Method of briquetting (versions)

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and system for briquetting powder materials, for instance, moisture-containing, bituminous and semi-bituminous coals, without using binding agent. Method (versions) includes stages, at which powder material, probably, is partly dried, and supplied into briquetting device in conditions, when condensed gas is introduced into briquetting device at the time of supply or in conditions, when water vapour is released from powder material during supply. Briquettes are formed in briquetting section of briquetting device, where briquettes are formed from powder material in conditions that lead to condensation of gas component, reducing in that way, pressure growth during briquette formation. Invention also includes system (versions) for briquetting powder materials according to two methods stated above.

EFFECT: reduction of gas inrush during formation of coal dust into briquette.

52 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method and system for briquetting materials, particularly those containing moisture, but is not limited to them. The present invention is particularly suitable for briquetting of organic materials which contain moisture, such as peat, lignite, brown coal, polivitaminny coal, bituminous coal and anthracite.

The present invention, in particular suitable for briquetting of organic materials containing moisture, such as peat, lignite, brown coal, polivitaminny coal and bituminous coal. The present invention is particularly suitable for briquetting polivitaminnoe and bituminous coal, and for convenience and ease of description the present invention will be described with reference to the briquetting polivitaminnoe and bituminous coal. However, it should be understood that the invention is not limited to the briquetting polivitaminnoe and bituminous coal and can be used for briquetting other organic and inorganic materials and, in fact, any other materials, whether or not containing moisture.

Polivitaminny coal has a relatively high moisture content (up to 35% moisture by weight). This not only reduces the calorific value of coal, but also almost completely eliminates the possibility of delivery of such coal to foreign markets due to the economy the political inefficiency, associated with the transportation of very large amounts of moisture contained in the coal. The moisture removal requires phase thermal drying, because much of the water in polyvitamins angle is in a chemically bound state. However, the removal of water leads to other problems that prevent greater acceptability and use of such coal. In particular, dried polyvitamins coals exposed to a serious problem of spontaneous combustion and significant size reduction. Thus, the drying process tends to increase the amount of coal dust.

Bituminous coals are coals of higher rank, with higher calorific value and lower internal moisture content than polyvitamins coals. Although bituminous coal respond better transportation than polyvitamins coals, these bituminous coals may have an unnecessarily large quantity of fine coal during the extraction, washing and handling. This coal is difficult to use and is a waste. Free surface moisture also causes difficulties using apt bituminous coals, and its content can reach up to 25% by weight. This creates problems because it reduces the available energy content in coal and can be have a serious impact on the transportation of coal.

For many metallurgical coal and energy coal higher rank grindability of coal is that the percentage of coal fines in the total amount of washed coal may create problems for marketing, even if the moisture content is reduced to otherwise acceptable level. A possible solution to this problem may be the briquetting of coal to form larger particles of coal. However, briquetting should ensure that the restructuring of the coal fines in commercially attractive, portable and durable form, without increasing the production costs of coal above the threshold of overall profitability.

The briquetting of coal are engaged with the end of the 19th century. The traditional approach to the briquetting of coal consists in the mixing of coal particles with a binder to connect the coal particles into a larger mass. To the tested binders include organic binder such as coal tar, petroleum bitumen and asphalt, wood tar, synthetic and natural rubber, starch, sulfite solutions, sugar and molasses, connections pulp, vegetable pulp, alginates, adhesives or vegetable glues, albumatic, casein, peat, lignite and wood. It used inorganic binders include cement, clay, lime, magnesia, gypsum, sodium silicate or other alkali Metallbau were tested and complex matrix, containing a mixture of two or more of the above substances.

The criteria used to assess the binder used in the briquetting of coal include:

- type of briquetted coal

- the strength of the briquette and its transportability,

- resistance to moisture and weather conditions,

- combustion characteristics,

- effect on the physical properties of the coal

- the physical integrity of the briquette during combustion,

- toxicity of the binder or the products of its decomposition and combustion

- the cost of treatment when using a binder, for example, mixing and curing.

The experience gained when working with coal briquettes containing a binder, showed that universally applicable binder that meets all the above criteria has not yet been found. For example, peat, bitumen and asphalt impart the desired strength and resistance to moisture, but lead to smoke when burning, problems with toxicity, changes maksuameti, high cost and high cost of production. Starch provides good durability and a clean burning, but roads and poorly tolerates exposure to weather conditions. Binder based on solutions of sulfates when burned give off little smoke, but generate toxic emissions of sulfur dioxide and do not tolerate exposure to weather conditions. Sugar, especially the molasses region is given a low level of resistance to weather and moisture during storage can lead to growth of mold. Binder based on cellulose usually give a low strength and quickly lose their properties, and the briquettes tend to the destruction in the early stages of combustion. It was reported that all of the inorganic binder has a relatively low strength, poor resistance to weather conditions and high ash during combustion.

The need to add in the briquette binder also inevitably increases the complexity and cost of manufacture of briquettes.

In an attempt to solve some of the problems associated with the production of pellets with a binder, various attempts have been made to produce pellets without binder.

For example, in U.S. patent No. 2,937,086, issued in the name of the Period, and others described a method of briquetting coal by supply of coal particles in a stream of hot gas to heat the dryer. The coal particles are captured in the gas stream and heated gas stream, which leads to the evaporation of water from coal. Particles of coal are transported by the gas stream in a cyclone separator, where the hot dried coal particles are separated from the gas stream. Separated particles of coal fall into the hopper and pass through the rolls briquetting device for forming briquettes. This patent States that for maximum efficiency of operation, the temperature of the coal immediately prior to its entrance into the briquetting machine should be just the who softening temperature, for example, the temperature of incipient plasticity of coal. The patent further States that many coals can pressoffice in suitable agglomerates in the temperature range from about 149 to 371°C.

In U.S. patent No. 5,046,265, issued in the name of Kalba, describes an integrated method of drying and briquetting polyvitamins coals. In this method, the coal is dried in a heat dryer under conditions that contribute to the fragmentation of coal particles. In particular, particles of coal fed into the stream of hot gas to heat the dryer and thermal shock acting on the particles included in the stream of hot gas, leads to fragmentation of coal particles. The thus treated coal particles then sephirot from a gas stream in a series of cyclones. The separated gas is at least partially returned to thermal dryer. The dried particles of coal are served on degassing and pre-sealing screws, which are pressed coal and removed from the gas prior to the filing of coal briquetting machine. In this regard it should be noted that the dried coal particles contain the gas in the voids between the particles, and augers preliminary seal is pressed coal and reduce the volume of voids between the particles, thereby removing gas from coal. The gas released from coal augers pre-compaction process fan low productive the tee and bag. Pre-compacted coal is then fed to the briquetting machine.

