Electric drive for producing of torque (its modifications) and its control system (its modifications)

FIELD: electrical engineering, applicable for imparting of a precision turn and rotary motion to various mechanisms within a wide range of angles and angular velocities.

SUBSTANCE: the electric drive has a step motor, whose shaft is coupled to the output shaft through a reduction gear. An additional motor is kinematically linked with the output shaft by a belt transmission, whose belt envelopes the drive and driven pulleys located respectively on the shaft of the additional motor and an the output shaft. The torque developed by the additional motor on the output shaft exceeds the friction torque on the output shaft, but it doesn't exceed the torque on the output shaft from the step motor. The electric drive control system has a DC voltage source, step motor with a step motor control unit, additional motor with a selector switch of the direction of its rotation. A DC motor is used as the additional motor, it is connected via the selector switch of the direction of its rotation to the additional DC voltage source with a drooping volt-ampere characteristic. The second modification of the electric drive and of the system of its control provides for installation of the driven pulley on the output shaft of the step motor.

EFFECT: expanded dynamic range of rotary speeds of the motor output shaft of the electric drive, enhanced reliability, precision of the rotary speed and provided a turn of the motor output shaft through the preset angle.

4 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used for messages of precision rotational movement of the various mechanisms as during their normal use or during testing of the measuring sensors of the rotation angle, rotation speed, linear (centrifugal) acceleration, when the testing and operation of instruments used in the national economy, simulators, etc.

Renowned drive to create torque, containing accommodated in the housing multi-stage planetary gearbox with sequential arrangement of steps, the output shaft in the form of a gear wheel associated with the planet carrier of the previous stage, the satellites, the drive element and others [1].

To control the drive, if it is executed on the DC motor, in the simplest case, are the source of DC power with a given output voltage and, if necessary, the rheostat [2] or other control device supply voltage of the motor, for example, a device with pulse-width modulation. To control the AC motor by analogy can be used an adjustable autotransformer.

The drawback of such actuators to create a rotational moment is low efficiency, low accuracy of the speed of rotation of the output shaft of the device, the inability to provide rotation of the output shaft at a specified angle.

From the point of view of the drive control direct connection through the dimmer allows you to adjust the motor speed, but significantly reduces the efficiency of the device cannot provide the specified accuracy of the speed of rotation of the output shaft of the device and cannot provide rotation at a given angle. When turning on the AC motor through a variable transformer, the efficiency drops slightly, but to ensure the desired parameters of rotation of the output shaft of the device impossible.

Known drive by RF patent No. 2002361 NR 8/00 [3], which contains features that take it beyond the prototype for the drive to create torque, and the control system. Of the total number of signs known devices essential (and General) from the point of view of the proposed device are as follows.

The drive to create a rotational moment contains the stepping motor associated with the output drive shaft through the reduction gear, the second (optional) motor, kinematically associated with the output shaft.

The system contains a control power source (assuming default), stepper motor, the second (additional) e is adigital (in this case - DC), the control unit stepper motor (common purpose of a number of interconnected functional units) and switch the direction of rotation, output connected to the second motor that outputs a control unit stepper motor is connected with the windings of the stepper motor.

The drawback of the prototype are the low accuracy of the speed of rotation of the output shaft even when using a stepper motor. This is due to the following. At low speeds of rotation of the output shaft of the device is switched off when the second motor torque generated by the stepping motor, via the differential is transmitted to the second motor, which from this point can be rotated. In the result of subtraction of velocities in the differential speed of rotation of the output shaft will not fit a given. When working at the maximum rotational speed when the operation enters the second motor, gear (differential) device is the sum of the rotational speeds of the two motors. Since the rotation speed of the second motor has a low accuracy, the speed of rotation of the output shaft may not have high precision speed. Thus, these shortcomings of the actuator is not allowed to use it divided the precise devices, especially in devices that rotate at a specified angle.

It should be noted that the stepper motors have a number of features [4], namely, when a large moment of inertia of the rotating (test) equipment significantly reduces the operating speed of the device as a whole (reduced frequency pick-up device) to the extent that the stepper motor out of synchronism and stops. In a certain range of frequency control pulses occurs the phenomenon of Electromechanical resonance, which can also lead to loss of synchronism, the disturbance of the periodicity of the movement of the rotor and its stop. With increasing speed of rotation decreases torque and at constant load (like friction) is formed of a lack of power on the shaft, which can also lead to the exit of synchronism, loss of control and stopping of the motor.

