Electric driver for producing of torque abd its control system

FIELD: electrical engineering, applicable for imparting of a precision turn, rotary and oscillatory motions to various mechanisms within a wide range of angles and angular velocities.

SUBSTANCE: the electric drive has a step motor, whose shaft is coupled to the electric drive output shaft through a reduction gear. An additional motor is kinematically linked with the output shaft of the electric drive by a belt transmission, and the torque developed by it on the output shaft exceeds the friction torque on the output shaft, but it doesn't exceed the torque on the output shaft from the step motor. The electric drive control system has a DC voltage source, step motor with a stop motor control unit, additional motor with a selector switch of the direction of its rotation. The step motor control unit is provided with control outputs, and its input is connected to the DC voltage source. The additional motor is connected to an additional supply source via the selector switch of the direction of its rotation, and its control inputs are connected to the control outputs of the step motor.

EFFECT: expanded dynamic range of rotary speeds of the output shaft, enhanced reliability, precision of the rotary speed and provided a turn of the output shaft through the preset angle.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used for messages of precision rotational or oscillatory movement of the various mechanisms, both during normal use and when testing sensors of angle, angular velocity, linear (centrifugal) acceleration, when the testing and operation of instruments used in the national economy, simulators, etc.

Renowned drive to create torque, containing accommodated in the housing multi-stage planetary gearbox with sequential arrangement of steps, the output shaft in the form of a gear wheel associated with the planet carrier of the previous stage, the satellites, the drive element and others [1].

To control the drive, if it is executed on the DC motor, in the simplest case, are the source of DC power with a given output voltage and, if necessary, the rheostat [2] or other control device supply voltage of the motor, for example a device with a pulse-width modulation. To control the AC motor by analogy can be used an adjustable autotransformer.

The drawback of such actuators to create a rotational moment is low efficiency, low precision speed output is the main shaft of the device, the inability to provide rotation of the output shaft at a given angle, set the oscillatory motion.

From the point of view of the drive control direct connection through the dimmer allows you to adjust the motor speed, but significantly reduces the efficiency of the device cannot provide the specified accuracy of the speed of rotation of the output shaft of the device and cannot provide rotation at a given angle. When turning on the AC motor through a variable transformer, the efficiency drops slightly, but to ensure the desired parameters of rotation of the output shaft of the device impossible.

Known drive by RF patent No. 2002361, NR 8/00 [3], which contains features that take it beyond the prototype for the drive to create torque, and the control system. Of the total number of signs known devices essential (and General) from the point of view of the proposed device are as follows.

The drive to create a rotational moment contains the stepping motor associated with the output drive shaft through the reduction gear, the second (optional) motor, kinematically associated with the output shaft.

The system contains a control power source (assumed by default), the stepping electrodirt is l, the second (optional) motor (in this case DC), the control unit stepper motor (common purpose of interconnected functional units) and switch the direction of rotation (functionally - defined characteristics of the prototype), output connected to the second motor that outputs a control unit stepper motor is connected with the windings of the stepper motor.

The drawback of the prototype are the low accuracy of the speed of rotation of the output shaft even when using a stepper motor. This is due to the following. At low speeds of rotation of the output shaft of the device is switched off when the second motor torque generated by the stepping motor, via the differential is transmitted to the second motor, which from this point can be rotated. In the result of subtraction of velocities in the differential speed of rotation of the output shaft will not fit a given. When working at the maximum rotational speed when the operation enters the second motor, gear (differential) device is the sum of the rotational speeds of the two motors. Since the rotation speed of the second motor has a low accuracy, the speed of rotation of the output shaft can't have you the Oka accuracy. Thus, these shortcomings of the drive does not allow its use in precision devices and devices that provide rotation at a given angle or precision oscillatory mode. Moreover, the peculiarities of the operation of the stepping motor, such as low permeability, loss of synchronism [4]), determine a significant disadvantage of the device in which it is installed, namely the reduction of its functional reliability.

The objectives of the proposed technical solutions are an extension of the dynamic range of speeds of rotation of the output shaft of the electric drive in its acceleration, increase functional reliability, ensuring precise accuracy, speed, enabling rotation of the output shaft of the actuator at a given angle and vibrational mode (like a pendulum). In addition, the proposal achieves the simplification of the structure of the device.

The technical result is achieved in that the drive to create a torque that contains a stepper motor, an output shaft which is connected through a gearbox with an output shaft of the actuator, and an additional electric motor, kinematically associated with the output shaft of the actuator, the kinematic connection of the additional electric motor with an output shaft of electrop the water made using a belt drive, containing the strap covering the driving and driven pulleys, placed respectively on the output shaft of the additional electric motor and the output shaft of the drive or output shaft of the stepping motor, while the torque developed by the additional electric motor to the output shaft of the electric drive, the more friction torque on the output shaft of the electric drive, but does not exceed the torque on the output shaft of the actuator from the stepper motor.

In the control system of electric drive to create a torque that contains the power source of constant voltage, the stepping motor and the control unit stepper motor associated output windings of the stepping motor, supplementary motor, and switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor, an additional power source, the control unit stepper motor connected to a power source of constant voltage, an additional electric motor through the switch direction of rotation connected to the secondary power source, the control unit stepper motor equipped with control outputs, switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor provided with control inputs, which is uedineny with the control outputs of the control unit stepper motor.

