Method of control of spacecraft solar battery position and system for realization of this method

FIELD: electric power supply for spacecraft with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning the solar battery panels to working position corresponding to matching of normal to their illuminated surface formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also measurement of density of fluxes of solar electromagnetic radiation and high-energy particles followed by determination of moments of beginning of solar activity and arrival of high-energy particles to spacecraft surface. Method includes additionally measurement of spacecraft orbit altitude and angle between direction to the Sun and plane of spacecraft orbit. In case density of particle flux exceeds threshold magnitudes, solar battery panels are turned on illuminated surface of spacecraft orbit through angle (αs min) between said normal and direction to the Sun corresponding to minimum area of action of particle fluxes on spacecraft surfaces at supply of spacecraft with required amount of electric power. On shaded side of orbit, solar batteries are turned from direction of particle flux through maximum angle. When spacecraft escapes from shadow, reverse turn of solar battery panels is completed through said angle αs min. Upon completion of action of particle flux on spacecraft, solar battery panels are returned to working position. System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System includes additionally unit for determination of intensity of spacecraft illumination, unit for measurement of spacecraft orbit altitude, unit for measurement of angle between direction to the Sun and spacecraft orbital plane, unit for control of turn of solar battery to position opposite to direction to the Sun, NO-gate and switch.

EFFECT: reduction of negative action of high-energy particle fluxes on solar battery working surface on shaded surface of orbit.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of space technology, and in particular to power supply systems (SES) SPACECRAFT (SC), and can be used in the position control panels of solar batteries (SB).

A known method of controlling the position of the panels SAT, adopted for similar (see [1], str-194). The method consists in the following. Panel SB oriented in such a way that the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface and the direction to the Sun is the minimum value that provides the maximum arrival power from SAT.

To provide a high performance SAT on most SPACECRAFT are installing automatic orientation to the Sun. The composition of such systems include sun sensors, logically transforming device and electric actuators that control the position of the Council.

The disadvantage of this method and system control the position of SA KA lies in the fact that their actions are not provided protection from the negative impact of external factors (FVS) on the work surface panels SB, as, for example, protection against gases, discharged from the working jet engines (RD) KA (see [2], str-312; [3], p.2-27), and fluxes of protons and electrons of high energy cosmic rays solar electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in periods of high Akti the surface of the Sun (see [2], str; [7], p.31, 33).

The closest analogues adopted for the prototype, is the method of controlling the position of the SB KA, described in [12]. The essence of the method is as follows.

Carry out the reversal of the panels SAT in working position, supplying the AC electric power corresponding to the combination of the normal to its illuminated work surface with the plane formed by the axis of rotation of the panels of the security Council and direction to the Sun. Next, determine the time of the beginning of the negative impact of FVS on the working surface SB and carry out the reversal of the panels SAT until the time of impact of these factors and return panels SAT in working position after the end of the specified exposure. To do this, measure the current density of the solar electromagnetic radiation and the measured values, determine the time of the beginning of the solar activity, determine the point in time achieve high energy particles the surface of the SPACECRAFT. At a specified point in time to measure the density of streams of high energy particles - protons and electrons - and make a comparison of measured values with threshold values. In case of exceeding the measured values of the threshold values of the fluxes of protons and electrons produce a reversal of the panels SAT on the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface the displacement and the direction to the Sun α s_mincorresponding to the minimum area of influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface of the SAT, which is determined by the equation:

αs_min=arccos(IH/Im),

where In- load current from consumers KA;

Im- maximum current produced when the orientation of the illuminated work surface panels SAT perpendicular to the rays of the sun,

at this point in time the beginning of a reversal of the panels SAT take time exceed the measured values of the upper threshold density flows of these high energy particles, and at the time of the beginning of the return panels SAT in working position take the point in time at which the density of streams of high energy particles becomes lower than the upper threshold value.

SAT in the system SES ISS are the main sources of electricity and provide its on-Board consumers, including charging rechargeable batteries), which is a secondary energy sources on Board the ISS (see [4]). Turn SB decreases the area of damage work surfaces SB thread FVS. To reverse the panel SAT along the slaying flow FVS is not possible, since it is necessary to ensure that the SPACECRAFT and its rechargeable battery produced by the SA electricity - on the basis of it is about the size of the lesion panels SAT by a stream of high energy particles is reduced to minimum by turning SAT on the corner α s_minnecessary and sufficient to ensure that on-Board consumers energy.

