Method for identification of rifled firearms using neutron activation analysis
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of development and fabrication of custom made firearms and may be used for the identification of rifled barrels of small arms that are manufactured in small lots. A method consists in applying a coating onto the inner surface of rifled arms barrels and cartridge chambers. The coating provides penetration of a set of microelements into the lateral surface of a bullet while it passes through the barrel in the course of firing and identification of the arms using neutron activation analysis of the bullet and cartridge case surfaces. Moreover, the applied coating contains three metals with their radioactive isotopes half-life period not less than 5 days.
EFFECT: providing unambiguous indentification of rifled weapons.
The invention relates to the design and production of a piece of fire rifles and can be used to identify units of rifled small arms manufactured in small batches.
Well-known classical method for identifying a rifle (Kustanovich S.D. Forensic ballistics. M: "Legal literature", 1956, p.24-27). According to a known method carried out comparing two bullets and two sleeves, one of which obviously westralian of the test weapons, and the other presumably westralian of the test weapons. The comparison is carried out in General by the number and width of traces of the fields of the grooves of the bullet, the direction and angle of inclination, and also by comparing the appearance of the shells, their typical scratches and defects. In addition, compare the shape and size of the individual tracks, the configuration of the projections and depressions, as well as their mutual arrangement - i.e. the elements inherent in the individual barrel and chambered rifle.
The disadvantage of this method should recognize the need for the expert ballista firearms (or bullets, or shells)that can be used as an element of comparison. In their absence, the examination cannot be performed.
There is also known a method of labeling a barrel rifled weapons (US, 175346, 1979). Proposed to be applied to the inner surface of the barrel rifled weapons additional marking elements, leaving traces on the pool, which can be identified as individual characteristics of the barrel rifled weapons.
The disadvantage of this method admittedly not take into account the impact of the additional marking elements on ballistic weapons, in addition, in this embodiment, the weapon cannot be identified by empty sleeve.
There is also known a method of labeling a barrel rifle (RU, patent 2148769, 2000), including the application of the inner surface of the barrel cover, ensuring the implementation of the set of chemical elements in the lateral surface of the bullet during its passage through the barrel during the shot, allowing by chemical analysis, as the surface of the bullet, and surfaces in contact with the bullet after firing, to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the established elements and, therefore, the trunk from which a shot was fired.
This method is not suitable for identification barrels of weapons, because there is currently not known how precise application on the internal surface coatings, in addition, in this embodiment, the weapon cannot be identified by empty sleeve.
The technical problem is echema by the present invention, is the possibility of marking a rifle, preferably produced in small batches.
The technical result in the implementation of the design is to ensure an unambiguous identification of the rifle as the pool and spent the sleeve.
To obtain the technical result of the proposed use of the method of identifying a rifle using neutron activation analysis, including the application of the coating on the inner surface of the barrel rifled weapons, ensuring the implementation of a set of microelements in the side surface of the bullet during its passage through the barrel during firing and subsequent determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the established elements of the cover, which identify the weapon, and in addition put on the surface of the chamber the same floor, consisting of three metals, the half-lives of radioactive elements which constitute not less than 5 years, and to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the coating using neutron activation analysis surface bullets and shells. Preferably with the implementation of the method pre-defined response from bullets and shell casings, obviously used when administering shots from each weapon, using recip is the config as a control. These bullet and the cartridge case is usually obtained from the implementation of control shot upon delivery to the customer instance rifled firearms.
Neutron activation analysis is based on measuring the energy of the radiation produced by neutron irradiation of isotopes of chemical elements.
The introduction of restrictions on the use of the method of "three metals, the half-lives of radioactive elements which constitute not less than 5 days" due to the following factors:
1. Currently known methods of vacuum deposition, including local, on the surface, including metal, various metal compositions containing two or more components.
2. Also known electroplating methods local application on the metal surface metal coatings containing impurities.
3. These coating methods allow to obtain a metal coating with different content of chemical elements (metals) in them.
4. The resulting composition of metals irradiated by neutrons provide a significant number of combinations of artificial radioactive isotopes, each of which allows to unambiguously characterize the composition of metals and, therefore, an instance of the rifle on which the specified com is azizia applied.