The essence of the invention is illustrated with the help of graphical materials figure 1 and figure 2, where the function (kinematic) flowchart of the proposed actuator to generate rotational torque. The drawings are only the fundamental components not shown bearings, chocks, bearings, gears etc. because their performance can be anything, and they are not subject of this invention. The presented device is essentially equivalent to each other. Figure 3 and 4 shows the block diagram of the motor control of the proposed drive, differing types and characteristics of additional electric motor, auxiliary supply and execution of switch direction of rotation of the auxiliary motor, essentially equivalent to each other.

Numerals in the drawings denote:

1 - stepper motor;

2 - reducer;

3 - output shaft of the actuator;

4 - supplementary motor;

5 - drive pulley;

6 is a driven pulley;

7 - belt belt;

8 is a turntable;

9 - power supply stepper motor;

10 - control stepper motor;

11 - block set modes of operation of the stepping motor;

12 - switch the windings of the stepper of elektrodvigatel is;

13 - windings of the stepper motor;

14 - additional power supply;

15 switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 4.

The drive to create a rotational moment (figure 1 and figure 2) consists of the stepping motor 1 is connected through a reduction gear 2 with the output shaft 3 of the actuator, and an additional electric motor 4, the driving pulley 5 which by means of a belt 7 of a belt connected to a driven pulley 6 of the drive. This driven pulley 6 can be mounted directly on the output shaft 3 of the actuator (figure 1) or on the output shaft of the stepping motor 1 (figure 2). On the output shaft 3 of the actuator can be installed any mechanism requiring rotation (rotation) according to a given law (at a given angle), or rotating platform 8, which can accommodate test equipment. The gearbox 2, depending on the technical characteristics of the actuator can be carried out as a multistage process.

The control unit 10 (figure 3 and figure 4) stepper motor is shown divided into two independent block 11 and 12 only to make it easier to examine the performance of the proposed devices in General. They can actually be performed in any manner, using semiconductor devices, circuits, controllers, computers, and the like, that is the number - in the form of a monoblock. The control unit of the stepping motor 10 is supplied with control outputs, switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 is supplied with control inputs, which are connected with the control outputs of the control unit stepper motor.

Power to the windings of the stepper motor (figure 3, figure 4) is supplied from the power supply stepper motor 9 via the control unit stepper motor 10 (from the output of the switch windings of the stepping motor 12). Managing the switch by using pulse signals block set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11. Power to the additional electric motor 4 is supplied from the secondary power supply 14 through the switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15, which is produced from the control unit stepper motor 10.

Requirements for additional motor 4 are derived from its functional purpose in the proposed device is to provide the additional torque during acceleration of the drive to improve pickup device), to compensate for the rotational friction torque at high rotational speeds (to increase the dynamic range of rotation speeds) and it does not affect the formation specified in the speed of rotation of the stepper motor. To do this, its maximum torque provided to the output shaft of the device, should not exceed a torque of the stepping motor, also refer to the output shaft of the device. In the control system 3 is provided by the fact that at start-up and low speeds of rotation of the motor 4 due to its high current consumption dramatically decreases the output voltage of the additional power supply unit 14 and thus reduces the power and additional starting torque of the motor 4, while the maximum starting torque at rated voltage may substantially exceed the nominal starting torque of the stepping motor 1. In the control system 4 asynchronous AC motor connected to the secondary power supply 14 alternating voltage, having a soft starting feature, works in a large dynamic range of speeds without electrical overload (an example of the construction of such a motor may be an electric motor household fan). This set of properties of the source of alternating voltage and induction motor equivalent properties constant voltage source with a falling characteristic and motor constant voltage.

Belt belt 7 (Fig 1 and 2 serves not only to transmit torque from the secondary of the motor 4 to the output shaft of the electric drive 3, but, due to certain viscosity belt belt 7, for damping resonant vibrations that can occur inevitably in high-q Electromechanical system having elasticity, impulse forces control and inertial mass. The viscosity of the belt brings attenuation in this system and oscillations do not occur.

The power supply of the stepping motor 9 (Fig 3, 4) connected to the control unit stepper motor 10, which contains the block set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11 and the switch windings of the stepping motor 12. They work together as follows. Block set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11 generates a pulse sequence control keys switch the windings of the stepping motor 12. This switch is usually performed on the transistors operating in key mode) consistently delivers on winding 13 of the stepping motor 1 power supply voltage.

Connect an additional power supply unit 14 to the additional electric motor 4 is made to switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15. It managed keys K1-K4 form four additional motor 4 (see figure 3 and 4): the source, when the power supply of additional motor off the Chena (none of the keys K1-K4 are not included), two operating modes, in which the supply of additional motor 4 connected and the polarity (or phase - to 4) connected to the power unit opposite (on the keys K1 and K2 or K3 and K4), and the fourth state, when the keys K2 and K4, is shorted electrical circuit of the additional electric motor 4, which contributes to additional braking of the electric motor 4 and the accelerated reduction of speed of rotation of the output shaft 3 of the device.