On the basis of reasonable sufficiency for onboard systems of the AC load from the consumers Inshould not exceed the current I. Since the current I from SAT will be determined by the expression (see [9], p.109);

where Im- maximum current produced when the orientation of the illuminated working surface of the solar panels perpendicular to the sun's rays;

α - the current angle between the normal to the working surface SB and the direction to the Sun,

the current angle α must not exceed the value of αs_mincalculated by the formula:

Control system the position of the security Council for the implementation of this method, adopted for the prototype described in [12] and contains SAT on the hard substrate body which has four photovoltaic cells (CF1, CF2, CF3, CF4), the device turn SB (UPSB); amplification-transforming device (UPU); the control unit orientation SAT on the Sun (BOOBS); block reversal SAT at the specified position (BRNBSP); two current regulator (PT1, RT2), block AB (BAB); battery charger for AB (CDD AB); block the formation of whom is to nd battery charging (BFCS AB); the sensor load current (DTN); the control unit power supply system (BUSES); the power bus (SHENG); the unit of measurement of the density of the current solar EMP (BIPAI); block definition of solar activity (BOS); block determine the time of impact of the particles on the SPACECRAFT (BMWC); unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles (IPCVA); block defining moment of time management SAT on load currents (BOMBAST); the control unit SAT for load currents (BUSTS). While SAT through the first output, combining the outputs of CF1and CF4connected to the first input of UPSB and through the second output, combining the outputs of CF2and CF3connected with the second input UPSB. Outputs BOOBS and BRNBSP connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the UPA, the output of which in turn is connected with the third input UPSB. The first and second outputs UPSB connected respectively to the inputs RT1and RT2and outputs PT1and RT2connected with SHENG. BAB his entrance through the CDD AB is connected with SHENG. While CDD AB is connected to its first input to the specified bus and to the second input ZRU AB is connected to the output of an accident, the inlet of which is connected in turn to SHENG. BAB its output connected to the first input BFCS AB, and the second input of the specified block connected to the first output BUSES. Output BFCS AB is connected to t is atemu input ZRU AB. The second and third outputs BUSES connected respectively to the first inputs of BOOBS and BRNBSP. The third output UPSB connected with the second inputs of BOOBS and BRNBSP. The output BIBEMI connected to the input of BIOFEEDBACK, the first output of which in turn is connected to the input BMWC. Outputs BMWC, IPCVA respectively connected to first and second inputs of the block BOMBAST, and the entrance of IPCVA connected with the second output BAREFOOT. Output BOMBAST connected to the input BUSES. BASES his fourth output connected to the first input BUSBARS, and to the second input BUSBARS connected to the second output DTN. Output BUSBARS connected to the third input of the UPA. In addition, the third output UPSB connected to the third input BUSBARS.

Mode power supply AC system works as follows.

UPSB used for transit transmission of electricity from SAT to PT1and RT2. The voltage on the power rail SES is one of the RT. At the same time, another RT is in a state with closed-loop power transistors. Generators SS work in this case, the short circuit mode. When the load power becomes greater than the power connection of generators SAT in the stabilization mode voltage goes another RT and energy nezadejstvovannye generators is supplied to the power bus SES. In certain periods, when the load power can in order to exceed the capacity of SAT, ZRU AB, due to the discharge unit AB, compensates for the shortage of electricity on Board the SPACECRAFT. For these purposes, the LRU AB Adjuster discharge AB.

In addition to the specified controller ZRU AB contains a regulator battery charging. The charge controller shall limit the charging current BAB at level (INC±1), where INC- rated charge current, when the excess power PMF and the voltage on the bus SES by regulating the charging current BAB when power BF, insufficient to supply AB-charge current (INC±1)A. To carry out the specified charge-discharge cycles the LRU AB uses information from the accident. The accident is connected to the SES in such a way that measures the load current not only from the side of consumers, but also takes into account the current battery charging. Charge BAB implements the LRU AB through BFCS AB.

Simultaneously with the operation of the AC power supply, the system performs the function of controlling the position of the planes of the panels SAT.