In U.S. patent No. 5,046,265 specified the following seven parameters that are critical for briquetting process:

1. The temperature of the material, it was observed that the resistance to water and the overall quality of the briquettes are significantly improved when the temperature rises from room temperature up to approximately 71-82°C. it Was also noted, however, that the quality of the briquettes starts to decrease, if the material was heated to a temperature exceeding 104°C.

2. The dimensional consistency of the feed particles.

3. Degassing and pre-seal.

4. Pressure.

5. Maintaining in the atmosphere of oxygen deficiency in the patent States that it is known and proven that detail polivitaminnoe coal subjected to thermal drying to a moisture content of up to 10% or less (significantly below the natural moisture content is not subjected to the drying of coal, but above the preferred level of 4-5%, achieved using the present invention) to a large extent subject to spontaneous combustion under normal atmospheric concentrations of oxygen even at room temperature. It is therefore necessary that the entire part of the technical system, containing hot and dry fine coal, must be inert (oxygen deficiency) in the atmosphere. This stalemate is that the whole system is in an inert gas using a controlled "leak" of inert gas from the dryer.

6. Cooling briquetted product.

7. Maintaining a minimum number colobrush materials at the entrance to the briquetting system.

It is argued that the entire processing system described in U.S. patent No. 5,046,265 able to process polyvitamins coals with high moisture content (30-35%) and low calorific value (8200-8800 British thermal units per pound) and the like in a product with a high calorific value (11000-11500 British thermal units per pound) and with low moisture content (5-8%), which at the same time has acceptable performance portability in the context of the current market situation and infrastructure of the customer.

In the international patent application number PCT/SA 90/00056 (international publication WO 90/10052) described a method of briquetting bituminous coal without the use of external binder. In this system there is the formation of fine coal at high temperature and high pressure in the device containing the roller briquetting press. The system uses positive pressure, a controlled oxygen content, thermal dryer with recirculation of gases and supply direct briquetted product in a heat exchanger system to improve the efficiency of the system.

According to one aspect of the present invention offers the way I briquetting powdered material, containing moisture, comprising the steps in which powder material is partially dried, serves partially dried powdered material briquetting device so that water vapor was released from the powder material at the time of filing, and skip the powder material through the briquetting apparatus for forming briquettes under conditions of temperature and pressure that lead to condensation condensation from the gas during formation of the bale, thereby reducing the buildup of gas pressure.

The term "serves partially dried powdered material briquetting device comprises the steps used when transferring the partially dried powder material from the point at which it is separated from the gas stream of the dryer to the point of entrance of the briquetting device. This may include wrapping pipes or gutters, short-term storage in the hopper or container and final submission in briquetting device.

Preferably, the partially dried powder material is served in a briquetting device under conditions when water vapor comes out of the powder material, whereby the water vapor displaces a large proportion of other gases from the atmosphere surrounding the powder material, or mixed with it, and/or prevents Pronin the venue of these other gases in the atmosphere. More preferably, the powder material, which is served in a briquetting device, is surrounded and/or mixed with the gas component containing 70-100% by volume of water vapor at the point where it enters the area of forming briquettes briquetting device. As a result, when the powder material is pressed during the formation of the briquettes, the water vapour will condense or liquefy, and the increase in the pressure of the gaseous material in the thus formed cake is minimized. It was also discovered that the previous difficulties caused by the presence of a large number nscontainerbox gases, mixed with the powder material (which include breakthrough of gases supplied through the powder material, which can disrupt the flow of the powdered material briquetting device, the immense destruction of briquettes when they are removed from the briquetting device, and the porosity of bricks, decreasing their strength), in the present invention is minimized or eliminated.

Preferably, the powder material is chosen from the group of organic materials containing sawdust, peat, lignite, brown coal, anthracite and bituminous and polyvitamins coals.

It is advisable to expose the evaporative cooling of the formed briquettes to prevent spontaneous combustion

It is possible to perform evaporative cooling spray design for lowering the temperature of the briquettes below 50°and to maintain the moisture level close to the equilibrium moisture level of the pellets.

Stage partial drying of the powder material can be carried out in a thermal dryer, in which the powder material is injected into the hot gas stream flowing through the pipeline, while the powder material is captured by a hot gas flow, which leads to an increase in the temperature of the powder material, and the gas stream from the captured powder material is then passed through at least one cyclone, in which the powder material sephirot from the gas stream.

Preferably the separated gas stream exiting the at least one cyclone partially be recycled in thermal dryer, and excess gas is discharged into the atmosphere, the discharged portion of the gas stream is passed through a device for removing small particles to remove small particles that are held together with a gas stream through at least one cyclone.

More preferably, the portion of the gas stream undergoing recycling in thermal dryer to warm up before entering thermal drying of the powder material, and the amount of gas discharged into the atmosphere from testout volume of gas, formed as the result of combustion and the amount of neskondensirovannyh water vapor extracted from the powder material.

In addition, forming briquettes plot briquetting device may contain two or more of the roll, through which pass the powder material, while at least one of the rolls includes made pockets for determining the form of briquettes, the method includes a stage on which the rolls rotate at different frequencies for application to the powder material of a given cutting efforts, when the powder material is passed through rolls and formed into briquettes.

Preferably the diameters of the rolls are in the range from 100 to 600 mm, and the ratio of the width briquetting pocket to the diameter of the roll is in the range from 0.05 to 0.15.

More preferably, the diameters of the rolls are in the range from 400 to 550 mm, and the ratio of the width briquetting pocket to the diameter of the roll is around 0.08.

Preferably also the method includes the step, for serving powdered material briquetting device using at least one podpressdivname screw, and put the pressure to the powder material using podpressdivname auger and podpisany powder material to define a winding path to minimize or eliminate p is oriva gas through the powder material, served in a briquetting device.

It is also advisable to apply the powder material on the rolls briquetting device essentially in the horizontal direction.

In addition, the powder material can be submitted in briquetting device when the temperature of gas generation in the range from 90 to 150°C.

Preferably, the forming temperature gas of the powder material is in the range from 105 to 110°C.

More preferably condensation from the gas generates a pressure in the range from 100 to 200 kPa (absolute) in the apparatus for forming briquettes or condensation from the gas generates a pressure of from 120 to 143 kPa (absolute) in the apparatus for forming briquettes.

According to another aspect of the present invention proposes a method of briquetting material powder, in which:

powder material serves on the briquetting device;

- when submitting introduce condensation from the gas in the briquetting device, and

- form the briquettes to form briquettes plot briquetting device, in which the briquettes are formed from powder material under conditions of temperature and pressure, condensation, condensed gas, thereby reducing the buildup of gas pressure gaseous components during the formation of the briquette.