The device operates generally as follows.

The voltage on the windings of the stepping motor 13 (Fig 3 and 4) is supplied from the power supply stepper motor 9 via the control unit of the stepping motor 10 in the form of pulses in accordance with the frequency and the sequence generated by the block set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11 (control unit stepper motor, as such, is not included in the scope of the claims, therefore, in the application materials is not described and not described in detail). The rotation of the rotor of the stepping motor 1 is transmitted through the reduction gear 2 to the output shaft of the actuator 3. Through a belt drive rotation is transmitted also to the additional shaft of the electric motor 4, and it can rotate at idle. When the secondary motor 4 chere is C closed key switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 receives the supply voltage (and this is achieved when the drive is running in the whole range of torques and speeds of rotation of the output shaft device with control signals from the control unit of the stepping motor 10 to switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15), it is at the expense of their own time through a belt drive according to an output shaft 3 of the drive for more torque. In the simplest case, when changing the direction of rotation of the stepping motor control unit of the stepping motor 10 removes the control signals from the keys K1 and K2 and sends such signals to the keys K3 and K4 or Vice versa. If necessary, additional braking by the electric motor 4 from the control unit of the stepping motor 10 to the inputs of the switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 receives signals revealing the keys K2 and K4. Specific performance of the control circuit switches the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 in the drawings are not given because the particular scheme - "matter of taste" developer. As a fairly universal control circuits can be used chip drivers company International Rectifier, the simplest of which IR2101.

At low speed of rotation of the output shaft 3 and the rotation speed of the additional electric motor 4 to its maximum. This increases the total torque when the Accel is the e drive and pickup. With increasing speed of rotation of the output shaft of the electric drive additional motor goes on nominal mode compensates for friction losses in the device, creates more torque and supports the rotation of the stepping motor at its maximum possible speed.

A component of variable speed (vibration) of the rotor and output shaft of the device occurring due to the pulse control the stepper motor, smoothes belt drive additional motor due to the viscous and elastic properties of the belt. These properties of a belt (especially its viscosity) dampen resonances in electromechanics device.

The reversal of the output shaft of the actuator at a given angle at a given speed, and precision of the vibrational mode of the output shaft 3 of the device is provided by forming the control unit of the stepper motor 10 required number of pulses to the windings of the stepping motor with the required sequence and frequent switching. The control algorithm generates the power set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11. At the same time with the change of the direction of rotation of the stepping motor to change the polarity (or phase) of the power supply of additional elektrodvigatel is 4 so, as is described above.

For reversing the direction of rotation of the asynchronous motor (figure 4), usually having two windings, for creating a rotating magnetic field, switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 must switch only one of them (for example, "capacitor"), and the second can be turned on simultaneously with the turning on of the power source 14 or the additional key (not shown).

Simplification of the device compared to the prototype is due to the fact that instead of the differential gear uses a simple transmission using gears and belt, and as an additional power source can be used even unregulated source voltage limit maximum current and without force control, which is applied in the device prototype or standard AC voltage.

The proposed set of features in the considered authors of the proposal had not met for solving the task and not obvious from the prior art, which allows to conclude that the technical solutions according to the criteria of "novelty" and "inventive step".

Considered the drive to create a rotational moment is running the PL is tform, driven in rotation, will be used to specify a precision rotational motions with different angular velocities of the various devices when testing in the production process. Currently the drive is at the stage of manufacture.

Literature

1. Kudryavtsev V.N. The planetary gear. - L.: 1966, s-243, RIS and 134.

2. Imorove, Nasekali. Laboratory workshop on electric and basic management. Second edition, revised and edited. M.: Higher school, 1972, p.9, RIS, figure 1.4.

3. RF patent №2002361 NR 8/00 (prototype).

4. Microelectronical for automation systems (technical Handbook). Edited Aaaonoa and Famurewa. M: Energy, 1969.

5. RF patent 2065542, IPC 6: F16H 3/44.

1. The drive to create a torque that contains a stepper motor, an output shaft which is connected through a gearbox with an output shaft of the actuator, and an additional electric motor, kinematically associated with the output shaft of the actuator, characterized in that the kinematic connection of the additional electric motor with an output shaft of the drive is made with the use of a belt containing a belt covering the driving and driven pulleys, placed respectively on the output shaft of the additional electric motor and the output shaft e is of tropinota or on the output shaft of the stepping motor, thus the torque developed by the additional electric motor to the output shaft of the electric drive, the more friction torque on the output shaft of the electric drive, but does not exceed the torque on the output shaft of the actuator from the stepper motor.

2. The control system is electrically driven to generate torque that contains the power source of constant voltage, the stepping motor and the control unit stepper motor associated output windings of the stepping motor, supplementary motor, and switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor, characterized in that it introduced an additional power source, the control unit stepper motor connected to a power source of constant voltage, an additional electric motor through the switch direction of rotation connected to the secondary source, the control unit stepper motor equipped with control outputs, switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor provided with control inputs, which are connected with the control outputs of the control unit stepper motor.



 

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