Method volume firefighting and related equipment

FIELD: medicine, life saving equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method of volume firefighting and related equipment enables to increase efficiency of firefighting procedures due to decreased temperature and losses of fire-control aerosol by introduction thereof with pyrotechnic composition resulted from combustion, thus charges are inflamed from lower non-reserved end face, and produced aerosol is let through channels between charges and through cellular plaster filter. Thereafter aerosol is exhausted to protected volume through clearances of outlet cone. Firefighting unit consists of working body, injector assembly and two fire-resistant grids, and also contains block cellular plaster filter for aerosol cooling, mounted between fire-resistant grids, and outlet cone for uniform distribution of produced aerosol.

EFFECT: provided increase of firefighting efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to fire-fighting techniques, methods of fire extinguishing devices, equipped with a pyrotechnic compositions, which when burned emit fire-extinguishing gas-aerosol mixture. The invention can be effectively used for extinguishing fires and fires in structures and devices of the closed type, such as warehouses, garages, offices, apartments, engine and Luggage compartments of different vehicles.

The current way of surround fire, which consists in receiving the cooled non-toxic gases, based on a joint simultaneous oxidation-restoration-cooled high-temperature gases containing the products of incomplete oxidation, consistent passing them through at least one fixed bed of granular activated alumina and at least one layer of granulated zeolite, separated by at least one fixed by the free volume [1].

The disadvantage of this method are the large losses resulting gas-aerosol mixture in the combined block "oxidation-reduction-cooling".

Closest to the present invention is a method, which consists in the introduction into the protected volume pre cookislands cooled gas mixture formed during combustion the Institute of pyrotechnic composition. Additional oxidation is carried out by transmission through a layer of sorbent with oxygen-containing oxidant gas-aerosol mixture, and its solid phase with particles of a given size is obtained by passing the cooled gas-aerosol mixture through the filter sorbent through which advanced into the protected volume of injected gas-vapor mixture obtained by desorption of the refrigerant from the surface of a solid cooler due to heat gas-aerosol mixture that is passed through indirect heat transfer [2]. As well as cooling of hot gases and fire-extinguishing aerosol apply natural crystalline minerals or different crystalline salts or oxides of metals or their mixtures, often with the use of different silicates.

However, the implementation of this method detected the following disadvantages: when the actual speed of the expiration of the generator combustion products through deciliter, when the presence of additional oxygen-containing oxidant, it is not possible to significantly reduce the CO content and especially N0 and NO2in an atmosphere protected from fire areas.

To implement volumetric method of fire extinguishing device is used, consisting of a combined block joint simultaneous oxidation-reduction-cooling gases, including at least one of podvijnyi layer of granulated activated alumina and at least one layer of granulated zeolite, separated by at least one fixed constant free volume, with each layer of granulated activated alumina and zeolite is divided into at least two metal grids-grids, and the sequence of layers and the size of the particles of granulated aluminum oxide and zeolite is selected depending on the initial gas temperature, and the combined unit is located in a thermally insulated housing with openings for entry and exit of gases [1].

However, a significant disadvantage of this device is the bulky design of the generator through the use of a combined unit, which leads to large losses of the generated aerosol.

As the closest prototype of the claimed invention made device, comprising a housing with the outlet and located therein a combustion chamber with a pyrotechnic composition, the initiating device and the cooling unit, which is isolated from direct contact cooler products of combustion of the pyrotechnic composition and consisting of at least two coaxial spaced shells, filled the cooler and the wall of one shell is the inner surface of the housing. In addition, the combustion chamber further comprises a sorbent with oxygen is terrasim oxidant, located between the two partitions, mounted on a pyrotechnic composition, and shell from the opposite side of the combustion chamber have holes, over which set of partitions, the space between which is filled with sorbent filter [2].

The disadvantage of this device is the use of docility, the combustion of which the concentration of NO and NO2in the protected area is much higher than the permissible; however, the layer silicates melts, and granules of his raft, which makes the output of the aerosol generator, leading to a rise in pressure therein and unplanned time.

The technical result for the solution of which the present invention is directed, is to reduce the temperature of the fire-extinguishing aerosol output from the device, with the loss of aerosol insignificant.

The required technical result is achieved in that way surround fire is the introduction of a protected volume of a fire-extinguishing aerosol generated by the combustion of the pyrotechnic composition, with the charge of pyrotechnic composition are lit from the bottom nezablokirovanne end and the resulting aerosol is passed through the channels between charges and through gypsum block filter of honeycomb structure, and further the aerosol is displayed in the volume to be protected through the gaps in vypusk the m cone. The device for implementing the method surround fire consists of a casing, a site run and two flashback arrestors according nets, also contains gypsum block filter of honeycomb structure placed between flashback arrestors according nets, and the exhaust cone.

Implementation of the proposed method of fire suppression is as follows: in the protected volume introduces the fire-extinguishing aerosol generated by the combustion of the pyrotechnic composition, the ignition of which is produced from the activation unit, and the combustion products of the composition are skipped between shnurovym elements of the charge held on the side surface, and cooled, giving its heat to the unburned portion of the charge. To further reduce the temperature of the aerosol generator output is supplied gypsum block filter of honeycomb structure.