On command from BUSES block BOOBS manages orientation SAT in the Sun. BOOBS can be implemented on the basis of the movement management system and navigation (AIRCRAFT) KA (see [6]). The input information to the control algorithm SA are: the position of the unit direction vector of the Sun relative to the associated SPACECRAFT coordinate axes defined by the algorithms kinema is practical circuit of the AIRCRAFT; position SB relative to the body of the SPACECRAFT obtained in the form of current measured values of the angle α from the angle sensors (DN)installed on UPSB. The value of α always starts from the current normal to the working surface SB (i.e. at orientation SAT in the Sun α minimum). Output information of the control algorithm are the team to the SB rotation about the axis of the output shaft UPSB and a command for stopping the rotation. Do UPSB generate discrete signals about the state of SAT. The magnitude of the increments determines the accuracy of the orientation SAT.

In normal mode the orientation of the SPACECRAFT, when the direction of motion of the Sun relative to the associated axes KA invariably, SB is set relative to the direction of the Sun ahead in the direction of the Sun by an angle corresponding to multiple increments DN. Further, the battery remains in this position until such time as the Sun, due to the motion of the SPACECRAFT in its orbit, not "move forward" relative to the security Council on the appropriate angle. After this the cycle of rotation resumes.

BRNBSP operates SB via BUSES software settings. The control algorithm SAT on software settings allows you to set the battery in any set position. To do this, given the original signal in BOOBS about installing SAT in its original position. Next, using BUKBZP is required once Orot on the corner α z. Thus to control the angle of spread in BRNBSP is also used information from remote UPSB.

The UPA plays a role of interface between BOOBS, BRNBSP, BUSTS and UPSB.

BIBEMI constantly measures the current flow of the solar electromagnetic radiation (EMR) index of solar activity F10,7 and passes them to BARE. In BIOFEEDBACK by comparing the current values with predetermined threshold is determined by the beginning of the Sun's activity. On command, coming from the first output BAREFOOT on the entrance BMWC, in this last block is the definition of time possible early effects of high energy particles on the SPACECRAFT. From the second output BAREFOOT through the input IPCVA issued the command to start measurement of the flux of high energy particles. Information about the time the possible onset of action of particles on the SPACECRAFT is transmitted from the output BMWC in BOMBAST through his first entrance. To the second input BOMBAST transmitted measured value of density of streams of high energy particles with BIPPLE.

In BOMBAST is the actual assessment of the negative impact of FVS by comparing the current measured values of the characteristics of the impact of threshold values, since the time specified BMWC. A necessary condition for receiving the command output BOMBAST is the presence of two whitefish is Alov - with outputs BMWC, BIPPLE. Output BOMBAST is formed by the command "start control SAT on load currents", which comes in BUSES.

When BOMBAST issues a command in BUSES, the team obtained BOMBAST, is higher priority than the command to restart BOOBS and BRNBSP. Therefore, having the specified command, BUSES disconnects from the management UPSB blocks lower priority and connects BUSTS.

After the reset command with BOMBAST input BUSES, last rebuilds the logic of their work. Depending on the flight program as a priority in the management of SB is given one of the blocks BOOBS or BRNBSP.

BUSTS determines the angle αs_minaccording to expression (2). To calculate the specified angle are measured values of Inreceived from DTN. In addition, do UPSB in the specified unit receives information about the current value of the rotation angle SA α. After determining the value of the angle αs_minthe algorithm incorporated in BUSTS, compares it with the current angle value and calculates the angle of misalignment between the α and αs_minand the required number of control pulses to actuate the control drive SAT. Control pulses are transmitted to the UPA. After transformation and amplification of these pulses in the UPA, they arrive at the WMO is UPSB and lead the actuator is in motion.

Method and system for its implementation, adopted for the prototype, have a significant drawback - they do not provide complete protection surface SS from the negative influence of streams of high energy particles and thus do not take into account the features and additional features of the implementation of protective measures from this negative impact when the SPACECRAFT is in the shadow part of the orbit.

