Installation method of electronic components with ball leads

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for surface installation of electronic components with ball leads by flip-chip method and particularly for installation of electronic component with ball lead matrix. Installation method of electronic components with ball leads provides for application of flip-chip method including ball leads positioning, fastening and connection to printed circuit card mounting surface contacts, which are mechanically and electrically connected with plated-through holes by soldering. Prior to positioning, printed circuit card is turned over, with its mounting surface directed downwards, ball leads of electronic component being placed under plated-thought holes contacts, with the said special orientation of printed circuit card preserved for the time of all operation execution.

EFFECT: production of reliable high-quality soldered connection during surface installation of electronic components.

4 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to electronic devices and can be used for surface mounting of electronic components with ball pins in a method of flip-chip, in particular an electronic component with a matrix of ball pins.

The known method of mounting electronic components with ball pins in a method of the inverted crystal, comprising applying adhesive to the contact surface of the component with the solder balls, the installation of the component on the mounting surface of the substrate, the melting of the solder balls under a layer of adhesive, the combination of ball pins with pads of the substrate, the connection of ball pins with pads of the substrate by pressing the substrate and curing of the adhesive (see Application WO 2076161 A1, IPC NC 3/46, 01L 21/60, publ. 26.09.2004).

However, the known method has significant drawbacks:

- products made in accordance with this method, not subject to repair;

- soldered connections of the component are not suitable for visual or automated optical inspection that will require special control methods;

- perfect flatness of the mounting pads;

- requires special devices for combining;

- the maximum contact area of the ball of the output is equal to the area of contact is loshadki on a printed circuit Board;

mounting pads greatly reduce the useful for wiring area of the Board.

The known method of mounting electronic components with ball pins in a method of the inverted crystal, which includes operations of the positioning, fixing and joining of ball pads to contact the mounting surface of the PCB, which are mechanically and electrically connected with passing through them through metallized holes by soldering (see U.S. patent No. 6828512, IPC NC 1/16, publ. 07.12.2004,). Contacts made in the form of pads on opposite sides of the PCB. Before positioning operation (installation) on the mounting contact area and part of the through hole precipitated the first solder and hold the melt for forming a tube from the first solder. The plug has a stem, filling the upper part of the through hole, and a hat of a certain thickness formed by the first solder spread on the pad. After installing his ball findings connect with the contact pads of the PCB using the second reflow. Moreover, the ball pin of a component made of a second solder having a lower melting point than the first solder and the second reflow is carried out at a lower temperature than the temperature of the melting point of the first solder. While the tube remains in the solid state and prevents the flow of the second solder into the through-hole.

The above method has drawbacks due to:

increasing the number of operations that leads to the relative complexity of the way;

- the need to use two solders having different melting points to form the connection.

In addition, the known method does not allow you to get a guaranteed a certain gap between the mounting surface of the printed circuit Board and the surface of the electronic component.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed method is a method of mounting electronic components with ball pins in a method of the inverted crystal, which includes operations of the positioning, fixing and joining of ball pads to contact the mounting surface of the PCB, which are mechanically and electrically connected with passing through them through metallized holes by soldering (see U.S. patent No. 6735857, IPC NC 3/30, publ. 18.05.2004 g) In carrying out the above method of electronic components are located above the mounting surface during all operations. During soldering, the molten solder fills the through-plated holes and distributed what about the bottom contact pads around the respective through holes with the formation of an extended column of solder on the bottom side of the through hole. This increases the strength of the soldered connections and allows you to visually assess the quality of the soldering.

However, the above method has significant disadvantages, which are that when mounted with high density, there is a possibility of spreading of the solder from the pads. This leads to the formation of bridges and circuit adjacent contact pads.