As the aerosol-forming composition was used with the following formulation: sodium azide NaN3- 27%; perchlorovinyl resin - 20%; potassium perchlorate KClO4- 51%; carbon C - 2%.

The charges were made in the form of a set of cord elements of different lengths. The side surface and one end of each cord was covered with booking brand CSU-2 by dipping the reservation, dissolved in acetone. The burning rate of the cord on the air was 2 mm/s and did not depend on its length.

The table shows the results of the test charge in the form of a set of seven cords in the proposed device.

Table
The test results charge of seven cords
The length of the battery 1, mmThe burning time trop,The average burning rate U, mm/s
209,02,2
407,55,3
606,010,0
804,219,0

The dependence of the average burning speed from the length of the charge in the device represented in figure 1.

Obvious was that with increase in length decreases the time of its burning. This can be explained as follows: when the combustion of the composition of the exiting aerosol intensively gives heat to the unburned portion of the charge, the initial charge temperature increases, therefore, increases the burning rate of the composition and reduces the time aerosolization. When reducing the unburned portion of the charge, the temperature of the aerosol at the end of the generator becomes close to the temperature of combustion of the composition. To reduce the temperature of the aerosol is recommended to set the block gypsum filter cell structure is ry.

The temperature change generated aerosol output from the device when the filter length of 20 mm is shown in figure 2.

From figure 2 it is seen that more than half of the operating time of the device, the outlet temperature does not exceed 200°C. Further temperature reduction can be achieved by increasing the length of the filter, but at the same time will increase the loss of the aerosol.

Figure 3 presents the proposed device, where 1 - body, 2 - charge, 3 - exhaust cone, 4 - activator, 5 - incendiary composition, 6 - flashback arrestors according grid, 7 - book, 8 - gypsum block filter of honeycomb structure.

The principle of the proposed device consists in the following. Site run 4 ignites the incendiary composition 5, which is deposited on nezablokirvanny face charges of 2, made in the form of a set of cord elements, booked 7 on the side surface and the upper end face. The resulting aerosol passes through the channels between the charges flowing around the lateral surface, and gives them their heat. For additional cooling of the formed aerosol is advisable to use a block of gypsum filter of honeycomb structure 8, which is placed between flashback arrestors according nets 6. On the housing 1 is fixed exhaust cone 3, which evenly distributes the generated aerosol in the protected volume.

The proposed method volumetric fire is osenia and device for its implementation effectively extinguish the fire and the fires of various combustible substances in the structures and devices of the closed type. They are characterized by fairly low temperature forming fire-extinguishing aerosol output from the device, and a significant reduction of its losses.

The proposed set of essential features not known from the available information sources prior art and can be commercially reproduced in production, i.e. meets the criteria of patentability.

Bibliography

1. RF patent №2193430, publ. 27.11.2002, CL 62D 3/00, AS 3/00.

2. RF patent №2142834, publ. 20.12.1999, CL AS 3/00, AS 35/02.

1. Way surround fire, which consists in the introduction into the protected volume of the fire-extinguishing aerosol generated by the combustion of the pyrotechnic composition, characterized in that the pyrotechnic charge of the composition of the light from the bottom nezablokirovanne end and the resulting aerosol is passed through the channels between charges and through gypsum block filter of honeycomb structure, and further the aerosol is displayed in the volume to be protected through the gaps in the exhaust cone.

2. The device for implementing the method surround fire, consisting of a body, site launch and two flashback arrestors according grids, characterized in that it further comprises a gypsum block filter of honeycomb structure placed between flashback arrestors according nets, and the exhaust cone.



 

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10 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 8 ex

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27 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; chemical reactor and the method for production of hydrogen.

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3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; the portable devices for the fire extinguishing.

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3 cl, 1 dwg

Gas generator // 2286844

FIELD: mixing.

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4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanics.

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4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanics.

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6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in closed or semi closed spaces. To increase reliability of performance generator comprises case with a cylinder shaped coat and with solid and perforated bottoms, charge with aerosol forming composition, cooling unit fixed at one side with the perforated bottom, and from the side of the charge -with a perforated partition. Linear bushing with a perforated side surface is situated within the inside surface of the solid bottom along the axis of the case. Charge is of multi blocks and consists of one central and least two peripheral cylinder shaped blocks, at that the central cylinder block is located along the axis of the case allowing it to be supported at one end with a linear bushing, and at the other end with the perforated partition; peripheral cylinder blocks are situated lengthwise with an axial set off against the central block along the circumference between the central block and the cylinder coat of the case; inducer with a trigger is assembled inside the linear bushing.

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3 cl, 2 dwg

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3 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

Fire-extinguisher // 2311936

FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly fire-extinguishers, for instance powder fire-extinguishers.

SUBSTANCE: fire-extinguisher comprises cylindrical body with head and bottom, shutoff-and-triggering device with spraying head and siphon pipe for powder distribution from cylindrical body into spraying head through shutoff-and-triggering device. Cylindrical body has mouth head including support flange secured inside cylindrical body and connected to mouth thereof by spot weld seam. The bush has cylindrical central pipe mating support flange thereof. Central pipe includes inner thread for shutoff-and-triggering device connection to cylindrical body. Sealing gasket made of elastic material is clamped between shutoff-and-triggering device and body mouth. Bottom is air-tightly secured to cylindrical body by means of welding.

