Mine underground storage in permafrost rocks
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the area of underground storage in the permafrost rocks and can be used in the gas, oil-extracting and petrochemical industry. The mine underground storehouse in the permafrost breeds 1, will gain the basic tunnel development 2, inclined development 3 for passing of the basic tunnel excavation, operational 4 and technological 5 boreholes. The basic tunnel development 2 is executed with a side raise of the technological boreholes 5. The operational borehole 4 is drilled in the bottom part of tunnel development 2, thus in an operational borehole 4 pipelines for reception 8 and selection 9 products of storage are placed. The corner of an inclination of the basic tunnel development does not exceed size at which an absolute mark of the ground 6 basic tunnel developments 2 in a zone of accommodation of a technological borehole 5 does not exceed an absolute mark of its roof 7 in a zone of an arrangement of an operational borehole 4.
EFFECT: increases the efficiency and reliability of the operation of the mine storehouse, to increase useful volume.
2 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the field of underground storage in long-frozen sediments of oil, gas condensate and refined products and can be used in gas, oil and petrochemical industries.
Known underground storage shaft in long-frozen sediments, consisting of a main horizontal tunnel production, technological and production wells located at opposite ends of the tunnel generation .
The disadvantage of this underground storage is that when it is full, the roof of the main tunnel production can be air, which reduces the useful volume of the storage and preventing the frosting of ice lining.
Closest to the claimed technical solution is mine underground storage in long-frozen sediments containing the main tunnel production, inclined production for sinking the main tunnel production, operational and technological wells . The solution is taken as a prototype.
The disadvantage of this underground storage is that when filled through operating the receiving bore, in particular a liquid product with a positive temperature at the bottom of an underground repository will be erosion the processes with soil washout main tunnel production and removal of soil in the sump wells selection of the product, which will inevitably lead to failure of the submersible pump.
Our problem is to increase the efficiency of operation of underground storage in long-frozen rocks.
In the result, achieved the following benefits of the proposed structures:
effective mixing of warmer product supplied in an underground vault, with the contained cold product;
- prevention of erosion soil erosion the main tunnel production;
- reduction of heat stored product on the walls of the main tunnel production, particularly on the roof, the most vulnerable to destruction in contact with warmer product.
This is achieved by the fact that in underground storage in long-frozen sediments containing the main tunnel production, inclined production for sinking the main tunnel production, operational and technological well, the main tunnel production performed with the rise in the technological side of the well and a production well drilled in the lower part of the tunnel production, with production well placed pipelines to receive and selection of product storage. The angle of the main tunnel production does not exceed the value at which the absolute level of the soil foundations of the th tunnel production in the area of technological wells do not exceed the absolute level of its roof in an area where wells.
Execution tunnel production with a bias towards production wells eliminates erosion erosion of soil development and the demolition of the mineral particles in the sump and, therefore, increases the reliability and lifetime of a submersible pump.
The location of technological wells at the site with the maximum absolute mark eliminates the formation of air voids in the roof framing when taking product storage and provides its full completion.
Placement of tubes for receiving and selection of product storage in one production well located at the site with the minimum absolute mark of soil main tunnel excavations, provides constant stirring accept product storage due to natural convection of warmer product, rising from the lowest level tunnel production to the top of the cooled layer, thereby reducing thermal impact on the capacity of frozen rocks.
In addition, given the angle of the main tunnel production allows to obtain the maximum area of the cooling surface of the product at minimum power the top of the cooled layer. This process occurs before the moment when the overall level of product in the storage reaches the roof of the main tunnel excavation.
Thus, the sum in shiprecycling signs improves the efficiency of operation of underground storage in long-frozen rocks.
Figure 1 shows a vertical section of underground storage in long-frozen rocks with partial filling it with liquid product, and figure 2 - when it is full.
Underground storage in long-frozen sediments 1 consists of a main tunnel generation 2, the inclined generate 3, 4 operational and technological 5 wells. The main tunnel production of 2 completed with a rise in the technological side of the well 5, and the angle of its inclination does not exceed the value at which the absolute level of the soil 6 tunnel generation 2 in the area of the technological hole 5 does not exceed the absolute level of its roof 7 in the area of wells 4. In the production well 4 posted by pipe 8 for the reception of the product storage and pipe 9 for its selection, in which is installed a submersible pump 10. In soil 6 tunnel generation 2 at the site of placement of wells 4 made the sump 11. Technological bore 5 is provided with a breather valve 12, through which an exclusion of air from the mine to the store when filled with product storage 13. On completion inclined generation 3 from the surface of the seal layers nomorejavaman podopechnym solution 14.
The work of underground storage in long-frozen on the odes as follows.
