop, and the structure was formed by a dark spot (pereplavlenny defect).

Then there was the electric measurement test elements and control operation of the resulting structures. Measurement elektroparametram of the obtained structures was performed by standard methods, the control of the activation energy for electromigration conducted in accordance with [10]. The testing results are shown in table. Values U1and U2are averaged over five points on the plate.

The data show that the inventive method of manufacturing the metallization system provides compared to the prototype significantly large voltage U2when the current through the structure reaches 1. This parameter reflects the magnitude of the leakage current due to the presence of conductive p is Enki on a dielectric surface. These voltage for the proposed method is close to the breakdown voltage structures U1. For the prototype also relatively low (˜200 less in relation to the U1values U2indicating a significant leakage current. As can be seen from the table, this fact agrees well with the wettability of the surface of the dielectric and the manifestation of the effect of "healing". The lack of wettability of the dielectric surface indicates the presence on its surface of a foreign film, and the presence of the effect of "healing" at undervoltage U2indicates the higher defects of the dielectric. The activation energy of electromigration in all cases are almost identical, i.e. the additive in the composition of the atmosphere heat treatment of water or oxygen in the stated quantities does not affect the stability of the system metallization to electromigration. Using the proposed method for the fabrication of the metallization system avoids these disadvantages.

Thus, the inventive method of manufacturing systems metallization of silicon semiconductor devices in comparison with the prototype provides a higher quality by reducing defects interlevel dielectric and improve its electrical characteristics.

Sources of information

1. Valiev K.A., Orlikowski A.A., Vasil is in A.G., Lukichev V.B. have been Problems create a highly reliable multilevel connections VLSI.// Microelectronics. 1990. T. No. 2. P.116-131.

2. Stepanenko I.P. Fundamentals of microelectronics. - M.: Soviet radio, 1980. - 424 S.

3. The Kolosnitsyn BS, Steshenko P.P., Chulkov CENTURIES Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits: a tutorial. - Mn.: Amalfeya, 2001. - 272 S.

4. Parfenov AD Technology chipset: textbook for universities for a degree in Design and production of EVA". - M.: Higher school, 1986, - 320 C., Il.

5. Striga VI, Buzaneva E.V. Physical basis of the reliability of the contact metal-semiconductor integrated electronics. - M.: Radio and communication, 1987. - 256 S.: ill.

6. Dostanko A.P., Baranov V.V., V.V. Shatalov conductive Film of the VLSI system. - Minsk: the graduate school, 1989. - 238

7. Koleshko V.M., Belitsky V.F. mass Transfer in thin films. - Minsk: Science and technology, 1980. - 296 S.

8. Technology VLSI: 2 kN. KN. TRANS. from English./ Edited SSI. - M.: Mir. 1986. - 453 S. (s, prototype)

9. Gluckin OP Electrical methods for the study of defects in thin dielectric layers. // The MA ser, 1983, issue 2 (935), 21 S.

10. The industry standard OST 1114.1012-99. Chip integrated.

Technical requirements to the technological process. The system and methods of operational control.

Pic is b manufacturing system metallization of silicon semiconductor devices, including forming on a silicon substrate with active regions of the dielectric film on the basis of silicon dioxide, forming in this film contact Windows to the active elements of the substrate, applying a film of an aluminum alloy of a specified thickness, forming a pattern of metallization and subsequent heat treatment to obtain ohmic contacts, wherein the heat treatment is carried out in an atmosphere of hydrogen with addition of 0.5 to 3.0 vol.% water or 0.25 to 1.5 vol.% the oxygen.



 

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