Preferably to devroey the gas is carried out by either:

displacement of other non-condensable gaseous components of the atmosphere surrounding the powder material or mixed with it, and/or

the prevention of the penetration of a large part of other non-condensable gaseous components of the atmosphere surrounding the powder material or mixed with them in the formation of briquettes.

The powder material may also contain a fluid, the method includes a stage on which serves powder material containing the liquid, and the stage at which the powder material is served in a briquetting device under conditions of temperature and pressure of formation gas, and condensation from the gas being injected from the liquid contained in the powder material by the release of the powder material during the feeding of the powder material in the device forming briquettes.

The proposed method can also optionally include a step in which the partially dried powder material prior to feeding it into the briquetting device.

Preferably the powder material have at least one of the following: surround and mix with the gas component containing 70-100% and preferably 80-100% by volume of the condensed gas.

More preferably the condensation condensation from gas reduces the pressure build-up gas is the material in the pellets during their formation.

Preferably also the reduction of pressure rise of the gas reduces the breakthrough of gases through the powder material before coal is formed into briquettes.

Additionally, the method includes a stage on which to powder material exerting back pressure when it is served in a briquetting device, to perform one of the following:

reduce or prevent breakthrough of gases.

Preferably, at least part of the condensed gas is injected separately in the briquetting device, without the formation of liquid contained in the powder material.

In addition, condensed gas may be water vapor.

The powder material may contain a material selected from the group including sawdust, peat, lignite, brown coal, anthracite and bituminous and polyvitamins coals.

Preferably formed briquettes are subjected to evaporative cooling to prevent spontaneous combustion.

More preferably the step of partial drying of the powder material is carried out prior to its submission to the briquetting device through its involvement in the stream of hot gas and transmission of the captured powder material through at least one cyclone for separation of the powder material from the gas stream.

Additionally, forming briquettes Uch the flow briquetting device may be formed into briquettes by passing the powder material between adjacent rolls, moreover, at least one of the rolls includes a pocket, giving the shape of the briquette, and has a cutting force on the powder material as it passes through a series of rolls.

Preferably the diameters of a number of rolls are in the range from 100 to 600 mm, and the ratio of the width of the pocket, giving the shape of the briquette, the diameter of the roll is in the range from 0.05 to 0.15.

It is advisable to use at least one podpressdivname auger for feeding powder material into the briquetting device, and at least one podpressdivname lead screw in such a way as to minimize or eliminate the breakthrough of gases through the powder material fed to the briquetting device.

The present invention also relates to a system for briquetting powdered material containing:

- briquetting device;

- means for feeding powder material into the briquetting device;

- means for introducing the condensed gas in the briquetting device, and apparatus for forming briquettes includes forming briquettes part in which the powder material to form briquettes under conditions of temperature and pressure that lead to condensation condensation from the gas during formation of the bale, thereby reducing the buildup of gas pressure.

powder material Preferably contains a liquid, and means for introducing condensed gas contains a tool for creating conditions of temperature and pressure at which the condensation from the gas essentially occurs from the liquid contained in the powder material, and entered into a briquetting device by the release of the powder material during its submission to the briquetting device.

In addition, the system may further comprise means for partially drying the powder material before feeding it into the briquetting device.

Additionally, the system may include a cooler with spray design for evaporative cooling of the formed briquettes to maintain the moisture level close to the equilibrium moisture level of the pellets.

Preferably the forming briquettes plot gives the shape of the briquettes by passing the powder material between adjacent rolls, and at least one of the rolls includes a pocket, giving the shape of the briquette, and has a cutting force on the powder material as it passes through a series of rolls.

The system may further comprise at least one podpressdivname auger for feeding powder material into the briquetting device and to create a back pressure on the powder material to provide one of the following: reduction or elimination of breakthrough g is the call through the powder material, served in a briquetting device.

Preferably briquetting device includes at least one pair of forming briquettes of rolls, each at least one podpressdivname auger is oriented essentially horizontally and is arranged to feed powder material into the gap between one of the specified at least one pair of forming briquettes rolls.

Although water vapor is the most common used condensable gases, it is also possible to use other condensable gases, such as freon, if the powder material is more sensitive to temperature or humidity. The term "condensable gas" means any gas, which tends to condense in the briquetting process.

It should also be noted that the method according to the present invention can be used for briquetting of organic and inorganic materials, and also materials such as silt, which are partly organic and partly inorganic. Examples of inorganic materials include oxides of magnesium and silicon, aluminum oxide and red mud. Method and system is particularly suitable for briquetting of organic materials such as sawdust, vegetable matter, peat, brown coal, lignite, Polonicum what had been forecast coal and bituminous coal. The method according to the present invention is particularly suitable for briquetting of lignite, lignite, polyvitamins and bituminous coals.

As noted above, the method according to the present invention includes a step in which the powder material is partially dried. Preferably, this stage partial drying of the powder material was carried out in a thermal dryer and, in particular, in thermal dryer with gas recirculation. In this way the powder material is blown into the hot gas stream flowing through the pipeline. Powder material is captured by a hot gas flow, which leads to an increase in the temperature of the powder material. This is the beginning of the drying process. The gas stream from the captured powder material is then passed through one or more cyclones, where the powder material is separated from the gas stream.

The separated gas stream leaving the cyclone or cyclones, partially return in thermal dryer with recirculation gas, and excess gas is discharged into the atmosphere. The discharged portion of the gas stream is preferably passed through a fabric filter or any other suitable device for removing coal dust, held together with a gas flow through the cyclones.

The portion of the gas stream, which is returned to thermal dryer with gas recirculation, skip the t through the fan, the compressor or similar device, and through the heater or furnace, which again increase the temperature of the gas stream prior to injection of the powder material in a thermal dryer. The amount of gas which is released through a fabric filter, to a large extent corresponds to the volume of gas resulting from combustion in the gas heater plus volume neskondensirovannyh water vapor released from the powder material within the system. Powder material extracted from the cyclone separators is in a partially dried state. Under "partially dried condition" means that the moisture content in the powder material was reduced compared to the original powder material, but it can remove some amount of moisture.

Partially dried powder material is then transferred and served in a briquetting device. The transfer and supply of the powder material from the cyclones in the briquetting device may be implemented using any device known in the art, and are suitable for conveying powder material. Some examples include augers, belt conveyors and pneumatic conveyors.