To fill the main tunnel generation 2 underground storage in long-frozen sediments through the pipe 8 wells 4 serves liquid product 13, for example, stable gas condensate, freezing temperature below the temperature of accommodating long-permafrost 1. The product level 13 when filling the main tunnel generation 2 gradually increases upward with simultaneous displacement of air in the atmosphere through a breather valve 12 technological hole 5. If the primary tunnel generation 2 is filled in the summer and the temperature of the product 13 is greater than the temperature of the accommodating long-permafrost 1, in the main tunnel development 2 pre-reserved portion of the contained cold product 13. When this warmer product supplied through the pipe 8 wells 4, now mixed with cold product 13 due to natural convection, resulting in surfacing more of the warm liquid.
Due to the fact that the main tunnel production of 2 completed with a rise in the technological side of the hole 5, it is filled with product storage 13 evenly filling the entire volume of output without air voids under the roof 7. Placement of tubes for receiving the product storage area with minimal absolute mark of soil 6 main tonnes is through generation 2 eliminates thermal erosion of soil development and the demolition of the ground particles in the sump 11 wells 4.
Because the absolute level of the soil 6 main tunnel generation 2 near technological hole 5 does not exceed the absolute level of its roof 7 at the site of placement of wells 4, the upper level of product storage 13, until you are approaching the technological borehole 5, does not reach the roof level 7 main tunnel generation 2 near production well 4 (figure 1). While the air trapped above the surface of the injected product 13, will serve as the heat insulating layer between the upper layer of product storage 13 and 7 tunnel roof framing 2. Under the scheme will be receiving product storage 13 to fill the main tunnel generation 2 (Fig 2). At the end of the shelf life of the product 13 last pumped to the consumer submersible pump 10 through a pipe 9 that is installed in the production well 4.
Thus, improving the efficiency of operation of underground storage in long-frozen sediments is achieved:
- reduction of thermal loads on the long-frozen rocks, containing the main tunnel production, which increases its long-term stability and life underground storage;
- with the exception of the development of thermal processes and the demolition of the ground particles in the sump wells in soil main tunnel is robotki while filling product storage, that increases the reliability of the submersible pump and its operation;
- maximum increase the efficiency of the main tunnel production due to its roof with a rise in the technological side of the wells located on the site of the main tunnel production, the opposite area wells.
A specific example of underground storage in long-frozen sediments can serve the projected underground storage stable gas condensate in the amount of 75 thousand m3in Yamburgskoye gas condensate field. Underground storage consists of a main tunnel excavations, sloping generation for sinking the main tunnel production, operational and technological wells. Hatchback generation section 14 m2passed in long-frozen sediments to a depth of 16 meters at an angle of 16° to the horizon. The depth of the main tunnel production temperature of perennial species varies from minus 3.5°to minus 4,0°C. the Main tunnel generation section 16.4 m2has a length of 320 meters. The absolute elevation of the soil surface of the main tunnel production in the area of technological wells at 2.5 m below the absolute level of the roof framing at the site of placement of wells. Perfo is operating well equipped with a pipe for filling the main tunnel generation product storage and pipe for its selection, in which is mounted submersible pump. The service life of underground storage is 50 years by providing conditions for the preservation of long-frozen soils under natural subzero temperatures.
Filling the underground storage of gas condensate in the autumn-winter period, the temperature of the condensate must not exceed the temperature of the accommodating long-frozen soils. The selection of the product to the consumer is at the end of the summer navigation period.
Sources of information
1. Smirnov, V.I. Construction of underground oil storage. M, Gasoil press, 2000, p.75.
2. Smirnov, V.I. Construction of underground oil storage. M, Gasoil press, 2000, p.16 (prototype).
1. Underground storage in long-frozen sediments containing the main tunnel production, inclined production for sinking tunnel production, operational and technological hole, characterized in that the main tunnel production performed with the rise in the technological side of the well and a production well drilled in the lower part of the tunnel production, with production well placed pipelines to receive and selection of product storage.
2. Underground storage in long-frozen sediments according to claim 1, characterized in that the angle of the primary tones the school production does not exceed the values in which the absolute level of the soil the main tunnel production in the area of technological wells do not exceed the absolute level of its roof in an area where wells.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to remove the water from gas and gas-condensate fields. The method includes injecting methanol with the specified concentration (C) [mass percent] as an inhibitor, into reservoir. The (C) is determined by mathematical correlation.
EFFECT: amount of methanol is reduced.
FIELD: methods or devices for use in mines or tunnels, not covered elsewhere, particularly modification of mine passages or chambers for storage purposes, especially for liquids or gases.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling wells in deposit and developing thereof by partial separated produced gas return. Gas extracted from deposit with high light-weight methane fraction content is returned through production wells into roof area of deep sited deposit at final deposit development stage under pressure less that saturation pressure to form gas cap. Underground natural gas storage is created in the gas cap.