5. The indication of "half-life period of not less than 5 days" simplifies the analysis, since in this case the accuracy of the analysis is almost independent of the conditions of its implementation, including the amount of time between the processing of the sample, the neutron flux and detection response.
6. Use of standard equipment for neutron activation analysis, provides extensive implementation of the proposed method.
It was established experimentally by ballistic characteristics manufactured with the proposed identification labels barrels rifled weapons that the ballistics of the bullet is not changed, since the thickness of the coating is not more than 3 μm, however, the coating of such thickness ensures the application of trace metals in the said coating chamber and barrel, at least, and after 300 shots.
Hence, the weapon can be defined as the pool and used the sleeve.
In a preferred embodiment, the identification in the process of manufacturing firearms rifles preferably at prisciliano it at least one shot, and at least one sleeve is placed in a file (or database) of the manufacturer, as well as of the bodies of internal Affairs.
Specified firearms can be a Pisto is no, rifle or carbine.
Hereinafter the invention will be illustrated in the examples of its implementation.
1. On the inner surface of the barrel of the gun near the muzzle end by vacuum deposition using vacuum post struck a composition of three metals, calcium, vanadium and chromium. The half-lives of their radioactive isotopes respectively 164 day, 16,1 days and 27.8 days. The composition applied composition depends on the composition of the target, from which the produced spray, as well as from the target temperature. Practically the number of combinations of the three metals indefinitely. Similarly was coated on the surface of the chamber. The coating obtained was fixed on the surface of the barrel and chamber method of heating. Upon delivery to the customer of the gun made a control shooting. The surface of the bullets and shells were analyzed using neutron activation analysis. The results made in the filing Cabinet. Further, upon detection of the bullets and/or cartridge used an instance of the weapon can be set in the analysis of their surface by the method of neutron activation analysis and comparison of the obtained results with the data stored in the card file.
2. On the inner surface of the barrel of a sniper rifle near the chamber method for electroplating inflicted whom is ositio three metals, containing iron, zinc and strontium. The half-lives of their radioactive isotopes respectively 45 days 246 days and 50.6 per day. The composition applied composition depends on the composition of the electrolyte, which made the application, and the process conditions. Practically the number of combinations of the three metals indefinitely. Similarly was coated on the surface of the chamber. The coating obtained was fixed on the surface of the barrel and chamber method of heating. Upon delivery to the customer sniper rifle produced control shooting. The surface of the bullets and shells were analyzed using neutron activation analysis. The results made in the filing Cabinet. Further, upon detection of the bullets and/or cartridge used an instance of the weapon can be set in the analysis of their surface by the method of neutron activation analysis and comparison of the obtained results with the data stored in the card file.
The use of such design allows you to uniquely identify a firearm rifled guns.
1. The method of identification of rifles, including the coating on the inner surface of the barrel rifled weapons, ensuring the implementation of a set of microelements in the side surface of the bullet during its passage through the barrel during the shot and the subsequent determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the introduced elements, which identify the weapon, wherein the applied coating consists of three metals with half-lives of their radioactive isotopes of not less than 5 days, while the coating is additionally applied to the surface of the chamber, and to identify the weapons used neutron activation analysis of the surface of the bullets and shell casings.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the pre-determined neutron activation response from bullets and shell casings, obviously used when making a shot from a weapon, and use the result as a control.
FIELD: automatic control systems, applicable in equipment specimens as complex monitoring means, as well as in installations for scientific research work.