The rotor of the stepping motor due to the momentum of the electromagnetic torque makes a turn in a given direction by one step angle (step angle depends on the design of the motor). If the activation time is selected windings of the stepping motor is large, the rotor inertia overshoots the steady state equilibrium, after which the torque changes sign, and return the rotor back to the state of stable equilibrium. This circumstance, together with the inertial mass and elasticity structure, it may cause oscillation, the output of the synchronism and the stop of the stepping motor.

These features of operation of the stepping motor is actually predetermine the main drawback of the device in which it is installed, namely the reduction of its functional reliability.

The objectives of the proposed technical solutions are an extension of the dynamic range of speeds of rotation of the output shaft of the electric drive in its acceleration, increase functional reliability, providing precision accuracy speed and enabling rotation of the output shaft of the actuator at a given angle. In addition, provision simplify the design of the device and its manufacture.

The technical result is achieved in that the drive to create a torque that contains a stepper motor, an output shaft which is connected through a gearbox with an output shaft of the electric drive and an additional electric motor, kinematically associated with the output shaft of the actuator, the kinematic connection of the additional electric motor with an output shaft of the drive is made using a belt drive that contains the belt, covering leading and WEDO is the first pulley, placed respectively on the output shaft of the additional electric motor and the output shaft of the electric drive, while the torque developed by the additional electric motor to the output shaft of the electric drive, the more friction torque on the output shaft of the electric drive, but does not exceed the torque on the output shaft of the actuator from the stepper motor.

The technical result can be achieved also by the fact that in the drive to create a torque that contains a stepper motor, an output shaft which is connected through a gearbox with an output shaft of the electric drive and an additional electric motor, kinematically associated with the output shaft of the actuator, the kinematic connection of the additional electric motor with an output shaft of the drive is made with the use of a belt containing a belt covering the driving and driven pulleys, placed respectively on the output shaft of the additional electric motor and the output shaft of the stepping motor, while the torque developed by the second electric motor on the output shaft of the electric drive, the more friction torque on the output shaft of the electric drive, but do not exceed torque on the output shaft of the actuator from the stepper motor.

In the control system electr is driven to generate torque, containing the power source of constant voltage, the stepping motor and the control unit stepper motor associated output windings of the stepping motor, supplementary motor, and switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor, an additional power source constant voltage with a drooping characteristic, the input control unit stepper motor connected to a power source of constant voltage, as an additional motor used direct current motor, which, through switch direction of rotation connected to the secondary power source is a constant voltage and a drooping characteristic.

In the control system of electric drive to create a torque that contains the power source of constant voltage, the stepping motor and the control unit stepper motor associated output windings of the stepping motor, supplementary motor, and switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor, an additional power source AC voltage, the power control unit stepper motor is connected to the DC power voltage is Oia, as an additional motor used asynchronous AC motor, through which switch the direction of rotation is connected to a power source of alternating voltage.

The essence of the invention is illustrated with the help of graphical materials figure 1 and 2, where the function (kinematic) flowchart of the proposed actuator to generate rotational torque. The drawings are only the fundamental components not shown bearings, chocks, bearings, gears etc. because their execution can be any, and they are not subject of this invention. Figure 3 and 4 shows the block diagram of the motor control of the proposed drive, differing types and characteristics auxiliary supply and an additional electric motor.

Numerals in the drawings denote:

1 - stepper motor;

2 - gearbox stepper motor;

3 - output shaft of the actuator;

4 - supplementary motor;

5 - drive pulley extra motor;

6 is a driven pulley drive;

7 - belt belt;

8 is a turntable;

9 - power supply stepper motor;

10 - control stepper motor;

11 - unit job is Esimov the operation of the stepping motor;

12 - switch the windings of the stepping motor;

13 - windings of the stepping motor;

14 - additional power supply;

15 switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor.

The drive to create a rotational moment (figure 1 and 2) consists of the stepping motor 1 is connected through a reduction gear 2 with the output shaft 3 of the actuator, and an additional electric motor 4, the driving pulley 5 which by means of a belt 7 of a belt connected to a driven pulley 6 of the drive. This driven pulley 6 can be mounted directly on the output shaft 3 of the actuator (figure 1)or on the output shaft of the stepping motor 1 (figure 2). On the output shaft 3 of the actuator can be installed any mechanism requiring rotation (rotation) according to a given law (at a given angle), or rotating platform 8, which can accommodate test equipment. The gear 2 of the stepping motor 1, depending on the destination drive can be carried out as a multistage process. Belt drive 5-7-6 (drive pulley stepper motor 5 - strap belt 7 is driven pulley 6) in justified cases, may also be carried out as a multistage process.