EFFECT: decreased costs for storage creation, decreased storage creation time, increased coefficient of final hydrocarbon recovery in oil field developed by natural pressure depletion without tank gas and other valuable hydrocarbons output volume with the use of common production equipment.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes driving a mine for cleaning sump and connecting it to sump in such a way, that mine soil for cleaning sump in place of connection is placed at level of shaft bottom, construction of water collector, located outside the shaft, and its connection with mine for cleaning sump, mechanized cleaning of sump. Transporting slope is driven to level of sump cleaning. Then water collector is driven. Mine for cleaning sump is driven with deflection towards water collector. Sump cleaning is performed by delivering spillage along transporting slope.
EFFECT: simplified operations, lower laboriousness.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: gas, oil, oil refining and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to building and operation of underground reservoir in stable rocks, for instance, soluble salt deposits. Method includes delivery of water and putting out brine along water feed and brine lifting pipes placed one inside the other, charging and storing of gas in underground reservoir. After brine lifting, reservoir is dried and then is filled up with alternating layers of absorbent and inert porous material, volume ratio 2:1, delivered along clearance between water feed and brine lifting pipes. Brine lifting pipe is perforated in lower part in height of reservoir and it is installed in lower part of reservoir. Difference between angles of repose of absorbent and inert material does not exceed 10 degrees. This done, reservoir is filled with gas delivered along perforated brine lifting pipe.
EFFECT: increased productive volume of reservoir owing to sorption of gas on surface of absorbent, reduced cost of gas storing.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to non-ferrous metallurgy and specifically to transportation of granular material in fluidised state according to requirements and can be used in electrolytic production of aluminium for transportation of alumina from the collecting bin to feed bins. The unit consists of a collector bin (1), equipped with an off-loading cone (2), joined by an air slide conveyor (3) to not less than one single type loading module (6), consisting of transport and feed air slide conveyors (8). The unit is equipped with a unified system of supplying aerating gas, including a unified pneumatic track with gas outlet connection pipes, with a valve system. In the first alternative there is unit with a unified pneumatic gas outlet connection pipe joined to the first in the direction of putting alumina in the section of the feed air slide conveyor. In the second alternative, the unit is made such that, each section of the feed air slide conveyor is joined to the unified pneumatic gas outlet connection pipe. The invention provides for high cost effectiveness, high degree of reliability, working efficiency and reparability, as well as flexible operational control of the process of transporting granular material with minimum energy losses and low consumption of the aerating gas.
EFFECT: flexible operational control of the process of transporting granular material with minimum energy losses and low consumption of the aerating gas, increased cost effectiveness, reliability and reparability of the process.
8 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to devices used for loading ash, for example, obtained from burning sewage sludge from residential areas. In the device, according to the invention, the ash loading unit has an extra cover consisting of a cladding structure, including a stationary top part, walls and a hatch with a tent, placed on a shaft in the top part of the cladding structure with provision for movement in the vertical direction. The unit for taking in and transportation of the ash for production has an extra dust remover with an air conduit, dust-exhaust fan, joined in series to the dust remover, air conduit of the collection bin, a common flexible air conduit and a panel, on which air conduits are uniformly fitted, and equipped with slide-type valves. The panel is put into a carcass, which is installed with provision for movement in the vertical plane on guides. The area of the panel corresponds to 0.85-0.95 of the area of the upper part of the container.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and ecological safety of the process of loading ash.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with this invention, the device contains fabric layers of fluidising elements representing two or more sintered and rolled fabric layers of metallic wire. The wire of, at least, the top outer layer is skewed or deflected to form deviating flowing channels (34). The innermost metallic wire fabric layer features the cell smallest width and smallest wire thickness, while the top outer layer features the widest cell and thickest wire.
EFFECT: loose material accelerated motion lower costs.
11 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at enterprises with stringent requirements to control over air-cushion products motion, at those with higher explosion and fire risks, as well as in jet flow control systems. The pneumatic conveyor incorporates a pneumatic chamber with its upper horizontal wall furnished with slot holes made perpendicular to the wall lengthwise axial line. Movable plates connected by bimetallic plates and hinged with the upper horizontal wall are arranged parallel to the said slot holes, the said bimetallic plates being rectilinear under normal conditions and connected to the current power source for current to flow through their juncture.
EFFECT: higher performances of the pneumatic conveyor.
SUBSTANCE: method of air-dried brick stacking for thermal processing includes transfer of bricks onto accumulator conveyor, stepwise completing of a brick layer thereon and subsequent stacking. Prior to operation the stacker is moved to the position allowing the capture of the first layer, and, prior to the following uplifting and carrying of bricks onto the truck, the subsequent layer first line position is determined by means of computer-aided control unit. The designed grid point of the final line of the following layer within the stacker operating area in compliance with the stacking chart is determined, the actual position of the initial line of the following layer is determined by means of a recording device after the accumulator conveyor travel. The following layer final line grid point is corrected allowing for the initial line actual position and the stacker is automatically moved to the position to grip the next layer.