The task of the proposed method and system for its implementation, is to reduce the negative influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface SAT at the points of location of the SPACECRAFT on the shadow part of the orbit. To do this, by control of the security Council is expected to reduce the area of SAT, which negatively affects the flow of these particles.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of controlling the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft, including the reversal of the solar panels into position, ensuring the supply of spacecraft electric power corresponding to the combination of the normal to its illuminated work surface with the plane formed by the axis of rotation of the solar panels and the direction to the Sun, the density measurement of the current of the solar electromagnetic radiation, determining the point in time of the beginning of the solar activity, the distribution of time to achieve high energy particles the spacecraft surface, measurement of the density of streams of high energy particles, comparing the measured density values of streams of high energy particles with the threshold values, the spread of solar panels on the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface and the direction to the Sun αs mincorresponding to the minimum area of influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface of solar panels while maintaining spacecraft power, defined by the equation:

αs_min=arccos(IH/Im),

where In- load current from consumers KA;

Im- maximum current produced when the orientation of the illuminated work surface panels SAT perpendicular to the rays of the sun,

in time exceed the measured values of density of streams of high energy particles thresholds and the return of the solar panels into position in time at which the density of streams of high energy particles becomes lower than the threshold value, additionally measure the height of the orbit of the spacecraft to measure the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane of the spacecraft, determine the illumination of the spacecraft with the Sun in the time of illumination of the spacecraft with the Sun, if p is Eisenia measured values of density of streams of high energy particles compare them with thresholds perform the reversal of the solar panels to reach the value of the angle between the normal to the illuminated the working surface and the direction to the Sun, equal to αs_minand in the moments of time of the spacecraft in the shadow of the Earth capture the moment of the beginning of the shadow area of the orbit, measured values of the orbital altitude of the spacecraft and the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane of the spacecraft determine the length of the shadow area of the orbit and, in case of exceeding the measured values of density of streams of high energy particles compare them with thresholds, perform additional reversal of the solar panels to reach the value of the angle between the normal to the working surface and the estimated direction to the Sun αs_maxcorresponding to the maximum possible top working surface of solar panels on the direction of the flux of high energy particles, defined by the formula

αs_max=min {(ω(tn+T-to)-αoαs_min)/2, 180°},

where tn- fixed the start shadow of a plot of the orbit;

T - define the duration of the shadow area of the orbit;

to- commencement additional reversal;

αo- the angle between the normal to the working surface of the solar cell and the direction to the Sun at the beginning of the additional spread,

ω - the maximum angular velocity of rotation of the solar panels around the axis of rotation,

at this point in time the beginning of an additional reversal of the solar panels take the earliest point in time after entry of the spacecraft into the Earth's shadow, in which the measured density values of streams of high energy particles exceeds a threshold value, and when the spacecraft from the shadow of the Earth complete reverse the spread of solar panels to reach the value of the angle between the normal to the working surface and the direction to the Sun, equal to αs_min.

In addition, the problem is solved in that the control system the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft, including the solar battery installed four solar batteries, device rotation, solar battery, audio-transforming device, the control unit orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun, block the spread of solar panels to a predetermined position, two of the current controller, battery pack, battery charger for rechargeable batteries, the power generation command to the batteries, the sensor load current, the control unit power supply system, the power bus, the unit of measurement PLO the values of the current solar electromagnetic radiation, the definition block of solar activity, the block defining moment of impact of the particles on spacecraft, the unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles, the definition block of time beginning control solar panels on the load currents, the control unit solar cells for load currents, while the solar battery through its first output, combining the outputs of two photovoltaic cells that are connected to the first input of the rotation of solar panels and through the second output, combining the outputs of the other two photovoltaic cells that are connected to the second input of the rotation of the solar panels and the outputs of the control units of the orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun and turn solar panels at a desired position connected respectively with the first and second amplifier inputs-transforming device whose output in turn is connected to the third input of the rotation of the solar panels, the first and second outputs of the device rotate solar panels connected respectively to the inputs of the first and second current regulators, and the outputs of the current controllers connected to the power bus of the spacecraft, the battery pack by its entrance, through a charger for rechargeable batteries, connected to the bus electr the supply, this charger rechargeable battery connected to its first input to the specified bus and to the second input of the charger for the battery sensor is connected the load current, which is connected in turn to the power bus, the battery pack with its output connected to the first input of the processing unit commands on the batteries, and to the second input of the specified block connected to the first output control unit power supply system, the output processing unit commands the batteries are connected to the third input of the charger, rechargeable battery, second and third outputs of the control unit power supply system connected to the first inputs of the control units orientation solar panels towards the Sun and spread of solar panels to a predetermined position, the third output of the rotation of the solar cells connected with the second input control blocks orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun and spread of solar panels at a desired position, the output of the measurement unit current density of the solar electromagnetic radiation is connected with the input of block definitions in solar activity, the first output of which in turn is connected to the input of the block defining moment of impact is the major particles on spacecraft, the outputs of the block defining moment of impact of the particles on spacecraft and unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the definition block of time beginning control solar panels on the load currents and the input unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles is connected with the second output unit definition of solar activity, the fourth output control unit power supply system connected to the first input of the control unit solar cells for load currents, the second and third inputs and the output of which is connected respectively to the second output of current sensor load, the third output of the rotation of the solar panels and the third input amplifier-the transforming device, inputs of the block defining moments of illumination of the spacecraft, the unit of measurement of the orbital altitude of the spacecraft, the unit of measurement of the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane of the spacecraft, the control unit reversal of solar panels in the sun position, the element and NOT the key, and the output of the block defining moments of illumination of the spacecraft is connected to the first and second information inputs key, respectively, directly and through the element is NOT, the output katalogowanie connected to the first input of the control unit reversal of solar panels in the sun position, output and between the second and sixth inputs of which are connected to, respectively, the first input unit of the spread of solar panels to a predetermined position, the third output of the rotating solar panels, the second sensor output of the load current, the outputs of the units of measurement of the height of the orbit of the spacecraft and the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane of the spacecraft and the fifth output control unit power supply system, the first and second inputs which are connected respectively with the first and second outputs of the key, a control input connected to the output of the block definition time start control solar panels for load currents.