More specifically, the characteristic of the present invention is that of further drying the partially dried powder material is what about the time of the filing of the powder material in the briquetting device. How easy it is clear to the experts, further drying of the powder material at the time of filing in the briquetting device leads to the release of moisture from the powder material. Moisture is released as water vapor, and water vapor displaces non-condensable gases, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases from the atmosphere that surrounds the cored material or mixed with it. In the gas component of the mixture of the powder material and the gas which is fed to the briquetting device has a high content of water vapor. It should be understood that the water vapor is condensed gas, and that the pressure exerted by the powder material in the briquetting process, can lead to liquefaction of water vapor, thereby significantly reducing the volume of the gas components that pass through briquetting device. This helps to prevent breakthrough of gases through the powder material fed to the briquetting device and improve the quality of the resulting briquettes, by minimizing the porosity caused by the captured non-condensable gases, and possible explosive destruction of briquettes caused by shells containing compressed non-condensable gases trapped inside the brick.

According to another aspect of the present invention p is alagaesia system for briquetting powdered material, containing moisture, including:

- briquetting device having a section forming briquettes;

means for partially drying the powder material;

- means for feeding the partially dried powdered material briquetting device; and

- a tool for creating the conditions under which water vapor is released from the powder material at the time of filing in the land of forming briquettes briquetting device.

Preferably, the powder material is fed to the briquetting device, is surrounded by and mixed with the gas component containing 70-100% by volume of water vapor at the point, and it is included in the area of forming briquettes briquetting device, while the section forming briquettes of this device is arranged to seal the powder material during the formation of briquettes for the liquefaction of water vapor and to minimize the pressure rise in the thus formed cake.

In addition, the means for partial drying may contain thermal dryer, in which the powder material is injected into the hot gas flow, the current through the pipeline, while the powder material is captured by a hot gas flow, which leads to an increase in the temperature of the powder material, and one or more cyclones for receiving a gas stream with Zech is acrnym powder material and separation of the powder material from the gas stream.

Preferably, the means for partially drying contains a means for partial recirculation of the separated gas stream leaving the cyclone or cyclones, thermal dryer, vent means to vent excess gas, with specified excess gas contains the gas formed in the combustion and condensation from the gas extracted from the powder material, and means for removing fine particles to remove small particles, since the gas flow through the cyclone or cyclones.

Expediently, the system includes heating means for heating the portion of the gas stream, which is recycled to heat the dryer before putting in thermal drying of the powder material.

Additionally, the system may contain plot-conditioning and cooling with spray design for evaporative cooling of the formed briquettes to prevent spontaneous combustion and to maintain the moisture level close to the equilibrium moisture level of the pellets.

Briquetting device may be a type that contains the briquetting rolls. In briquetting device of this type of powder material fed to the rolls. Rolls pressed powder material. One or more rollers preferably has made pockets that contribute to the op is to edeleny form of briquettes. The rolls also have a cutting force to the powder material when it passes through briquetting device. It is believed that the application of the cutting force compression is important for the formation of briquettes from certain raw materials, such as bituminous and polyvitamins coals.

To facilitate the supply of the powder material in the briquetting device or briquetting rolls preferably for supplying powder material to use one podpressdivname auger or more, which creates back pressure on the powder material to minimize or eliminate the breakthrough of gases through the powder material fed to the briquetting device. The feed screws are advantageous as they are pre-compacted powder material, reduce porosity and provide a consistent flow of powdered material briquetting device. In addition, the feed augers generate more tortuous path for exit of gases extruded from the space between the particles of the powder material in the seal, which also contributes to minimizing or eliminating blow-by through the powder material fed to the briquetting device.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the powder material serves on the rolls of bitteroot the CSOs device essentially in the horizontal direction.

It was found that the ratio between the size of the roll and a width forming the briquette pockets very important for the formation of briquettes, especially when forming briquettes from lignite, bituminous and polyvitamins coals. Thus, according to the present invention proposes a method of briquetting material powder in which the powder material is served in a briquetting device containing two or more of the roll, through which the powder material, while at least one of the rolls contains one or more briquetting pocket, characterized in that the diameter of the roll is from 100 mm to 600 mm, and the ratio of the width briquetting pocket to the diameter of the roll is from 0.05 to 0.15.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the diameter of the rolls is in the range from 400 mm to 550 mm, and the ratio of the width briquetting pocket to the diameter of the roll is approximately 0,08.

In a particularly preferred variant of the method according to the second aspect of the present invention is used in combination with the method according to the first aspect of the present invention.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings, which depict:

figure 1 - schematic method and system for forming briquettes from bituminous coals or polyvitamins coals;

on figa - more detailed with tematicheskoe cross-section plot of forming briquettes briquetting device of figure 1;

figure 2 - schematic cross section of a second variant of the briquetting section briquetting device according to the present invention;

figure 3 is a chart illustrating a typical size ranges used to produce briquettes using the method and device according to the present invention.

In order to more fully explain the present invention the following is a detailed description of its options with reference to figure 1, which shows schematically a method of forming briquettes from bituminous or polyvitamins coals. Although the method shown in figure 1, is designed for use with bituminous and polivitaminnami coals, it should be understood that the method according to the first and second aspects of the present invention can be used for forming briquettes from another powder material.

The diagram shown in figure 1, containing moisture coal is served by a screw conveyor 12 from the hopper 10 to the wet coal in the riser 14 thermal dryers. The riser 14 thermal dryers passes the stream of hot gas. A jet of hot gas generated by passing gas from the fan 16 through the gas heater 18 in the riser 14 thermal dryers.

When wet the coal enters the riser 14 thermal dryers, he is captured gas stream. Since the hot gas, the temperature of the coal increases, and utopistic to that part of the moisture contained in the coal is converted to water vapor.

The gas stream from the captured carbon is served on the cyclone separators 20, 22. The first cyclone 20 separates the coarse coal from the gas stream. The separated coarse fraction of coal pass through the pipe 24 into a collecting hopper 26. The gas discharged from the first cyclone through the pipe 28 enters the second cyclone 22. In the second cyclone of the gas are separated smaller particles of coal. These smaller particles of coal through the pipe 30 into a collecting hopper 26. Part of the smaller particles of coal can also be supplied to the heater 18 as fuel.

The gas discharged from the second cyclone 22, passes through the pipe 32. Part of the gas passing through the pipe 32, is discharged into the atmosphere through the fabric filter 34 and the vent pipe 36. The remainder of the gas is recycled through the fan 16 and the gas heater 18 in the riser 14 thermal dryers.

As part of the gas stream in a thermal dryer or in the riser dryer is recycled, it should be understood that the gas stream in a heat dryer has a significant amount of water vapor. Moreover, the amount of water vapor in the gas stream increases after the introduction into the gas stream of wet coal, because the water removed from the wet coal in the gas stream. The presence of significant the CSOs amount of water vapor in the gas stream, circulating in the heat of the dryer 14, and the careful management of other components of the gas stream, especially oxygen, can guarantee the minimization or elimination of the danger of explosion in a thermal dryer.