EFFECT: increased body reliability, decreased labor inputs for fire-extinguisher body manufacturing and reduced body manufacturing accuracy requirement.

1 dwg

FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly portable fire-extinguishers.

SUBSTANCE: fire-extinguisher comprises vessel with working fire-extinguishant, fire-extinguishant displacing system, which distributes fire-extinguishant from vessel and has siphon pipe used as working liquid flow rate regulator body and spraying means connected to outlet of locking-and-triggering means connected with siphon pipe outlet. Air-tight resilient shell, which defines cavity communicated with through body channel by means of body orifice, is arranged from outer side of siphon pipe. Spring-like regulating member transversal to longitudinal through channel axis is arranged in the through channel so that the regulating member may slide via body orifice. The regulating member is in contact with resilient shell. Spring-like regulating member or two plate-like regulating members including similar plates change through channel throat in dependence of working medium pressure at regulator inlet.

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17 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: manufacturing high-pressure vessels.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises screwing the valving members in the neck with an arbitrary tightening torque with the use of a lubricant that is applied on the threaded section of the valving member from the side of its face within the section between the first and fifth turn of the thread along the 1±0.5 of the turn length over its periphery. The lubricant is made of a one-component anaerobic glue in amount corresponding to the volume of the spiral space between the turns of the neck thread and answering turns of the threaded section of the valving device over the length no less than one turn of the thread. The assembled vessel is then allowed to stand for forming a polymeric composition in the spiral space for at least 20 min at a temperature of no less than 5°C. The threaded connection is sealed by means of a polymeric composition.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: storing or distributing liquids or gases.

SUBSTANCE: vessel comprises threaded neck, valving system with threaded part to connect it to the neck, and device for the relief of pressure when assembling mounted on the threaded part of the valving system. The seal is made of a polymeric composition and is set in the spiral space between the turns of the vessel neck over the section between the outer face of the threaded neck to the device for pressure relief to define a glue connection. The method comprises mounting valving system with the cylindrical threaded section to the threaded neck of the metallic vessel and sealing the cylindrical threaded connection. The valving system is screwed in the neck with an arbitrary torque with the use of a lubricant made of an anaerobic glue that is applied on the turns of the thread or turns at any site of the threaded section. The assembled joint is allowed to stand at a temperature no less than 5°C over at least 20 min.

EFFECT: simplified structure and reduced labor consumption for assembling.

9 cl, 8 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly fire-extinguishing means using fire-extinguisher generated as two-phase gas-and-droplet flow.

SUBSTANCE: fire-extinguishing device comprises at least one fire-extinguishing liquid vessel, at least one compressed gas cylinder, gas pressure regulator, connection hose system and directed gas-and-droplet flow generation means. The gas-and-droplet flow generation means includes body, controlled liquid and gas delivery valves, mixing chamber for gas and liquid mixing made as cylindrical channel and gas-dynamic nozzle. Cylindrical bush is installed in the mixing chamber. Cylindrical bush is arranged in the body so that annular liquid delivery gap is created between the bush and body wall. The annular gap provides tangential liquid inlet. Inner bush surface defines cylindrical mixing chamber channel. Slot-like injection orifices are created in the bush. The slot-like orifices are directed transversely to axis of symmetry defined in cylindrical channel of mixing chamber. Slot-like orifice widths are not more than 0.07D, where D is inner bush diameter. Bush section provided with injection orifices has length L0 measured along cylindrical channel, wherein the length L0 is selected from the following condition: D≤L0≤2D. Summary throat area of slot-like orifices Sor is not less than 0.01Sin, where Sin is inner bush surface area. The slot-like orifices are spaced equal distances along axis of cylindrical channel symmetry.

EFFECT: decreased fire-extinguishing liquid losses, increased spatial uniformity and stability of generated fine gas-and-droplet flow.

7 cl, 2 dwg

Fire extinguisher // 2291729

FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly portable extinguishers which are permanently pressurized or pressurized immediately before use.

SUBSTANCE: fire extinguisher comprises body, fire-extinguishing composition, siphon pipe, locking-and-triggering head, triggering lever, discharge nozzle, thermal lock, transition spout and external connection pipe. The thermal lock is provided with removable protective covering having inner diameter equal to 4.0-8.0 thermal lock bulb diameters.

EFFECT: increased fire-extinguishing efficiency.

4 cl, 1 dwg

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SUBSTANCE: plant comprises module with fire-extinguishing powder having partition installed along module body height. Partition serves as deflector and has concave shape. Orifices are formed along partition periphery. Plant has siphon tube with cuts oppositely formed at end thereof. Thermal jacket is connected to body portion. Container with gas-generation composition and heating member enclosed by insulation cup is arranged in body bottom.

EFFECT: possibility of extinguishing fire with the use of increased reliability and performance.

9 cl, 4 dwg

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