SUBSTANCE: simulating instruction in the form of modulated radiation are assigned, the radiation is applied to the input of the missile reception line, and the parameters of the guided missile are estimated by comparison of the signal from the output of the missile control equipment with the preset one. Computation of the three-dimensional motion of the missile is accomplished according to the signals from the output of the missile control equipment, its deviation relative to the aiming point, the modulated radiation is formed in compliance with the obtained deviations of the missile. The monitored parameters are compared with the preset values according to the computed signals of the missile spatial position by comparison of the deviations and the angle of attack and the skip angle or of the missile deviation only with the preset values. The automated system of monitoring of guided missile parameters consists of to series-connected modulated radiation formation unit and the missile control equipment, a computer unit is used, its input is connected to the output of the control equipment, and the output is connected to the input of the modulated radiation formation unit. In the modification of realization of the modulated radiation formation unit it has a series-connected instrument-guidance sight and a controlled mirrors unit optically communicated with the missile control equipment, the second input of the controlled mirrors unit is connected to the outputs of the output of the computer unit.
EFFECT: enhanced truth of the missile parameters monitoring in the conditions of operation of the whole control system, in the presence of disturbing actions and jamming inclusive.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: defense equipment, in particular, complex means of monitoring of guided missile parameters, for example, missiles teleoriented in a beam.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in simultaneous synchronous supply of simulating control signals to the command formation unit and comparison of the current values of the control commands from the outputs of the guided missile equipment and command formation unit respectively in heading and pitch. If the values of the control commands at the output of the command formation unit equal to the preset ones, and differ from the respective values at the output of the guided missile equipment by the value not exceeding the tolerance value, a decision on the equipment serviceability is taken. Introduction into the automatic check-out system of series-connected command formation unit and comparison unit has enhanced the accuracy of monitoring of the parameters.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of monitoring of the parameters due to the exclusion of the influence of the accuracy of decoding of the relay signal and accuracy of formation of simulating control signals.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: methods of testing catapult units for launching rockets.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in placing the weight and overall dimension mock-up of rocket on horizontal guides of jig secured on test stand platform and piston-type catapult unit with solid propellant gas generator placed between and under jig guides. Acceleration of said mock-up is performed by means of catch brought in contact with its rear bottom and rigidly connected with moving piston of catapult unit. Jettisoning of rocket mock-up is carried out directly from horizontal guides of jig. Provision is made for barrier (made from sand, for example) beyond boundaries of jig for catching the rocket mock-up of length "l" which is out of gauge; barrier is made at distance ≤l from point of mock-up takeoff from horizontal guides of jig. Barrier length L= (3-4)l at height of H≥2h, where h is height of mounting of mock-up by its axis on jig horizontal guides. Wooden shield or timber bulkheads are mounted in barrier at distance of (0.5-0.9)L in way of motion of mock-up; barrier is bounded transversely by rigid side walls. Jig, rocket mock-up and piston-type catapult unit are provided with sensors for recording takeoff speed of mock-up, axial load factor of mock-up and pressure of combustion products of solid propellant gas generator in under-piston space of catapult unit.
EFFECT: enhanced informative capacity of stand tests of catapult units; reduction of testing time.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: military equipment, in particular, experimental devices for development of the separation process of jet projectiles.
SUBSTANCE: the device has a mock-up of the nose cone with the separation compartment and a mock-up of the rocket section which are positioned on a tray-type rigid base. The base is made in the form of inner and outer channel-type support guides symmetrically fastened to one another by the bases and engageable by side shelves with the surfaces of the mock-ups of the nose cone and rocket section of the projectile in the vertical and horizontal directions. The device is provided with brake blocks positioned on the base before the mock-ups of the separating parts at distances corresponding to the acceleration paths of the separating parts in the trajectory. The brake blocks are made in the form of cylinders, whose end face surfaces are provided with axisymmetric inner and outer cone-shaped fixing surfaces. The mass of the brake blocks is selected from the condition of provision of axial g-loads not exceeding the allowable values, and the quantity of the brake blocks is selected from a definite relation.
EFFECT: reduced labor content of the process of separation of jet projectiles.
FIELD: test equipment, applicable for determination of the optical focal length of elongated shaped charges.