It should also be understood that the resulting combustion gas added to the gas heater 18, together with water vapor generated by drying the product, replacing the gas through the vent tube 36 to maintain a constant pressure in the system. The amount of gas discharged through the vent pipe 36 is equivalent to the amount of gas formed by combustion in the gas heater 18 plus the amount of water vapor released during the drying of the powder material.

Partially dried coal collected in the collection hopper 26, and then served with the screw feeder 37 on briquetting device 38. Partially dried coal passes from the screw feeder 37 in the feed hopper 39 in conditions where water vapor continues to be released from the coal. This is even more reduces the moisture content in the coal and causes the water vapor displaces non-condensable gases, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases, in particular from among the feed hopper 39. As a result, the number of non-condensable gases, mixed with the coal fed in bikeiowa is a great device 38, decreases, and the amount of water vapor in the gas atmosphere mixed with coal increases. Preferably, the gas atmosphere at this point contains from 70% to 100% and, more preferably, from 80% to 100% by volume of N2O. In a situation where gas atmosphere is not enough saturated, directly in the briquetting device 38 in the feed hopper 39 or 39A, you can submit additional amount of water vapor.

As more clearly shown in figa, feed hopper 39 is equipped with a screw conveyor 42 is driven in rotation by the motor 42. The screw 40 provides a positive flow of coal briquetting device. Auger 40 is partially seals the coal before it is pressed, briketirovannogo rolls.

Briquetting device 38 is provided with two rollers 44, 46. One of the rollers 44 is made briquetting pockets 44A and the second roller is preferably smooth, as shown by the position 46A, and may also have pockets. When the coal passes through the rolls, it is extruded and subjected to the cutting force. The magnitude of the cutting force may vary by a difference in speed between the two rolls. Typically, the rolls rotate with a frequency of 20 rpm to 100 rpm and, preferably, from 80 to 90 rpm, the Difference in speed between the two rollers typically ranges from +10% to -10%. Roller 44 is mounted on the Hydra is PLICSCOM the slide 45, equipped with a battery having a pneumatic spring 45A, providing the pressing force in the gap between the rollers for pressing as particles of coal, and gas atmosphere mixed with coal particles and their surrounding. Since this gas atmosphere contains a significant portion of the water vapor, as a result of pressing the water vapor condenses. This significantly reduces the increase in the pressure during pressing. It should be understood that if the gas atmosphere mixed with coal, contained a large part of non-condensable gases, the effect of condensation, which reduces the pressure would be reduced. The buildup of gas pressure would be greater, which would have led to the tendency of the gases to go out during pressing in a briquetting device in the opposite direction to the feed hopper 39. This could lead to a breakthrough of gases, which interrupted the flow of coal briquetting device. Alternative or in addition, non-condensable gases could be compressed in the shells of coal briquettes containing compressed gas. When the briquettes 47 out of the rolls 44, 46, the external pressure exerted on the briquettes are removed. As a result, the shell of compressed gas can potentially cause an explosion of the briquette. Therefore, the present invention has a significant advantage over previously known methods.

Although option, display the config in Fig 1 and 1A, shows that the coal fed to the briquetting device 38, is moved essentially down in the vertical direction, another preferred variant of the present invention, is shown in figure 2, provides for the movement of coal is essentially in the horizontal direction when it is fed to the briquetting rolls. In figure 2 the feed hopper 39A is equipped with a horizontal auger 40A, driven by a motor 40. Screw feeds the coal from the base of the hopper 39A through a horizontal pipe 41 into the gap between the rollers 44 and 46. Because the pipe 41 is relatively tightly encloses the auger, it helps to create back pressure and reduce blow-by due to the tortuous path defined by the auger, as well as pre-compaction of the powder material in the auger. The upper hole 41A is not communicating with the atmosphere, but has closed the connection to the screw feeder 37 in Fig 1. The system shown in figure 1, is essentially a closed system in which the atmosphere is reported only fabric filter 36. Below is a description of specific examples of the method according to the present invention for the production of briquettes from bituminous and polivitaminnoe coal.

Coal is prepared for implementing the method by sieving or grinding until the particle size from 0 mm to 5 mm, the temperature of the drying gas before it is commingled with the most important source of coal is regulated in accordance with the moisture content in the coal and solid particles, loaded into the riser thermal dryers. Typically, the temperature of the gas stream at the point 19, as shown in figure 1 (i.e. before mixing with the wet coal)is adjusted so that the final temperature of the coal, when he comes out of the dryer and enters into a collecting hopper was 90-150°and more preferably, 105-110°C. Typically, the temperature of the gas at the point 19 in figure 1 is 300-400°C.

The composition of the gas in the dryer also preferably carefully controlled. The gas stream preferably has a very low oxygen content (e.g., less than 2%, more preferably 1% or less), and a substantial part of the water vapor. The normal composition of the gas in the dryer shown in the table.

H2O, vol.%CO2,.%N2,.%O2,.%
To Supplement coal495441
The separation of coal604351

The particle size of the coal supplied by the method of the present invention, can be distributed in a wide range. In practice, the upper limit of particle size is determined by the maximum particle size that can easily be dried and transported to a thermal land is ke, and he is 5 mm or more. Typical ranges of size distribution of particles, which was successfully pricecialis inventors, shown in figure 3. In this chart, the maximum particle size for all ranges does not exceed 3 mm.

The size distribution of coal particles after drying is preferably remains essentially the same as before drying. There is some fragmentation from thermal and mechanical effects during drying, but they are generally considered to be insignificant. In this aspect, the method according to the present invention differs from the method according to U.S. patent No. 5,046,265 that deliberately called thermal grinding larger pieces of coal in the lower part of the dryer before they are captured by the flow. It is believed that this approach was unsatisfactory.

Coal, which is separated from the dryer and collected in the collection hopper 26 is partially dried coal. As such, it still contains some amount of moisture that can be removed for additional drying. For bituminous coals, the moisture contained in the coal fed to the briquetting device, preferably 0-3% exceeds the humidity of coal.

This means that typically the total moisture content of bituminous coal ranges from 1 to 10% by weight and, more preferably, from 1 to 8% by weight.

For polyvitamins coal is th total moisture of the coal, fed to the briquetting device will be below a moisture content of coal and will typically be from 3 to 10% by weight. It was found that for polivitaminnoe of coal extracted from the mine Collie Mine in Western Australia and has its own humidity of 25-30% by weight, the optimum moisture content of the intermediate product, supplied in a briquetting device is 5 to 7%.