Reduction of the area of the negative impact streams of high energy particles on the SAT in the shadow of the Earth is achieved by implementation of the lapel on the shady part of the orbit normal to the working surface SS from the calculated direction of the Sun at the maximum possible angle. By the time of release of CA from the shadow of the Earth must return SAT in the orientation mode in which the working surface SB of the necessary and sufficient sunlit minimum adverse impact of flows.

This is achieved by the fact that when exceeding the density of streams of high energy particles thresholds when the SPACECRAFT is in the shadow of the Earth vypolnyaemogo panels SAT up to reach the value of the angle between the normal to the working surface and the estimated direction to the Sun, corresponding to the maximum top working surface SS from the direction to the Sun and denoted as αs_maxthat is determined by the formula

αs_max=min{(ω(tn+T-to)-αos_min)/2, 180°},

where tn- the beginning of the shadow area of the orbit;

T - the duration of the shadow area on the current orbit orbit;

to- the beginning of a reversal (tn≤to≤tn+T);

αo- the angle between the normal to the working surface SB and the direction to the Sun at the moment of reversal;

ω - the maximum angular velocity of rotation SAT around the rotation axis.

The value of αs_mindetermined by the relation (2), and the value of T is determined by the formula

where TPthe period of circulation SPACECRAFT in orbit

β - the angle between the direction of the Sun and the plane of the orbit,

Q is visible from the SPACECRAFT angular polarstar Land, the value of which is determined by the ratio

where Norb- the height of the orbit;

Rz- the radius of the Earth.

Equation (3) derived from the requirement of a complete reversal from the current position α=αaboutto position αzs_maxand the return of the security Council, the Maxi is the material protected while providing the AC power position α zs_minnow look at the light. To meet this requirement the beginning of a reversal of the situation αzs_minis determined by the formula:

To implement the method proposed system, shown in the drawing and containing the following:

1 - SAT, on a rigid substrate body which has four photovoltaic cells;

2, 3, 4, 5 - CF1, CF2, CF3, CF4;

6 - UPSB;

7 - URA;

8 - BOOBS;

9 - BRNBSP;

10, 11 - RT1and RT2;

12 - BAB;

13 - ZRU AB;

14 - BFCS AB;

15 - DTN;

16 - BUSES;

17 - SHENG;

18 BIBEMI;

19 BIOFEEDBACK;

20 - BMWC;

21 IPCVA;

22 - BOMBAST;

23 - BUSTS;

24 is a block defining moments of illumination KA (BMOCA);

25 - units of measurement of the height of the orbit of the spacecraft (BIWA);

the 26 - unit of measurement of the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane of the spacecraft (BIOSPA);

27 - control the reversal of the solar panels in the sun position (BURPS);

the 28 - item;

29 - key.