In addition, essential to the known method has the effect of surface contamination on the solder wettability of the metallized surfaces of the holes. When unsatisfactory cleaning of the through holes (for example, the presence of gum stains on the walls of the hole) there are the following defects soldered joints:

- partial or complete lead solder from through-plated holes, which dramatically reduces the quality of soldered joints;

- the formation of large voids (gas tubes) in the bars hardened solder that fills the through holes, resulting in reduced mechanical strength of the connection.

To eliminate through-plated holes on the contact sites for components with pellet conclusions it is not possible for such compounds with high density pads.

The technical result of the invention is POPs is the use of reliable high-quality solder joints for surface mounting of electronic components.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of mounting electronic components with ball pins in a method of the inverted crystal, which includes operations of the positioning, fixing and joining of ball pads to contact the mounting surface of the PCB, which are mechanically and electrically connected with passing through them through metallized holes, by means of soldering, the operation of positioning the circuit Board overturn the mounting surface down, and the ball pin on an electronic component placed under the contact through-plated holes, with the above spatial orientation PCB maintain during all operations.

In addition, when performing the contacts pass through the through plated holes, in the form of pads to ensure that all operations use only electronic components and printed circuit boards, in which the diameter D of the ball and the diameter d of the through metallized holes, respectively, connected by the relation D=(1,2÷1,5)d.

In addition, when used for mounting multilayer PCB with two switching contacts, which are through-plated holes, in the form of metallized holes in the Orme truncated cones to ensure all operations use only electronic components and printed circuit boards, in which the diameter D of the ball and the diameter d of the through metallized holes, respectively, connected by the relation D=(1,2÷2,0)d.

In addition, when used for mounting printed circuit boards with stepped through metallized holes, consisting of two sections with different diameters, to ensure that all operations use only the printed circuit Board, in which the diameter d1area, having access to the mounting surface, and the diameter d2plot with exit on the opposite surface, respectively, connected by the relation d2=(0,2÷1,0)d1and the depth H of the section with diameter d1greater than or equal to the depth h of the last occurrence of the inner layer from the mounting surface of the PCB.

The essence of the invention is illustrated by drawings.

1 schematically (simplified) depicts a printed circuit Board with contact pads and the electronic component before carrying out operations in accordance with the invention, where

1 - printed circuit Board;

2 - PCB pad;

3 - through-plated holes;

4 - mounting surface of the PCB;

5 is an electronic component;

6 - ball conclusions.

Figure 2 - multi-layer printed circuit Board with two switching contacts in the form of the metal is specialised holes in the form of truncated cones and electronic component before carrying out operations in accordance with the invention, where

7 - contact, which passes through a through-plated hole in the shape of a truncated cone.

Figure 3 schematically (simplified) depicts a multilayer printed circuit Board with stepped through metallized holes, consisting of two sections with different diameters, and the electronic component before carrying out operations in accordance with the invention, where:

1 - printed circuit Board;

2 - pad metallized holes;

3 - through metallic hole;

4 - mounting surface of the PCB;

5 is an electronic component;

6 - ball output;

8 switching conductors;

9 - internal layers of the Board.

Figure 4 schematically (simplified) depicts a technological device for carrying out the soldering operation with fixed therein PCB after carrying out soldering in accordance with the invention, where:

1 - printed circuit Board;

5 is an electronic component;

10 - mount printed circuit Board;

11 mounting rim;

12 - Planck;

13 - cover;

14 - directing;

15 - spring;

16 - rib;

And the gap between the functional surface of the electronic component and the mounting surface of the PCB.

Below is preferred variant of the method of mounting the electronic computer is required with ball pins with different recommendations on the selection of certain techniques, modes, materials, fixtures, etc. that make up the operation and the proposed method in General, because of the large range of electronic components and materials used at the present time.

On ball 6 conclusions the electronic component 5 through the stencil to apply solder paste (figures not shown).

The use of stencils is more preferable than filing doses of pasta by extrusion from a dispenser, as provided more stable masses of solder paste applied to each output.