SUBSTANCE: the device has a plate with a chamfer and horizontal platforms, brackets for fastening of the elongated shaped charge positioned on the side of the chamfer. Lateral grooves are made on the plate chamfer between the horizontal plates, depth h of each groove corresponds to the value of the highest wall of the groove and is determined from relation where lk - the length of the generating line of the shaped charge cumulative groove; ρ1.0 - the initial density of facing of the elongated shaped charge; ρ2.0 - the plate density.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement by standard tools of the depth of incision of the cumulative jet into the obstacle at a minimum quantity of tests.
FIELD: determination of exterior ballistic parameters (co-ordinates, speed and attitude of projectile components - bullets and projectiles) at a direct laying fire at vertical obstacles (targets).
SUBSTANCE: the device has a light target for determining the speed and co-ordinates of projectile components. Provision is made for measurement of time moments of projectile component entry in the light screens and exit from them, computation of the time moments of intersection of the light screens by the center of the projectile component, the use of these data prevents any error in determination of the speed and co-ordinates due to nutation and precession. The angles of nutation and precession are determined according to the differences of time moments corresponding to the durations of intersection of the light screens with the aid of shadow characteristics predetermined by computation or experimentally.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of determination of the speed, co-ordinates and angles of nutation and precession of the projectile component.
FIELD: determination of exterior ballistic parameters (co-ordinates, velocity and attitude of projectile elements - bullets and shells at a direct fire at vertical obstacles (targets), applicable in experimental determination of the piercing capacity of bullets and shells and the armor quality in the process of their development or check-up at manufacture.
SUBSTANCE: the device has two parallel light screens for determination of the flight velocity and prediction of the nullification time of two pairs of photo rules and readout of information of the first pair of photo rules at the instant of intersection by the center of the projectile element of the light screens of this pair of photo rules and after the outcome of the projectile element from the light screens of the second pair of photo rules from these photo rules. The device provides for measurement of the time moments of entry of the projectile element to the light screens for measurement of the velocity and moments of outcome from them and computation of the time of intersection by the center of the projectile element of the light screens, the use of which at determination of the velocity and co-ordinates of flying-by precludes any errors because of nutation and precession. The co-ordinates of flying-by of the projectile element are determined with the aid of the protractor - base method according to the co-ordinates of the centers of shadows on the second pair of photo rules. The signs of the slopes are determined according the coincides of the co-ordinates of the shadow boundaries on the first and second pairs of the photo rules; the slopes of the axis of the projectile element and the angles of precession and nutation are determined according to the width of the full shadows on the second photo rules, signs of slope, co-ordinates of flying-be with the aid of shadow characteristics (dependences of the width of shadows on the slopes).
EFFECT: simultaneous automatic determination with a high precision of the exterior ballistic parameters of the projectile element: velocity, co-ordinates of flying-by and angles of nutation and precession.
FIELD: tests of powders and explosives.
SUBSTANCE: the device includes a two-layer metal body, steel obturating rings, device for measurement of pressure in the combustion chamber made in the form of a cover with a measuring cylinder, having at least two strain-measuring devices, bushes made of material with a high thermal diffusivity are installed at the inlet to the gas discharge duct in the ignition spacer and at the inlet to the pressure measuring device on the side of the combustion chamber, and the cavities behind the obturating rings are connected with the atmosphere through the discharge ducts.
EFFECT: enhanced service life of the manometric vessel.
FIELD: devices for determination of impact sensitivity characteristics of explosives.
SUBSTANCE: the device has an anvil installed on a foundation and a load with vertical guides, the anvil is connected to the foundation by obliquely positioned plate springs.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determination of sensitivity of explosives to a slanting impact, and, as a result, enhanced safety of handling of explosives.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: bench comprises flexible longitudinal guide tightened between the supports, carriage, which is mounted on the guide by means of moving members and is used for securing the article to be tested, and control system. The bench has at least one additional flexible longitudinal guide, which is set at an angle to the first one. The guides diverge in the direction of movement of the carriage. The flexible longitudinal guides are made of steel ropes, are arranged symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal axis of the carriage, and are housed by the moving members connected through the carriage body. The surface of the moving members, which are in contact with the guides, are provided with entering chamferings and rounds.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: designing and production of custom-made firearm produced in small lots.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in applying on the inner surface of the cartridge chamber of a mixture of fluoride of bivalent lead or oxide of quadrivalent germanium activated by thulium or ytterbium capable of generation of luminescent radiation in the blue band, La2O3S activated by ytterbium or erbium capable of generation of radiation in the green band, and Y2O3-YOF activated by ytterbium or erbium, as well as Y2O3-YOCl activated by ytterbium or erbium capable of generation of radiation in the red band, the relation of the mentioned substances is prescribed beforehand.