To control the drive uses two power source 9 and 14, the control unit stepper electr the engine 10 and switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 (Fig 3 and 4), when the power supply of the stepping motor 9 via the control unit of the stepping motor 10 is connected with the windings of the stepping motor 13, and the secondary power supply 14 through the switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 is connected with this motor.

The control unit stepper motor 10 (Fig 3 and 4) is shown divided into two independent block 11 and 12 only to make it easier to examine the performance of the proposed devices in General. They can actually be performed in any manner, using semiconductor devices, circuits, controllers, computers, and the like, including in the form of a candy bar.

Power to the winding 13 of the stepping motor 1 (Fig 3) is supplied from the power supply stepper motor 9 via the control unit stepper motor 10 (from the output of the switch windings of the stepping motor 12). Control of the switch control unit stepper motor 12 is carried out by using the output signals of the block set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11. Power to the additional electric motor 4 is supplied from the secondary power supply 14 through the switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15. Important for proper operation of the motor 4 in the composition of the statement, the aqueous drive is the main power supply 14, namely, it must have a falling characteristic, particularly when the currents close to the trigger.

Requirements for additional motor 4 are derived from its functional purpose in the proposed device is to provide the additional torque during acceleration of the drive to improve pickup device), to compensate for the rotational friction torque at high rotational speeds (to increase the dynamic range of rotation speeds) and it does not affect the formation of the predetermined speed of rotation of the stepper motor 1. To do this, its maximum torque provided to the output shaft of the device, should not exceed a torque of the stepping motor, also refer to the output shaft of the device. This is ensured by the fact that at start-up and low speeds of rotation of the motor 4 due to its high current consumption dramatically decreases the output voltage of the power supply unit 14 and thus reduces the power and additional starting torque of the motor 4, while the maximum starting torque at rated voltage may exceed the rated starting torque of the stepping motor 1.

Belt drive 5-7-6 (figure 1 and 2) serves not only to transmit torque from the secondary of the motor 4 to the output shaft 3 of the device is on and due to certain viscosity belt belt 7, for damping resonant vibrations that can occur inevitably in high-q Electromechanical system having elasticity, impulse forces control and inertial mass. The viscosity of the belt transfer belt 7 introduces damping in the system and oscillations do not occur.

The power supply of the stepping motor 9 (Fig 3) is connected to the control unit stepper motor 10, which contains the block set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11 and the switch 12 of the windings 13 of the stepping motor 1. They work together as follows. Block set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11 generates a pulse sequence control keys switch the windings of the stepping motor 12. Switch the windings of the stepping motor 12 (usually performed on the transistors operating in key mode) sequentially turns on the windings of the stepping motor 13, the power supply voltage.

Connect an additional power supply unit 14 to the additional electric motor 4 is made to switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15. His contacts have three positions (see figure 3): the source, when the power supply additional electric motor 4 is disabled and two edge is their position, in which the supply of additional motor 4 connected and the polarity of connection of the opposite.

The device operates generally as follows.

The voltage on the windings of the stepping motor 13 (Fig 3 and 4) is supplied from the power supply stepper motor 9 via the control unit stepper motor 10 via the switch windings of the stepping motor 12) in the form of pulses in accordance with the frequency and the sequence generated by the block set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11 (control circuit stepper motor, as such, is not included in the scope of the claims, therefore, in the application materials is not described and not described in detail). The rotation of the rotor of the stepping motor 1 is transmitted through the gearbox stepper motor 2 to the output shaft 3 of the actuator (figure 1). Through a belt drive 6-7-5 rotation is transmitted to the additional shaft of the electric motor 4 and he also starts to rotate at idle. When the secondary motor 4 through the switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 (Fig 3) is the voltage (and this is achieved when the drive is running in the whole range of torques and speeds of rotation of the output shaft of the device), it is at the expense of their own time through the belt transmission is in 5-7-6 reports the output shaft 3 of the drive for more torque (power-additional motor in polarity, creating protivotumanki, is not considered; if necessary, change the direction of rotation of the output shaft of the actuator to change the direction of rotation of both motors; however, when braking the rotating output shaft of the additional motor is permissible to include to create protivotumanki, in this case, the braking can be produced more efficiently).