While SB (1) through the first output, combining the outputs of CF1(2) and CF4(5), connected to the first input of UPSB (6) and via a second output that combines the outputs of CF2(3) and CF3(5), is connected to the second is the progress UPSB (6). Outputs BOOBS (8) and BRNBSP (9) are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the UPA (7)whose output in turn is connected with the third input UPSB (6). The first and second outputs UPSB (6) are connected respectively to the inputs PT1(10) and RT2(11), and outputs PT1(10) and RT2(11) is connected with SHENG (17). BAB (12) with its entrance through the CDD AB (13) is connected with SHENG (17). While CDD AB (13) is connected to its first input to the specified bus and to the second input ZRU AB (13) connected to the output DTN (15), the inlet of which is connected in turn to SHENG (17). BAB (12) with its output connected to the first input BFCS AB (14)and to the second input of the specified block connected to the first output BUSES (16). Output BFCS AB (14) is connected to the third input ZRU AB (13). The second and third outputs BUSES (16) are connected respectively to the first inputs of BOOBS (8) and BRNBSP (9). The third output UPSB (6) is connected with the second inputs of BOOBS (8) and BRNBSP (9). The output BIBEMI (18) is connected to the input of BIOFEEDBACK (19). The first output BAREFOOT (19) is connected to the input BMWC (20). Outputs BMWC (20), BIPPLE (21) are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the block BOMBAST (22). The input BIPPLE (21) is connected with the second output BAREFOOT (19). BUSES (16) to its fourth output connected to the first input BUSBARS (23). To the second input BUSBARS (23) is connected to the second output DTN (15). Output BUSBARS (23) is connected to the third input of the UPA (7). The third output UPSB (6) connected to the third input BUSBARS (23). Output MOMOKA (24) is connected with the first and second information inputs key (29), respectively, directly and through the element is NOT (28). The output element (28) is also connected to the first input BURBS (27). Output and between the second and sixth inputs BURBS (27) respectively connected to the first input BRNBSP (9), the third output UPSB (6), a second output DTN (15), outputs BIWA (25) and BISPO (26) and fifth output BUSES (16). The first and second inputs BUSES (16) are connected respectively with the first and second outputs of the key (29). Control input key (29) is connected to the output BOMBAST (22).

The drawing also the dashed line shows the mechanical connection UPSB (6) with housing SA (1) via the output shaft of the drive battery.

Mode power supply AC system works as follows.

UPSB (6) is used for transit transmission of electricity from SB (1) to RT1(10) and RT2(11). The voltage on the power rail SES is one of the RT. At the same time, another RT is in a state with closed-loop power transistors. Generators SB (1) (BF1-CF4) work in this case, the short circuit mode. When the load power becomes greater than the power connection of generators SB (1), stabilization mode voltage goes another RT and energy nezadejstvovannye generators is supplied to the power bus SES. In some periods the s, when the power load may exceed the capacity of SB (1), CS AB (13), due to the discharge unit AB (12), compensates for the shortage of electricity on Board the SPACECRAFT. For these purposes, the LRU AB (13) is the regulator of the category AB. Energy BAB (12) is also used in the shadows SAT.

In addition to the specified controller ZRU AB (13) contains a regulator battery charging. For conducting charge-discharge cycles the LRU AB (13) uses information from DTN (15). This DT (15) is connected to the SES in such a way that measures the load current not only from the side of consumers, but also takes into account the current battery charging. Charge BAB (12) carry out CDD AB (13) through BFCS AB (14) For the case metholodology AB it is described in [5]. The bottom line is that the pressure sensors installed inside the battery, and the temperature on the battery cases is the determination of the density of hydrogen in the case of AB. In turn, the density of hydrogen determines the level of charge of the battery. When decreasing the density of hydrogen in the battery is below a set level command in her charge, and when reaching the maximum density level is at charge termination. Using BUSES (16) can be adjusted above the battery levels through BFCS AB (14).

Simultaneously with the operation of the AC power supply system solves the problem of position control of the planes of the panels SB (1).

