Self-locking differential

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transport machine building, in particular, to automotive and tractor driving axles. The self-locking differential incorporates housing (2), driven gear wheel (1), output half-axles (7), two free travel mechanisms, driving gear coupling (4) with end face trapezoidal teeth and two driven half-couplings with the like teeth rigidly coupled with the free travel mechanism driven cages (6). Gear coupling (4) with the end face trapezoidal teeth is linked with housing (2) to axially move. The distance along the axis between the tooth crests of one and the tooth space of the other driven half-coupling equals the axial distance between the driving coupling (4) crests. The number of end face teeth of each half-coupling is a multiple of the number of locking bodies (8) of the free travel mechanisms. Both such mechanisms are arranged so that, on cutting in, the driven half-coupling crests get aligned with the driving coupling (4) tooth spaces. The driven half-coupling and driving coupling (4) teeth feature an identical profile.

EFFECT: higher safety of vehicles and simpler design of self-locking differential.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of transport engineering, in particular to the driven axles of automobiles and tractors.

Known differential freewheel (see A.S. No. 1763761 A1, IPC F16 1/38, 1/32, 1989), which contains the axis, separators, placed in the last rollers, a housing with internal teeth for engagement with the rollers disposed between the axes spacer sleeve, elastic and frictional elements. The disadvantage of this differential is low durability due to high contact stresses in the contact area of the rollers with the internal teeth of the housing.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result of the claimed invention is self-locking differential (see patent No. 2238459, IPC F16 48/20, 48/16, UK 17/16, 2004), which includes a housing, master and slave gears, drive shaft, output shafts, two free-wheeling mechanism (USDA), linking the past with the driven toothed wheel, and mechanism for coordination of the Ministry of agriculture. On the output mechanism is a mechanism for coordinating the work of the Ministry of agriculture, representing blocks of gear external gear rigidly connected among themselves and with the possibility of axial movement along the axes for subsequent engagement more gear unit with crown gears internal gears or a lower gear when encom gears internal gears through the parasitic wheel.

This differential has the following disadvantages. First, the low level of traffic safety, due to the inability to transmit torque in the opposite direction, i.e. from the ground wheels on the motor shaft. This eliminates the possibility of engine braking and run it in the forward mode. In this regard, the scope of this differential is limited to low-speed transport. Secondly, the complexity of the design due to the need for a system of levers and rods to move blocks of gear harmonize the work of the Ministry of agriculture under the direction of rotation of the drive shaft. Third, complicated the work of the driver of the vehicle in view of the forced control blocks movement of the gears when changing the direction of rotation of the drive shaft.

The task of the invention is to remedy these disadvantages.

This object is achieved in that a limited-slip differential, comprising a housing, a follower gear, output shafts and two free-wheeling mechanism, equipped with two-way gear freewheel, consisting of leading mechanical coupling with trapezoidal teeth associated with the housing for axial movement, and two driven parts of the coupling with the mechanical trapezoidal teeth, USTC is associated with slave clips mechanisms of free running. The distance along the axis between the tops of the teeth of one and valleys of the teeth of the other slave coupling is equal to the axial distance between the tops of the teeth leading clutch. The number of mechanical teeth each coupling multiple of the number of bodies jamming mechanisms of free running. Both free-wheeling mechanism is installed with the possibility at the time of their inclusion matches in the circumferential direction of the peaks of the teeth of the driven parts of the coupling with the tooth leading clutch. The teeth of the trailing hub and the leading couplings have the same profile.

Due to the fact that the leading tooth clutch is connected to the housing of the differential axial movement, and the driven gear coupling rigidly connected with the slave clips mechanisms of a free motion, the rigid connection of the output axle shafts to the housing of the differential, which makes possible the transmission of torque from the driving wheels to the drive shaft and the braking of the vehicle engine.

Due to the trapezoidal profile of the teeth of the clutch when the vehicle along a curved section of road with a steep descent in engagement leading clutch slave coupling appears unbalanced component of the force of engagement that facilitate axial displacement of the leading coupling direction of the coupling halves with less torque. Due to the fact that the measure length along the axis between the tops of the teeth of one and valleys of the teeth of the other slave coupling is equal to the axial distance between the tops of the teeth leading clutch, provides access to one of the coupling halves and the associated radius from engagement with the leading coupling, i.e. automatic shutdown of one of the output shafts. This facilitates rotation of the output axle shafts and associated running gear wheels with different angular velocities while maintaining the kinematic connection between the motor shaft and driving wheel, which increases the safety of the vehicle compared to the prototype.