Essentially the surface of the particles that you want to associate with each other, should be essentially free from surface moisture and other foreign materials.

An important feature of the method according to the present invention is that the gas between the particles of coal after leaving the dryer, i.e. in a feed hopper 39 briquetting device, contains from 50 to 100% H2O, more preferably from 70 to 100% H2O and even more preferably from 80 to 100% H2O. This is achieved due to the fact that coal comes out of the dryer, still contains some moisture and has a temperature exceeding 80°C. Coal continues to release water vapor, while in a feed hopper briquetting device, and this water vapor displaces residual N2, CO2and O2. Due to the fact that the gas that fills the voids between the particles of coal is mainly water vapor, it is possible to avoid problems with de what azazia compaction of the coal powder material.

Particularly preferably, the gas that fills the void or space between the particles of the powder material, when it is included in the briquetting device was gas, which can condense at an absolute pressure of from 100 to 200 kPa. In particular, it is preferable that the gas that fills the voids between the particles of coal, when it is included in the briquetting device, contained 50-70%, more preferably 70-100%, and even more preferably 80-100% water vapor. Preferably, the temperature is from 100 to 120°and more preferably 105 to 110°s, which corresponds to an absolute pressure of steam from 120 to 143 kPa.

Augers 40 and 40A, which serves coal briquetting device, act as podpisuvaus device. Preferably, podpisuvaus the device creates a sufficiently tortuous path for gas outlet to the vapor pressure between the particles of coal on the end of the screw podpisovacieho device was 100-200 kPa (absolute) and, more preferably, 120-143 kPa, as described above.

Preferably, the total power supplied to the rolls briquetting device and auger 40 podpisovacieho device was 15-30 kW/h per ton of coal.

Two opposite roll 44, 46 have a diameter preferably in the range from 100 to 600 mm, with the preferred di the meter roll is from 400 to 550 mm The ratio of the width briquetting pocket to the diameter of the roll should be in the range from 0.05 to 0, 15, preferably about 0.8.

The rollers preferably have a load in the range from 60 kN to 150 kN per cm of the width of the roll, preferably from 115 to 130 kN per cm of the width of the roll, for roll diameter of 460 mm, When using such efforts, pressing on the rolls of polyvitamins and bituminous coals is possible to obtain a satisfactory briquettes.

Briquetted product 47 should withdraw from the process at a suitable temperature and humidity to reduce the likelihood of spontaneous combustion. The product temperature in the pile should not exceed 50°With the preferred temperature is less than 40°C. If the coal is dried to below its equilibrium moisture, it can seek to absorb moisture from the surrounding atmosphere, which may lead to generating a significant amount of heat (heat absorption), which can raise the temperature of the briquettes to the amount at which it is possible spontaneous combustion. Therefore, the pellets must be cooled to a temperature of less than 50°while maintaining the level of humidity close to equilibrium.

The temperature of the briquettes/compacted product at the outlet of the briquetting press is slightly higher than the temperature of the incoming paracasei coal fines, because of the energy spent by the process of briquetting under high pressure. Although Nude surface area material restructured in the form of dramatically reduced compared to the original material, which favorably leads to decrease of its propensity to spontaneous combustion, however, it was demonstrated that required some form of cooling after restructuring/briquetting, to prevent spontaneous combustion and to make the product suitable for normal operating conditions.

As shown in figure 1, the cooling is carried out through a system that delivers a controlled amount of water on the surface (surface) svezhesvarennogo product to reduce its temperature by evaporative cooling. This cooling water is applied to the briquettes spray head 49, which are located above the conveyor 50 to the finished product. The amount of cooling water applied to the product, is balanced with the total amount of heat which should be given to achieve the required aggregate flow temperature at which spontaneous combustion does not occur and the product can be transported. The amount of water supplied is determined by the product temperature, i.e. the temperature of the raw material fed to the press, plus the heat added to the result is latania, and the total amount of product measured weights mounted on the belt conveyor 50. These two parameters are integrated and, therefore, control the amount of sprayed water supplied to the product of the spray head, so that the cooling effectively occurs due to evaporation, but not at the expense of inefficient saturation excess water that would lead to a lower quality product, worst transportability and to the need for wastewater treatment.

In the specific example for briquetting polivitaminnoe coal, with its own humidity of 25-30% in crude form, briquetted product must have an equilibrium moisture content of approximately 9-11%. Therefore, the humidity of the product during cooling must be 6-10%, preferably 7-9% at a temperature of less than 40°C.

The method according to the present invention provides means for producing briquettes from a large number of powder materials. The first aspect of the present invention eliminates the problems of prior briquetting processes associated with degassing. The second aspect of the present invention avoids scaling problems that were encountered when scaling processes briquetting from laboratory size to an industrial scale. Both aspects provide a briquetting powdered material without the application of the Oia binder.

Professionals understand that the present invention can be made various changes and modifications, in addition to the specifically described above. It should be understood that all such changes and modifications are included in the scope and do not change the essence of the present invention.

1. The method of preforming a powder material including the stages at which the powder material is served in a briquetting device; introducing condensation from the gas in the briquetting device when submitting the form the briquettes briquetting plot briquetting device, in which the briquettes are formed from powder material under conditions that lead to condensation condensation from gas, thereby reducing the pressure build-up during the formation of the briquettes.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which the condensation from the gas carries out or displacement of other non-condensable gaseous components of the atmosphere surrounding the powder material or mixed with it, and/or the prevention of the penetration of a large part of other non-condensable gaseous components of the atmosphere surrounding the powder material or mixed with them in the formation of briquettes.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the powder material contains a liquid, and the method includes a stage on which serves powder material containing liquid phase, to the torus powder material is served in a briquetting device under conditions of temperature and pressure of gas generation, and condensation from the gas being injected from the liquid contained in the powder material by the release of the powder material during the feeding of the powder material in the device forming briquettes.

4. The method according to claim 3 which further includes the step in which the partially dried powder material prior to feeding it into the briquetting device.

5. The method according to claim 1, in which the powder material have at least one of the following: surround and mix with the gas component containing 70-100% and preferably 80-100% by volume of the condensed gas.

6. The method according to claim 1, in which the condensation of the condensed gas reduces the pressure build-up of gas material in the pellets during their formation.

7. The method according to claim 1, in which the reduction of pressure rise of the gas reduces the breakthrough of gases through the powder material before coal is formed into briquettes.

8. The method according to claim 7, which includes a stage on which to powder material exerting back pressure when it is served in a briquetting device, to perform one of the actions: reduce or prevent breakthrough of gases.

9. The method according to claim 1, in which at least part of the condensed gas is injected separately in the briquetting device without the formation of liquid contained in Oreshkova material.