EFFECT: high-speed stacking.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining equipment and can be applied in open and underground excavation of diamonds in gravel deposits, as well as gold and other minerals in ore and gravel deposits. The plant includes vacuum pump station, fine air filter with settling chamber and collector bin, and the vacuum pump station and fine air filter are mounted on separate transport devices. The fine air filter has a fabric filtering element and a compressor. Pipeline connecting the vacuum pump station with the fine air filter has one or more junctions sealed by a coupling in the form of elastic toroidal gasket filled with a gas medium through a relevant flexible hose and the mentioned compressor. This enables maintenance and repair of the plant, as its modules can be replaced independently, which as well improves output of excavation works.
EFFECT: improved mobility of the machine in limited space of underground excavations.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the area of pneumatic transport of powdered hard material. Plant is designed for the continuous feed of powder hard material from the service tank (10) into the pneumatic transport pipeline (12, 12'). This plant contains the first (14) and the second (16) intermediate tanks installed near each other. The first intermediate tank (14) is built in the form of sluice tank with the upper sluice valve (18) and the lower sluice valve (20). The second intermediate tank (16) is built in the form of injection tank. Between the lower sluice valve (20) of the first intermediate tank (14) and the upper inlet (30) of the second intermediate tank (16) the system (50) of intermediate pneumatic transport is located to transmit the powdered hard material from the first intermediate tank (14) into the second intermediate tank (16). System (50) is provided with the device for material fluidisation.
EFFECT: provides simplification of construction.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for dispensing bulk materials inclined to arching and may be used in the food, construction, pharmaceutical, chemical, and other industries. The feeder consists of a hopper, a shell with charging and discharge nozzles, a rotor with vanes installed in the shell, and a filter. The rotor shaft and vanes are hollow and communicate with one another. The side surface of the vanes has holes. The inner volume of the vane is divided by a partition into sections so that air can be distributed uniformly along the side surface of the vane. The side surface of the vane has multi-layer filtering material with bore decreasing in the vane direction or screen attached.
EFFECT: allows to increase performance; to enhance dispensing process accuracy and feeder reliability.
SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to the field of liquid carbohydrates and liquefied gas underground storage in the reservoirs created in everfrost solids, and can be used for burial of industrial wastes, particularly boring sludges. The method includes drilling a well in the everfrost solids, installing pipes in the well's production string, hermetic encapsulation of the annular space, forming the entry space by water-heat thawing of the everfrost solids with extracting the solids to the earth surface and maintaining the water level in the deposit interval of the entry space. According to the invention, the installation of the production string of the well's pipes should be done on completion of forming the entry space, then the water level in the underground reservoir should be set and maintained above the roof of the created entry space. The hermetic encapsulation of the annular space of the well should be carried out after the ice formation on the water surface at the set level.
EFFECT: efficiency increase of the underground storage place creation.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device contains a mixing chamber incorporating the frame with the p-shaped trays arranged on the frame in a row. The mixing chamber inlet has a deflector hood with the radius of curvature of 2 to 3 diameters of the air duct with a half of its arch representing the cantilever which edge is located below an axial line of the material feed duct and covering a preset number of trays. The end of the hood other half is between screw clamps at the level of the mixing chamber central part where the arch of second half part is located in the air feed duct space and is placed in elastic guides arranged in the air feed duct wall. The said frame contacts both end face walls of the chamber having vertical grooves and clamps for its installation.
EFFECT: increase in efficiency and reliability of loading of loose material.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing a test pumping of liquid waste into absorbing well before operational pumping, while changing flow step-by-step. From equation of absorption base hydrodynamic parameters are determined for calculation of predicted coefficients of operation characteristics of absorbing well and reserve well. During operational pumping of liquid waste together with thermometry along absorbing well shaft, registration of actual pressures and flow on pump devices, actual pressures on mouth in tubing pipes of absorbing well, actual pressures on face are additionally registered in absorbing well as well as pressures on mouth in behind-pipe space, actual loss at mouth in behind-pipe space, actual loss of waste on mouth, actual positions of face well, upper and lower limits of absorption range from well mouth. In reserve well actual pressures on face are registered, as well as actual positions of liquid level from reserve well mouth, upper and lower limits of absorption range. Prediction coefficients are compared for operation characteristics of absorbing well and reserve well to actual coefficients. 9 conditions of hydrodynamic bed conditions at reserve well and absorbing well are considered during pumping of waste. Specific actions of operator on each condition are described.
EFFECT: higher reliability and trustworthiness.