For solder paste by screen printing, it is recommended to use solder paste containing a metal component 88-91%. Recommended viscosity depending on the particle size of the solder should be 6000÷10000 g/cm·2. The particle size of the paste should be 20-45 μm, since the paste with small sizes though and easy to apply, but at the soldering can be a problem splashing solder balls. Pasta with large particle sizes are difficult to apply through small apertures in the stencil.

Instead of the solder paste you can use fluxes for soldering of electronic components, such as alcohol-infolevin fluxes, soluble in water or alcohol, the remains of which can be easily removed by washing in water or alcohol. However, water-soluble fluxes do not note the NIMA's there, require especially high reliability military and space equipment). In these cases, the preferred cleaning with solvents. This also applies to sites with surface mounting, where the high density makes it difficult to flush.

In devices for local installation of semiconductors is the pairing of electronic components 5 inspection of printed circuit boards 1 (mutual orientation shown in figures 1, 2 and 3) and the positioning of the electronic component 5 on the marked place the mounting surface 4 printed circuit boards.

It should be noted that the contacts 7 in the shape of truncated cones (see figure 2)function (role) catching ball pins. The above implementation of the contacts allows you to simultaneously improve the operation of the proposed method, in particular:

to improve the accuracy of positioning.

to increase the reliability of fixing of electronic components;

to increase the strength of soldered joints by increasing the area of contact.

The positioning operation is completed by drying solder paste, which is located at the place of contact for fixing the electronic component 5 on the printed circuit Board 1 before soldering.

For the operation of the soldering is used technological device that contains (see figure 4):

the holder 10 is ecatel Board, made in the form of a rectangular frame with internal mounting rim 11;

- the bar 12 for mechanical fixing of circuit Board 1 at the edges;

- the cover 13, which is adjustably mounted on the rails 14 and loaded by a spring 15 in the direction of the holder 10 with the ability to create the clamping force applied to the electronic component 5, the lid 13 has an internal rib 16, which in one end position of the cover 13 rests on the side 11.

Printed circuit Board 1 is fixed on the electronic component 5 is placed in technological adaptation (see figure 4) and subsequent fixation on the edges by strips 12, the cover 13 is pressed down. Clamping force arising in the place of coupling the electronic component 5 with the inner surface of the cover 13 and applied to the electronic component 5, has a relatively low value due to the use of calibrated springs 15, which allows you to:

- avoid any deformations in contact ball 6 conclusions with the pads before soldering operation;

- to prevent the "spread" of the ball 6 conclusions in the soldering process;

- to carry out the soldering process smooth feeding of the electronic component 5 in the direction of the printed Board 1 until the edge 16 will come into contact with boron is an IR 11.

Further technological adaptation with fixed therein circuit Board 1 is placed in the oven with convection reflow, which has a zone preheating, soldering and cooling and efficient air circulation system that provides this soldering method, a number of advantages compared with other methods, such as IR-soldering.

When the IR-soldering is difficult to ensure high accuracy and uniformity of temperature distribution. To improve the quality of IR-soldering it is recommended to use metallic edges, nodes with a uniform distribution of thermal mass with large elements at the corners, to improve the convection furnace, to reduce the speed of the conveyor (if available). You should not heat the ceramic elements with a speed of less than 3°With a/C.

When heated ball 6 conclusions (including pasta) are deformed, moving in a plastic state, and when reaching a certain temperature melt (forming a eutectic alloy). The molten solder in the area of the solder joints due to capilary forces drawn into the cavity through metallized holes 3 and rushes up to his exit, gradually filling a certain amount. Simultaneously with the filling of cavities, through-hole solder is smooth feeding of the electronic component 5 in the direction of pechat the th Board 1 until when the rib 16 will come into contact with the rim 11. The above orientation of the flow of the solder at the same time allows you to:

to eliminate gaps in the stream (to ensure continuity);

- to gradually displace air (or gas, in an environment which can produce brazing, for example nitrogen);

- to fill uniformly the required volume of solder without the formation of air pockets (voids) even in the presence of any pollutants;

- to get the guaranteed gaps And between the functional surface of the electronic component 5 and the mounting surface of the printed circuit Board 1 by a value in the range from several microns to several tens microns.