By installing mechanisms of free running with the ability at the time of their inclusion matches in the circumferential direction of the peaks of the teeth leading gear couplings with the troughs of the teeth of the driven parts of the coupling in the moment of closing of the USDA, a gap between the working profiles of the teeth leading clutch and driven parts of the coupling, i.e. by automatically disabling or enabling the toothed clutch when changing the direction of rotation of the drive shaft without the use of a system of levers and rods. This simplifies the design compared to the prototype and facilitates the work of the driver.

Figure 1 presents a General view of the conventional prefilled auto-disable differential, figure 2 - cross section A-a in figure 1.

Offer a limited-slip differential consists of a leading bevel gear 1, case 2, is rigidly connected with him leading magazines 3 mechanisms of free running, installed between the toothed clutch 4 with the mechanical keystone is a distant teeth, associated with the casing 2 with the possibility of axial movement. Gear sleeve 4 mounted for engagement with two toothed coupling sleeve 5, rigidly connected with the slave clips 6 mechanisms of free running and having a trapezoidal end teeth. Slave cage 6 USDA still connected with the output axes 7 and have the opportunity to withdraw from the leading carriers 3 by means of phone jamming 8.

A limited-slip differential works as follows.

When the application of torque to the driven bevel gear 1 in the case of identical rotational speed of output axle shafts 7 torque is transmitted from the leading carriers 3 mechanisms of free running with the help of phone jamming 8 on slave cage 6 and the associated output axis 7. However, the working profiles of the teeth of the clutch 4 and the hub 5 is formed a gap.

In the case of turning of the vehicle, for example to the left, the angular velocity of the right axis 7 becomes greater than the speed of the leading clip 3. Right led ferrule 6 USDA rotates faster than the leading clip 3, i.e. idle. When this torque on the left axis 7 and the associated driven gear, the coupling 5 is greater than the moment on the right axis 7. Engages the driven parts of the coupling 5 with the leading toothed coupling 4 appears unbalanced axial costal is the one grappling, which completely removes leading the clutch 4 disengaged from the left coupling 5. While the right half coupling 5 is rotated with the leading clutch 4 as a whole. The whole point is passed on the left axis 7.

When the vehicle is in forward mode the angular velocity of the slave clips USDA 6 become more speeds leading carriers 3, both the MOA off. At this end teeth of driven coupling sleeve 5 engages with the teeth leading clutch 4 and the entire torque is transmitted from the output axes 7 through a coupling 4 to the differential case 2 and an associated driven bevel gear 1. This saves the kinematic relationship between the output axle shafts 7 and the differential case 2.

In the case of turning of the vehicle, for example to the right, while moving along a steep slope both mechanisms freewheel off. The leading tooth clutch 4 is moved along the axis, leaving out of engagement with the right coupling 5, and transmits through the left driven coupling half 5 on the differential case 2 and the driven bevel gear 1. Both output shafts 7 rotate at different speeds while maintaining the kinematic connection between the driven shaft 7 and the differential case 2.

When you enable reverse driven bevel gear 1 with the differential case 2 starts to rotate in the opposite directed and, both MOA thus making freeplay. The leading tooth clutch 4 transmits torque through the driven coupling 5 on the output axis 7.

A limited-slip differential, comprising a housing, a follower gear, output shafts and two free-wheeling mechanism, characterized in that it has a leading gear coupling, mechanical trapezoidal teeth connected to the housing with a possibility of axial displacement, two slave coupling with mechanical trapezoidal teeth, combined with slave clips mechanisms of free running, and the distance along the axis between the tops of the teeth of one and valleys of the teeth of the other slave coupling is equal to the axial distance between the tops of the teeth leading gear couplings, both free-wheeling mechanism is installed with the possibility at the time of their inclusion matches in the circumferential direction of the peaks of the teeth of the slave of the coupling with the tooth leading clutch, and the number of mechanical teeth each coupling multiple of the number of bodies jamming mechanisms of free running.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mechanic.

SUBSTANCE: the self-blocking differential contains a power-driven shell with lids, in which half shaft elements are placed coaxially and connected with the half shaft. The half shaft elements, on their external surface, have spiral grooves with a semi-circular cross-section, the direction of which is reverse to that of the spiral, rolling elements (balls) filling the closed channels in the power-driven shell, in chains. The closed channels contain working grooves open for inserting ball segments into the spiral grooves. The longitudinal bypass channels and the side return channels are formed by slots in the lids and cuts around the perimeter of the distribution washers installed on the half shaft elements. The distribution washers have a diameter equal to the working groove dimension.

EFFECT: increases reliability of self-blocking differential.