EFFECT: provided identification of the weapon by the empty case with the use of the earlier made marking elements.
FIELD: designing and produced of custom-made firearm, applicable for identification of the barrel of the firearm produced in small lots.
SUBSTANCE: the agent applied on the inner surface of the cartridge chamber includes a mixture of fluoride of bivalent lead or oxide of quadrivalent germanium activated by thulium or ytterbium capable of generation of luminescent radiation in the blue band, La2O2S activated by ytterbium or erbium capable of generation of radiation in the green band, and Y2O3-YOF activated by ytterbium or erbium as well as Y2O3-YOCl activated by ytterbium or erbium capable of generation of radiation in the red band, the relation of the mentioned substances is prescribed beforehand.
EFFECT: provided identification of weapon by the empty case with the use of the earlier made marking elements.
3 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: designing and manufacturing of piece firearms , possibly identification of barrel of riffled firearms produced by small lots.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of applying onto inner surface of cartridge chamber and adjacent to it part of barrel mixture of three non-organic matters capable for generating irradiation in range of wave lengths 460 - 680 nm after irradiating them by irradiation in range of wave lengths 800-1200 nm. Said non-organic matters are selected from group including matters capable for irradiating first - in blue range, second -in green range and third - in red range. Relation of quantities of said matters is set beforehand.
EFFECT: possibility for identification of riffled firearms according to bullet and according to fired case- due to using applied beforehand marking symbols.
FIELD: mechanical engineering, in particular, scan application of information with variable width of dash contour.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying voltage to working members of scanning tool from current source, with selected voltage value being proportional to ratio of desired width of dash on blank to width of dash on scanning tool. Apparatus has scanning grate consisting of isolated current-conductive operating and inoperative members connected to programming device. Apparatus is further equipped with dash contour width sensor connected to analog system for identifying members of signs in scanned area. Outer operating and inoperative members of scanned area are arranged in offset relation, with offset value approaching half the difference between maximum and minimum width of contour of opposite dash of information applied, and section of operating and inoperative members of scanned area being not in the excess of minimum width of dash contour on blank.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and provision for obtaining of types with variable width of dash contour.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technology for making differentiating markings of objects.
SUBSTANCE: for each zone on object electrode is positioned, electric-conductive working liquid is fed between electrode and given zone and electric pulse is generated between electrode and selected zone through working environment, with voltage and power, enough to provide for penetration of working liquid and local structural change of material in each selected zone, while differentiating marking of object is mutual positioning of zones with structural changing of material. To increase marking quality between electrode and selected zone alloying element is positioned.
EFFECT: when used for marking, for example, metallic pipes, produces stable marking with extensive lifetime.
2 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: electrochemical marking of articles of electrically conducting materials.
SUBSTANCE: in base of tool casing is mounted. Said casing has lengthwise groove in which head is arranged. Said head is provided with set of numerical discs having teeth on their cylindrical surfaces. In casing are mounted: mechanism for changing order numbers having ratchet with pawl spring-loaded to it and locking members mounted with possibility of engaging with teeth of numerical discs. Tool is provided with spring for returning casing to its initial position. Locking members are in the form of pinions mounted on shaft in casing. Teeth of said pinions are inclined by angle 60° and they may engage with teeth of rotary discs mounted together with numerical discs. Dielectric is arranged between teeth of numerical discs; height of dielectric exceeds that of tooth by value of inter-electrode gap.
EFFECT: improved design of tool providing simplified process and lowered time period of marking.