The creation of the above-mentioned orientation of the flow of solder and mandatory compliance with certain ratios of the diameter D of the ball and the diameter d (or d1) through metallized holes allows to achieve compared with the prototype the following advantages:

to eliminate (reduce) the probability of splash (splash) solder in the coupling zone ball pins and pads at the same temperature profile soldering;

- to provide an almost uniform mechanical strength of all connections (ball o - pad) for a single electronic component.

To ensure the above, when performing contact form contact the sites (see 1) the diameter D of the ball and the diameter d of the through metallized holes must be connected by the relation D=(1,2÷1,5)d, and when the contacts are in the form of metallized holes in the form of truncated cones (see figure 2 and 3), respectively, D=(1,2÷2,0)d and d=(1,2÷2,0)d1.

The diameters of balls D=1,5d and D=2,0d (D=2,0d1for the above positions, respectively, are the upper limit, below which guaranteed no splash (splash) solder due to the fact that cappilaries forces cope with the flow of molten solder up and time during soldering to remove (send) "surplus" of solder into the cavity through metallized holes.

The diameters of balls D=1,2d and D=1,2d1for the above options (see figure 1, 2 and 3), respectively, are lower limit values. Components with diameters of balls D, which is less than the lower limit value to use is impractical due to the lack of sufficient solder to form a strong connection.

After the soldering operation, the optical control of surface-mounted nodes on the installation of automatic optical inspection with a system of two-dimensional vision, which is used to detect common defects soldering: solder bridges, airports, the s etc.

Data valid image obtained with the automated optical inspection, proceed to the automatic measurement of parameters of technological processes and feedbacks to inspect the solder connections.

Thus, the proposed method allows you to create reliable, high-quality solder joints in surface mounting of electronic components with pellet conclusions by eliminating solder bridges (excluded splash of solder).

In addition, the use for mounting printed circuit boards with stepped through metallized holes (see figure 3) allows to reduce the area of contact pads on the circuit Board surface opposite to the mounting, and to improve the reliability of the metallization of the holes. Reduction of the area of the pads extends for forming printed wiring, in particular, allows to increase its density by introducing additional switching elements (switching conductors).

1. The mounting method of electronic components with ball pins in a method of the inverted crystal, which includes operations of the positioning installation, fixing and joining of ball pads to contact the mounting surface of the PCB, which are mechanically and electrically connected with the passage of the components through them through metallized holes, by brazing, characterized in that before the operation of positioning the circuit Board overturn the mounting surface down, and the ball pin on an electronic component placed under the contacts, with the above spatial orientation PCB maintain during all operations.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when the pins pass through the through plated holes, in the form of pads to ensure that all operations use only electronic components and printed circuit boards, in which the diameter D of the ball and the diameter d of the through metallized holes, respectively, connected by the relation D=(1,2÷1,5)d.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when used for mounting multilayer PCB with two switching contacts, which are through-plated holes, in the form of metallized holes in the form of truncated cones to ensure all operations use only electronic components and printed circuit boards, in which the diameter D of the ball and the diameter d of the through metallized holes, respectively, connected by the relation D=(1,2÷2,0)d.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when used for mounting printed circuit boards with stepped the metallized through holes, consisting of two sections with different diameters, to ensure that all operations use only the printed circuit Board, in which the diameter d1area, having access to the mounting surface, and the diameter d2plot with exit on the opposite surface, respectively, connected by the relation d2=(0,2÷1,0)d1and the depth H of the section with diameter d1greater than or equal to the depth h of the last occurrence of the inner layer from the mounting surface of the PCB.



 

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