10. The method according to claim 1, in which the condensed gas is water vapor.

11. The method according to claim 1, wherein the powder material contains a material selected from the group including sawdust, peat, lignite, brown coal, anthracite and bituminous and polyvitamins coals.

12. The method according to claim 11, in which the formed briquettes are subjected to evaporative cooling to prevent spontaneous combustion.

13. The method according to claim 4, in which the phase partial drying of the powder material is carried out prior to its submission to the briquetting device through its involvement in the stream of hot gas and transmission of the captured powder material through at least one cyclone for separation of the powder material from the gas stream.

14. The method according to claim 1, wherein forming the briquettes plot briquetting device gives the shape of the briquettes by passing the powder material between adjacent rolls, and at least one of the rolls includes a pocket, giving the shape of the briquette, and has a cutting force on the powder material as it passes through a series of rolls.

15. The method according to 14, in which the diameters of a number of rolls are in the range from 100 to 600 mm, and the ratio of the width of the pocket, giving the shape of the briquette, the diameter of the roll is in the range from 0.05 to 0.15.

16. The method according to claim 1, in which the use, by at least one podpisovacieho auger for feeding powder material into the briquetting device and actuate at least one podpressdivname screw in such a way as to minimize or eliminate the breakthrough of gases through the powder material fed to the briquetting device.

17. Method of briquetting powdered material containing moisture, comprising the steps are partially dry powder material; serves partially dried powdered material briquetting device under conditions in which water vapor is released from the powder material at the time of filing, and skip the powder material through a forming briquettes plot briquetting device for forming briquettes under conditions of temperature and pressure that lead to condensation condensation from the gas during formation of the bale, thereby reducing the buildup of gas pressure.

18. The method according to 17, in which the released water vapor essentially carries out or crowding out of other gas components of the atmosphere, which at least provides one of the following: surrounds the powder material and mixed with them and/or prevents the penetration of a large part of other gas components of the atmosphere, which at least provides one of the following: select the tons of powder material and is mixed with it.

19. The method according to 17, in which the powder material is fed to the briquetting device, is surrounded by and mixed with the gas component containing 70 to 100% by volume of water vapor, at the point where it enters the forming briquettes plot briquetting device so that, when the powder material is pressed during the formation of the briquette, the water vapor condense, and the amount of gaseous material in the thus formed cake is minimized.

20. The method according to 17, in which the powder material is chosen from the group of organic materials containing sawdust, peat, lignite, brown coal, anthracite and bituminous and polyvitamins coals.

21. The method according to 17, in which the formed briquettes are subjected to evaporative cooling to prevent spontaneous combustion.

22. The method according to item 21, in which evaporative cooling is carried out spray design for lowering the temperature of the briquettes below 50°and maintain the moisture level close to the equilibrium moisture level of the pellets.

23. The method according to 17, in which step the partial drying of the powder material is carried out in a thermal dryer, in which the powder material is injected into the hot gas stream flowing through the pipeline, while the powder material is captured by a hot gas flow, which leads to higher temperature poro is the same material, and the gas stream from the captured powder material is then passed through at least one cyclone, in which the powder material sephirot from the gas stream.

24. The method according to item 23, in which the separated gas stream exiting the at least one cyclone partially subjected to recycling in thermal dryer, and excess gas is discharged into the atmosphere, the discharged portion of the gas stream is passed through a device for removing small particles to remove small particles that are held together with a gas stream through at least one cyclone.

25. The method according to paragraph 24, in which a portion of the gas stream undergoing recycling in thermal dryer, heated prior to introduction to thermal drying of the powder material, and the amount of gas discharged into the atmosphere corresponds to the volume of gas formed by combustion, and the amount neskondensirovannyh water vapor extracted from the powder material.

26. The method according to 17, in which forming the briquettes plot briquetting device contains two or more of the roll, through which pass the powder material, while at least one of the rolls includes made pockets for determining the form of briquettes, the method includes a stage on which the rolls rotate at different frequencies for which ogene to the powder material of a given cutting efforts when the powder material is passed through rolls and formed into briquettes.

27. The method according to p, in which the diameters of the rolls are in the range from 100 to 600 mm, and the ratio of the width briquetting pocket to the diameter of the roll is in the range from 0.05 to 0.15.

28. The method according to item 27, in which the diameters of the rolls are in the range from 400 to 550 mm, and the ratio of the width briquetting pocket to the diameter of the roll is around 0.08.

29. The method according to 17, which includes a stage on which serves powdered material briquetting device using at least one podpressdivname screw, and put the pressure to the powder material using podpressdivname auger and podpisany powder material to define a winding path to minimize or eliminate the breakthrough of gases through the powder material fed to the briquetting device.

30. The method according to p, in which the powder material serves on the rolls briquetting device essentially in the horizontal direction.

31. The method according to 17, in which the powder material is served in a briquetting device when the temperature of gas generation in the range from 90 to 150°C.

32. The method according to p, in which the temperature of the gas production of the powder material is in the range from 105 to 110°C.

33. The method according to 17, in cataractogenesis gas generates a pressure in the range from 100 to 200 kPa (absolute) in the apparatus for forming briquettes.

34. The method according to p in which condensation from the gas generates a pressure of from 120 to 143 kPa (absolute) in the apparatus for forming briquettes.

35. System for briquetting powdered material containing briquetting device; means for supplying powdered material briquetting device; means for introducing the condensed gas in the briquetting device, and briquetting forming device includes a section for forming briquettes in which the briquettes are formed from powder material under conditions of temperature and pressure that lead to condensation condensation from gas, thereby reducing the pressure build-up during the formation of the briquettes.

36. System p, in which the powder material contains a liquid, and means for introducing condensed gas contains a tool for creating conditions of temperature and pressure at which the condensation from the gas essentially occurs from the liquid contained in the powder material, and entered into a briquetting device by the release of the powder material during its submission to the briquetting device.

37. System p, which further comprises means for partially drying the powder material before feeding it into the briquetting device.

38. System p, which further what about the contains cooler, with spray design for evaporative cooling of the formed briquettes to maintain the moisture level close to the equilibrium moisture level of the pellets.

39. System 38, in which the forming briquettes plot gives the shape of the briquettes by passing the powder material between adjacent rolls, and at least one of the rolls includes a pocket, giving the shape of the briquette, and has a cutting force on the powder material as it passes through a series of rolls.

40. System p, which additionally contains at least one podpressdivname auger for feeding powder material into the briquetting device and to create a back pressure on the powder material to provide one of the following: reduction or elimination of blow-by through the powder material fed to the briquetting device.