At low speed of rotation of the output shaft 3 and the rotation speed of the additional electric motor 4 of his time maximum: power supply 14 additional motor at low speed of an electric motor, provides the maximum current. This increases the total torque during acceleration of the drive and pickup. However, at the time of the start and at the initial site of acceleration of the drive (or at low speeds of rotation) when a large current consumption of the additional electric motor 4 output voltage of the additional power supply unit 14 into force drooping characteristics is reduced, which prevents overloading of the power supply and eliminates overheating of additional motor 4 during prolonged operation modes at low speeds of rotation. With increasing speed of rotation of the output shaft of the additional motor is uhodit the nominal mode, compensate for friction losses in the device, creates more torque and supports the rotation of the stepping motor at its maximum possible speed.

A component of variable speed (vibration) of the rotor and output shaft of the device occurring due to the pulse control the stepper motor, smoothes belt drive 5-7-6 additional motor due to the viscous and elastic properties of the belt. These properties of a belt (especially its viscosity) dampen resonances in electromechanics device.

The stepping motor 1 at almost any speed work in nominal mode, and the additional electric motor 4, together with the additional power source 14 in the device can operate in several modes, the most characteristic of which is the starting mode when a large acceleration, maximum speed and long mode at low speed. In the first mode additional power source 14 and an additional electric motor 4 are in nominal or maximum mode current consumption. Mode low speed of rotation of this motor is a high power is not required and therefore the output voltage of the power source is reduced in accordance with the volt-ampere ha what acteristics an additional power supply unit 14. To do this, at nominal output voltage maximum current of a power source by means of its adjustment can be set close to the starting current of the motor. In this case, the start output voltage auxiliary supply drops, and as its acceleration reduces the current consumption and increasing the output voltage of the power source.

The reversal of the output shaft of the actuator at a given angle at a given speed is provided by forming the control unit stepper motor 10 required number of pulses to the windings 13 of the stepping motor 1 with the necessary frequent switching. The control algorithm generates the power set modes of operation of the stepping motor 11. In this mode, an additional electric motor 4 operates as described above.

The device shown in figure 2, from the point of view of the addition of the torques works completely analogous. From the point of view of making it simpler in construction, because the kinematic connection of the shaft of the additional electric motor the shaft of the stepping motor does not require a large gear ratio, and, therefore, multi-stage belt drive. However, in this case, the gear of the stepping motor 2 must transmit to the output shaft 3 of the electric drive almost double m is mnost.

As an additional electric motor 4 can be used as an asynchronous AC motor (4)connected to the secondary power supply 14 AC voltage. Such a motor, for example, with the capacitor of the starting winding may work in a large dynamic range of speeds without electrical overload (an example of the construction of such a motor may be an electric motor household fan). This set of properties of the source of alternating voltage and induction motor equivalent properties constant voltage source with a falling characteristic and motor constant voltage. For reversing the direction of rotation of such a motor, usually having two windings, for creating a rotating magnetic field, switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 (figure 4) must switch only one of them, and the second can be turned on simultaneously with the inclusion of an additional power source 14 of alternating voltage or an additional switch contact direction of rotation of the additional electric motor 15 (not shown).

Simplification of the device compared to the prototype is due to the fact that instead of differe the social gearbox uses a simple transmission using gears and a belt, and as an additional power source can be used even unregulated source voltage limit maximum current and without force control how this is done in the device prototype.

The proposed set of features in the considered authors of the proposal had not met for a solution to the problem, and not obvious from the prior art, which allows to conclude that the technical solutions according to the criteria of "novelty" and "inventive step".

Considered the drive to create a rotational moment on which the platform is installed, driven in rotation, will be used to specify a precision rotational motions with different angular velocities of the various devices when testing in the production process. Currently the drive is at the stage of manufacture.

Literature

1. Kudryavtsev V.N. The planetary gear. - L., 1966, s-243, RIS and 134.

2. Imorove, Nasekali. Laboratory workshop on electric and basic management. Second edition, revised and edited. M., High school, 1972, p.9, RIS, figure 1.4.

3. RF patent №2002361, NR 8/00 (prototype).

4. Microelectronical for automation systems (technical Handbook). Edited Aaaonoa and Famurewa. M., "Energy Is", 1969.

5. RF patent №2065542, IPC 6: F16H 3/44.

1. The drive to create a torque that contains a stepper motor, an output shaft which is connected through a gearbox with an output shaft of the actuator, and an additional electric motor, kinematically associated with the output shaft of the actuator, characterized in that the kinematic connection of the additional electric motor with an output shaft of the drive is made with the use of a belt containing a belt covering the driving and driven pulleys, placed respectively on the output shaft of the additional electric motor and the output shaft of the electric drive, while the torque developed by the additional electric motor to the output shaft of the electric drive, the more friction torque on the output shaft of the electric drive, but does not exceed the torque on the output the shaft of the actuator from the stepper motor.