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FIELD: mechanic.

SUBSTANCE: the self-blocking differential contains a power-driven shell with lids, in which half shaft elements are placed coaxially and connected with the half shaft. The half shaft elements, on their upper surface, have spiral channels running in a direction opposite the spiral, odd number of rolling elements (balls), one closed channel containing a working groove open for inserting ball segments into the spiral channels of the half shaft elements; a longitudinal return channel with dimensions equal to the ball diameter, connected by intermediate channels made in the lids of the power-driven shell. The outside surface of the intermediate channels in the longitudinal section has a radius equal to 1.25 diameters of the ball; and their wall, at the outlet to the zone of connection to the return channel, contains a straight section. In the lids, a slot with dimensions equal to those of the working groove is made for placement of spiral channels of the half shaft elements in the intermediate channels area.

EFFECT: increased reliability of self-blocking differential.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in differential drives of vehicles with possibility of automatic wheel locking. Proposed self-locking differential of vehicle contains drive case accommodating axle-shaft members coupled with axle shafts and provided on outer surface semi-round in cross section screw grooves of opposite hand of helix, solids of revolution in form of balls filling, in chain, closed channels made in drive case and containing working grooves opened to dip ball segments into screws of axle-shaft members, longitudinal bypass channels and side return channels. Inner part of case consists of three parts. On extreme parts working grooves are made with opposite direction of helix relative to each other and to screw grooves of axle-shaft members. Middle part is made with width not exceeding diameter of balls and is furnished with through axial holes corresponding to size of diameter of balls. Angle of tilting of working and screw grooves to longitudinal axis is 74-76°. Side return channels in longitudinal section are made with sizes steplessly increasing from diameter of ball on ends of channels to 1.5 diameter of ball in central part of channels. Longitudinal bypass channels in cross section are made to size of diameter of ball, and inner side of channels is made at angle of 1-2° to center of bypass channel, with stepless transition in place of connection.

EFFECT: improved reliability and efficiency of locking.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in differential drives of wheeled vehicles made for automatic locking of wheels. Proposed self-locking differential of vehicle contains drive case 1 accommodating axle shaft-members 4, 5 arranged coaxially to each other and coupled with axle-shafts 2, 3. Said axle-shaft members are provided with helical grooves 6, 7 on outer surface with opposite hand of helix, solids of revolution in form of balls 8 filling in line at least one closed channel 10 made in drive case. Part of said channel is opened to dip segments of balls into helical grooves. Closed channel 10 is made rectangular in longitudinal section, with rounded off outer angles 12. Cross section of legs of rectangular closed channel is equal to diameter of balls 8. Number of balls in channel is odd.

EFFECT: simplified design of differential, reduced overall dimensions, increased manufacturability, strength and efficiency at self-locking.

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FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle transmissions.

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EFFECT: prevention of failure of differential lock caused by wedging of locking members between side gears, and falling out of locking members at unlocking, provision of stepless row of values of locking coefficient.

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FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to increase cross-country capacity and stability of vehicle at braking. Proposed differential lock mechanism contains locking device in form of friction mechanism including two members 1 and 2. Friction mechanism consists of pack of friction disk 3 and steel disks 4, two control pistons 7, air feed head 8 with union 9. Members 1, 2 of clocking device are connected by pairs of gears 10, 11, 12, 13 with axle-shafts 14, 15. Device is furnished additionally with air fed control system consisting of angular velocity pickups 16, 17, electronic control unit 18, electromagnetic control valve 19, relief valve 20, change-over switch 21, connecting air lines and electric wires.

EFFECT: increased cross-country capacity and stability of vehicle.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of control of differential locking of multidrive wheeled vehicles and it can be used at designing of systems to control tractive forces of driving wheels of multidrive vehicles and carrying out investigations of wheeled vehicles. proposed method of control of differential locks comes to locking of differential for definite periods of time at threshold values of mismatching of mechanical parameters of driving wheels intercoupled by said differential and unlocking differential at expiration of definite of time or at achievement of threshold value of steerability index. Unlocking of differentials at achievement of threshold value of steerability index is carried out individually, starting from differential whose locking has greater effect on steerability of wheeled vehicle.

EFFECT: enlarged range of control of traction forces on driving wheels to increase cross-country capacity and traction and speed properties at provision of required steerability of multidrive wheeled vehicles.