41. System p, in which piketirovano the device comprises at least one pair of forming briquettes of rolls, each at least one podpressdivname auger is oriented essentially horizontally and is arranged to feed powder material into the gap between one of the specified at least one pair of forming briquettes rolls.

42. System for briquetting powdered material containing moisture, contains brication is offered by the device, having a section forming briquettes; means for partially drying the powder material; means for feeding the partially dried powdered material briquetting device and a tool for creating such conditions that water vapor was released from the powder material during its delivery to the site of formation of briquettes briquetting device under conditions of temperature and pressure that lead to condensation condensation from the gas during formation of the briquettes, thereby reducing the pressure rise.

43. System 42, in which the powder material is fed to the briquetting device, is surrounded by and mixed with the gas component containing 70-100% by volume of water vapor at the point, and it is included in the area of forming briquettes briquetting device, while the section forming briquettes of this device is arranged to seal the powder material during the formation of briquettes for the liquefaction of water vapor and to minimize the pressure rise in the thus formed cake.

44. System 42, in which the means for partially drying contains thermal dryer, in which the powder material is injected into the hot gas flow, the current through the pipeline, while the powder material is captured by a hot gas flow, which leads to improve the structure of the temperature of the powder material, and one or more cyclones for receiving the gas stream from the captured powder material and separation of the powder material from the gas stream.

45. The system of item 44, in which the means for partially drying contains a means for partial recirculation of the separated gas stream leaving the cyclone or cyclones, thermal dryer, vent means to vent excess gas, with specified excess gas contains the gas formed in the combustion and condensation from the gas extracted from the powder material, and means for removing fine particles to remove small particles, since the gas flow through the cyclone or cyclones.

46. The system according to item 45, which includes heating means for heating the portion of the gas stream, which is recycled to heat the dryer before putting in thermal drying of the powder material.

47. System 42, which further comprises a cooling section air-conditioning with spray design for evaporative cooling of the formed briquettes to prevent spontaneous combustion and to maintain the moisture level close to the equilibrium moisture level of the pellets.

48. System 42, in which the plot of forming briquettes briquetting device contains two or more roll through kotoryeprodayut powder material, in this case, at least one of the rolls includes made pockets for determining the form of briquettes, the method includes a stage on which the rolls rotate at different frequencies for application to the powder material of a given cutting efforts, when the powder material is passed through rolls and formed into briquettes.

49. System p, in which the diameters of the rolls are in the range from 100 to 600 mm, and the ratio of the width briquetting pocket to the diameter of the roll is in the range from 0.05 to 0.15.

50. System 49, in which the diameters of the rolls are in the range from 400 to 550 mm, and the ratio of the width briquetting pocket to the diameter of the roll is around 0.08.

51. System 42, in which the means for feeding powder material into a briquetting facility contains at least one podpressdivname auger to create a back pressure on the powder material to minimize or eliminate the breakthrough of gases through the powder material fed to the briquetting device.

52. System 51, in which podpressdivname auger is oriented horizontally and is arranged to supply a powder material in a gap between a pair of forming briquettes rolls.



 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the field of briquetting of minerals, in particular to the technology of briquetting coal and anthracite coal, and can be used in the coal mining and coal processing industry

The invention relates to the processing of coal, concrete to a method of producing fuel briquettes, and can be used in coal, mining, chemical and other industries, as well as for domestic fuel

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and system for briquetting powder materials, for instance, moisture-containing, bituminous and semi-bituminous coals, without using binding agent. Method (versions) includes stages, at which powder material, probably, is partly dried, and supplied into briquetting device in conditions, when condensed gas is introduced into briquetting device at the time of supply or in conditions, when water vapour is released from powder material during supply. Briquettes are formed in briquetting section of briquetting device, where briquettes are formed from powder material in conditions that lead to condensation of gas component, reducing in that way, pressure growth during briquette formation. Invention also includes system (versions) for briquetting powder materials according to two methods stated above.

EFFECT: reduction of gas inrush during formation of coal dust into briquette.

52 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of production of hard fuel of organic origin, namely, to formation of agglomerated fuel from wastes of carbon-containing materials. The method includes mechanical action on raw material with gradual increase in loading and its volume compression. During mechanical action raw material is grinded until viscous-plastic state is obtained. The device includes loading bin, cylinder-cone frame, auger shaft with transporting and pressing blades and has longitudinal protrusions located along the frame on its inner surface and a row of dies, each of being fixed in the frame at a distance from each other, with an auger shaft passed through the central holes of the latter.

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2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: technological processes; metallurgy.

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EFFECT: reduction of prime cost and increase of briquettes mechanical strength.

1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

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EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase physical and mechanical strength of RDF fuel, to eliminate water absorption due to capsulation of granules in process of their manufacturing, to prevent possibility of rotting and self-ignition, to reduce costs during storage and transportation, to reduce energy intensity of its production, to improve environment, also to reduce volume of SDW removed to SDW landfills, to eliminate capital costs for construction of plants for wastes management in connection with usage of equipment of existing cement production facilities.

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EFFECT: reduction of briquetting cost at maintaining the briquette strength.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

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FIELD: wood working industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of deep processing of wood sawdust and leaves without chemical cementing components, characterized by that they are sieved for removal of large-size elements, loaded into a dryer for decrease of humidity down to 10%, crushed until obtaining of a mix of particles with the size less than 15 mm and the volume no more than 0.5-1.0 cm3, formed, pressed at the pressure 120-140 kg/cm2 and the temperature 250-350C without air access. The invention describes also the briquette obtained by the named method.

EFFECT: obtaining robust briquettes from wood sawdust and leaves, without using the chemical cementing components.

5 cl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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EFFECT: produced gas hydrate granules have high shear resistance, which is convenient for handling during transportation and storage.

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FIELD: oil and gas industry.

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EFFECT: production of briquetted solid fuel from low-quality coal with high strength.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 9 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for producing moulded solid fuel, comprising: a pulverization stage for pulverizing low-grade coal; a stirring stage for mixing the pulverized low-grade coal and the oil solvent to form a slurry; a dewatering stage for heating and dewatering the slurry to form an anhydrous slurry; a stage for separating solid and liquid phases to separate the oil solvent from the dehydrated slurry to form a precipitate; a drying stage for heating the precipitate to further separate the oil solvent from the precipitate to produce powdered coal of enhanced quality; and a moulding stage for compression moulding the powdered coal of improved quality by means of a moulding device without adding and/or mixing with a bonding material, in which at the stage of forming the moulding device on the surface, a cooling substance is pulverized to cool the surface and thus the surface temperature of the moulding device is maintained at 100C or below.

EFFECT: producing moulded solid fuel from low-grade coal, having high strength.

6 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

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