2. The drive to create a torque that contains a stepper motor, an output shaft which is connected through a gearbox with an output shaft of the actuator, and an additional electric motor, kinematically associated with the output shaft of the actuator, characterized in that the kinematic connection of the additional electric motor with an output shaft of the drive is made using the PE the military send, containing the strap covering the driving and driven pulleys, placed respectively on the output shaft of the additional electric motor and the output shaft of the stepping motor, while the torque developed by the additional electric motor to the output shaft of the electric drive, the more friction torque on the output shaft of the electric drive, but does not exceed the torque on the output shaft of the actuator from the stepper motor.

3. The control system is electrically driven to generate torque that contains the power source of constant voltage, the stepping motor and the control unit stepper motor associated output windings of the stepping motor, supplementary motor, and switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor, characterized in that it introduced an additional source of DC voltage with a drooping characteristic, the input control unit stepper motor connected to a power source of constant voltage, as an additional motor used direct current motor, which, through switch direction of rotation connected to the secondary power source constant voltage drooping characterized the report.

4. The control system is electrically driven to generate torque that contains the power source of constant voltage, the stepping motor and the control unit stepper motor associated output windings of the stepping motor, supplementary motor, and switch the direction of rotation of the additional electric motor, characterized in that it introduced an additional power source AC voltage, the input control unit stepper motor connected to a power source of constant voltage, as an additional motor used asynchronous AC motor, through which switch the direction of rotation is connected to a power source of alternating voltage.



 

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1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed face-type electrical machine has single-disk stator and single-disk rotor, as well as reliable built-in braking device affording motor stopping as soon as field winding is deenergized. Rotor disk is coupled with rotor shaft through splined joint admitting axial displacement of rotor disk relative to shaft. Braking device disposed on one of bearing end-shields of machine frame is equipped with adjusting members enabling desired positioning of rotor disk inside annular space of machine and adjustment of brake spring pressure. Shaped supports are used for installing stator core separated from rotor core by air gap which are rigidly coupled with stator core and are free to displace relative to bearing end-shield whereon they are all secured upon setting desired air gap.

EFFECT: reduced size, facilitated maintenance, enhanced operating reliability.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electromechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed high-speed electrical machine has stator and rotor whose shaft journal is clamped by external rings of at least three bearings installed on eccentric axles coming in mesh with auxiliary-motor rotor. Free-running unit is introduced to prevent departure of mentioned parts from one another as they wear down that functions to control turn of auxiliary-motor rotor only in direction affording tightening of shaft journal bearings by external rings. Free-running unit that functions to reduce vibration and radial thrusts on bearings is made in the form of free-wheel clutch whose driven member is rigidly fixed on frame. Driving member is auxiliary-motor rotor. In the course of running rotor takes plays due to wear-down of contacting parts under action of torque.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and enlarged service life of electrical machine.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Motor drive // 2199175
The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, namely to the motor drives the high voltage equipment

The drive // 2186451
The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, namely, Electromechanical linear actuators with a periodic change of direction of transmission of axial forces in one direction of the axial load

Induction motor // 2171542

The hydrogenerator // 2144727
The invention relates to the field of hydropower and can be used in all hydraulic units hydraulic and hydroelectric power plants (HPPs and PSPPs)

The drive // 2123752
The invention relates to an electro-mechanical linear actuators with periodic change of the direction of movement of the RAM when the unidirectional axial load and can be used, for example, as the actuator rod pumps for pumping oil from wells under the direct articulation of the mechanism with the casing

Stepping motor // 2246787

FIELD: electrical engineering; automatic control systems for digital electric drives.

SUBSTANCE: proposed stepping motor has toothed reactance rotor provided with skewed slots and stator with open slots accommodating concentrated control windings; axially movable cylinder installed in stator-to-rotor gap has its length smaller than that of stator stack. Cylinder is built of alternating ferromagnetic and diamagnetic sections. Novelty is that outer surface of ferromagnetic and diamagnetic sections is aligned with stator teeth and inner one is beveled through same angle as rotor teeth.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities of stepping motor due ability of adjusting its mechanical step.

1 cl, 3 dwg

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