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Muscular drive // 2270780

FIELD: transport engineering; bicycles.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for devices automatically changing gear ratio without interruption of power flow. Proposed drive contains two differentials. Force sensor 5 is installed between input shaft 8 and common input of both differentials, namely power differential 1 and regulating second differential 2. Said force sensor 5 cuts in braking device 4 at rise of load, said braking devices is idling at direct drive and is connected with regulating input of second differential 2. As a result, output gear 21 of second differential 2 starts rotating and self-braking drive 3 releases carrier 25 of power differential 1. Proposed drive automatically changes over from direct drive to drive with changed gear ratio. Moment of changing over can be regulated by tensioner 6 of spring 19 of force sensor.

EFFECT: facilitated selection of step-down gear in wide range of gear ration depending on individual capabilities of user.

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Differential // 2267676

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: differential comprises housing (1), cross-shaped or straight shaft (5) of satellites, a number of satellites (4), and gear pair (2) of semiaxles. When gears (2) of semiaxles cooperate with satellites (4) the gear ratio changes at least in two stages. The number of stages is multiple to the number of teeth in satellites (4) and gears (2) of the semiaxles.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

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FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed differential has case 1 which accommodates coaxially installed axle-shafts of drive wheels, cages 7, 8, driven bushings 3, 4 with splines for connection with drive wheel axle-shafts coaxially installed in cages. Case 1 is made in form of cylindrical bushing on inner surface of which longitudinal wedging cavities for rollers 5, 6 are made. Each roller in each cavity can move along driven bushing from one wedging position into the other. Cages 7, 8 are made in form of hollow cylinders with rectangular holes on surface whose number corresponds to number of longitudinal wedging cavities for rollers. On end face surface of cages 7, 8 at least one slot is made on end face surface of one cage and hole with rigidly fitted-in pin on end face surface of other cage. Pin of one cage gets into slot of other cage forming movable link for angular displacement of cages in relatively opposite directions.

EFFECT: improved reliability, roadability and safety of vehicle.

5 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed differential has case 1 which accommodates coaxially installed axle-shafts of drive wheels, cages 7, 8, driven bushings 3, 4 with splines for connection with drive wheel axle-shafts coaxially installed in cages. Case 1 is made in form of cylindrical bushing on inner surface of which longitudinal wedging cavities for rollers 5, 6 are made. Each roller in each cavity can move along driven bushing from one wedging position into the other. Cages 7, 8 are made in form of hollow cylinders with rectangular holes on surface whose number corresponds to number of longitudinal wedging cavities for rollers. On end face surface of cages 7, 8 at least one slot is made on end face surface of one cage and hole with rigidly fitted-in pin on end face surface of other cage. Pin of one cage gets into slot of other cage forming movable link for angular displacement of cages in relatively opposite directions.

EFFECT: improved reliability, roadability and safety of vehicle.

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Differential // 2267676

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: differential comprises housing (1), cross-shaped or straight shaft (5) of satellites, a number of satellites (4), and gear pair (2) of semiaxles. When gears (2) of semiaxles cooperate with satellites (4) the gear ratio changes at least in two stages. The number of stages is multiple to the number of teeth in satellites (4) and gears (2) of the semiaxles.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

16 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Muscular drive // 2270780

FIELD: transport engineering; bicycles.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for devices automatically changing gear ratio without interruption of power flow. Proposed drive contains two differentials. Force sensor 5 is installed between input shaft 8 and common input of both differentials, namely power differential 1 and regulating second differential 2. Said force sensor 5 cuts in braking device 4 at rise of load, said braking devices is idling at direct drive and is connected with regulating input of second differential 2. As a result, output gear 21 of second differential 2 starts rotating and self-braking drive 3 releases carrier 25 of power differential 1. Proposed drive automatically changes over from direct drive to drive with changed gear ratio. Moment of changing over can be regulated by tensioner 6 of spring 19 of force sensor.

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FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of control of differential locking of multidrive wheeled vehicles and it can be used at designing of systems to control tractive forces of driving wheels of multidrive vehicles and carrying out investigations of wheeled vehicles. proposed method of control of differential locks comes to locking of differential for definite periods of time at threshold values of mismatching of mechanical parameters of driving wheels intercoupled by said differential and unlocking differential at expiration of definite of time or at achievement of threshold value of steerability index. Unlocking of differentials at achievement of threshold value of steerability index is carried out individually, starting from differential whose locking has greater effect on steerability of wheeled vehicle.

EFFECT: enlarged range of control of traction forces on driving wheels to increase cross-country capacity and traction and speed properties at provision of required steerability of multidrive wheeled vehicles.

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FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to increase cross-country capacity and stability of vehicle at braking. Proposed differential lock mechanism contains locking device in form of friction mechanism including two members 1 and 2. Friction mechanism consists of pack of friction disk 3 and steel disks 4, two control pistons 7, air feed head 8 with union 9. Members 1, 2 of clocking device are connected by pairs of gears 10, 11, 12, 13 with axle-shafts 14, 15. Device is furnished additionally with air fed control system consisting of angular velocity pickups 16, 17, electronic control unit 18, electromagnetic control valve 19, relief valve 20, change-over switch 21, connecting air lines and electric wires.

EFFECT: increased cross-country capacity and stability of vehicle.

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FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed differential contains case 1, side gears 2, and 3, planet pinions and locking device. Locking devices is made in form of ring shifter 7 connected with drive 8, pushers 10 arranged inside axles 9 of planet pinions, intermediate members and locking members. Differential includes also elastic stop, and spring inserts 17 and 18 placed between case 1 and rear surfaces 20 and 21 of side gears 2 and 3. Grooves are made on end face front surfaces of side gears 2 and 3. Said grooves have wavy profile corresponding to profile of locking members, and number of radial grooves is even.

EFFECT: prevention of failure of differential lock caused by wedging of locking members between side gears, and falling out of locking members at unlocking, provision of stepless row of values of locking coefficient.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in differential drives of wheeled vehicles made for automatic locking of wheels. Proposed self-locking differential of vehicle contains drive case 1 accommodating axle shaft-members 4, 5 arranged coaxially to each other and coupled with axle-shafts 2, 3. Said axle-shaft members are provided with helical grooves 6, 7 on outer surface with opposite hand of helix, solids of revolution in form of balls 8 filling in line at least one closed channel 10 made in drive case. Part of said channel is opened to dip segments of balls into helical grooves. Closed channel 10 is made rectangular in longitudinal section, with rounded off outer angles 12. Cross section of legs of rectangular closed channel is equal to diameter of balls 8. Number of balls in channel is odd.

EFFECT: simplified design of differential, reduced overall dimensions, increased manufacturability, strength and efficiency at self-locking.

4 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in differential drives of vehicles with possibility of automatic wheel locking. Proposed self-locking differential of vehicle contains drive case accommodating axle-shaft members coupled with axle shafts and provided on outer surface semi-round in cross section screw grooves of opposite hand of helix, solids of revolution in form of balls filling, in chain, closed channels made in drive case and containing working grooves opened to dip ball segments into screws of axle-shaft members, longitudinal bypass channels and side return channels. Inner part of case consists of three parts. On extreme parts working grooves are made with opposite direction of helix relative to each other and to screw grooves of axle-shaft members. Middle part is made with width not exceeding diameter of balls and is furnished with through axial holes corresponding to size of diameter of balls. Angle of tilting of working and screw grooves to longitudinal axis is 74-76°. Side return channels in longitudinal section are made with sizes steplessly increasing from diameter of ball on ends of channels to 1.5 diameter of ball in central part of channels. Longitudinal bypass channels in cross section are made to size of diameter of ball, and inner side of channels is made at angle of 1-2° to center of bypass channel, with stepless transition in place of connection.

EFFECT: improved reliability and efficiency of locking.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanic.

SUBSTANCE: the self-blocking differential contains a power-driven shell with lids, in which half shaft elements are placed coaxially and connected with the half shaft. The half shaft elements, on their upper surface, have spiral channels running in a direction opposite the spiral, odd number of rolling elements (balls), one closed channel containing a working groove open for inserting ball segments into the spiral channels of the half shaft elements; a longitudinal return channel with dimensions equal to the ball diameter, connected by intermediate channels made in the lids of the power-driven shell. The outside surface of the intermediate channels in the longitudinal section has a radius equal to 1.25 diameters of the ball; and their wall, at the outlet to the zone of connection to the return channel, contains a straight section. In the lids, a slot with dimensions equal to those of the working groove is made for placement of spiral channels of the half shaft elements in the intermediate channels area.

EFFECT: increased reliability of self-blocking differential.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanic.

SUBSTANCE: the self-blocking differential contains a power-driven shell with lids, in which half shaft elements are placed coaxially and connected with the half shaft. The half shaft elements, on their external surface, have spiral grooves with a semi-circular cross-section, the direction of which is reverse to that of the spiral, rolling elements (balls) filling the closed channels in the power-driven shell, in chains. The closed channels contain working grooves open for inserting ball segments into the spiral grooves. The longitudinal bypass channels and the side return channels are formed by slots in the lids and cuts around the perimeter of the distribution washers installed on the half shaft elements. The distribution washers have a diameter equal to the working groove dimension.

EFFECT: increases reliability of self-blocking differential.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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