On command from BUSES (6) block BOOBS (8) controls the orientation of the SB (1) in the Sun. BOOBS (8) can be implemented on the basis of AIRCRAFT KA (see [6]). The input information to the control algorithm SA are: the position of the unit direction vector of the Sun relative to the associated SPACECRAFT coordinate axes defined by the algorithms kinematic loop AIRCRAFT; status of SB relative to the body of the SPACECRAFT obtained in the form of current measured values of the angle α remote control UPSB (6). Output information of the control algorithm are the team to the SB rotation about the axis of the output shaft UPSB (6), a command for stopping the rotation. Do UPSB (6) generate discrete signals about the state of SA (1).

BIBEMI (18) produces a measurement of the current threads solar AMY and forwards them to the BARE (19). In BIOFEEDBACK (19) by comparing the current values with predetermined threshold is determined by the beginning of the Sun's activity. On command, coming from the first output BAREFOOT (19) to the input BMWC (20), in that the last block is the definition of time possible early effects of high energy particles on the SPACECRAFT. From the second output BAREFOOT (19) through the input BIPPLE (21) is given a command to start measurement of the flux of high energy particles. Information about the time the possible onset of action of particles on the SPACECRAFT is transmitted from the output BMWC (20) in BOMBAST (22) through his first entrance. To the second input BOMBAST (22) is transmitted measured value is lotnosti streams of high energy particles with BIPPLE (21).

In BOMBAST (22) is the actual assessment of the negative impact of FVS by comparing the current measured values of the characteristics of the impact of threshold values, since the time specified BMWC (20). A necessary condition for receiving the command output BOMBAST (22) is the presence of two signals with outputs BMWC (20), BIPPLE (21).

In MOMOKA (24) determines the points in time when the AC is on the sunlit part of the orbit. Information about time lighting KA Sun is transmitted from the output MOMOKA (24) at the first input key (29) and the input element (28), the output of which thus generates a signal of zero level. When the SPACECRAFT is in the shadow of the Earth, MOMOKA (24) generates a zero signal level, and supplies it to the first input key (29) and the input element (28), the output of which thus generates a signal about the presence of CA in the shadow of the Earth, supplied to the second input key (29).

When BOMBAST (22) issues a command to the control input of the key (29), key (29) has a status of "open" and through him the information with MOMOKA (24) about the time of illumination of the AC and of the item (28) on the moments of time of the AC in the shadow of the Earth is supplied respectively to the first and second inputs BUSES (16).

The team at the first sign BUSES (16) this block generates the command at its fourth output is, which connects to the management SAT BUSTS (23). BUSTS (23) determines the angle αs_minaccording to expression (2). To calculate the specified angle are measured load current obtained from DTN (15). In addition, do UPSB (6) in the specified unit receives information about the current value of the rotation angle SA α. Getting the value of the angle αs_minthe algorithm incorporated in the specified block, and compares it with the current value of angle αcalculates the angle of misalignment between the α and αs_minand the required number of control pulses to actuate the steering actuator SA (1). Control pulses are transmitted to the UPA (7). After transformation and amplification of these pulses in the UPA (7) they arrive at the entrance UPSB (6) and cause the actuator to move.

On the second input BUSES (16) this block generates the command to the fifth output, which connects BURBS (27). BURBS (27) controls the operation of BRNBSP (9) to perform lapel normal to the working surface SB (1) at the maximum possible angle from the calculated direction to the Sun ("sun" position). For this BOURSES (27) coming from element (28) information about the moments of time finding the KA in the shadow of the Earth is fixed the moment the shadow area of the orbit of tnby formulas (2)to(5), calculate the values of the angle Otoro the and from the direction to the Sun α s maxand angle reverse turn αs_minissued command in BRNBSP (9) for the implementation of turn SB (1) to position αzs_maxaccording to the formula (6), calculate the time of the beginning of a reverse turn and SAT on the offensive this time command in BRNBSP (9) for the implementation of turn SB (1) to position αzs_min.

BRNBSP (9) manages SB (1) software setting. The control algorithm SAT (1) software setting allows you to set the battery in any set position α=αz. Thus to control the angle of spread in BRNBSP (9) uses information from the remote control UPSB (6).

Implementation BOMBAST (22) is possible on the basis of hardware and software DRM KA, and on Board the SPACECRAFT. Output BOMBAST (22) is formed by the command "start threshold density of streams of high energy particles", which is supplied to the control input of the key (29). After the reset command with BOMBAST (22) key (29) "closed", the inputs BUSES (16) commands do not do it, depending on the flight SPACECRAFT passes control to SAT one of the blocks BOOBS (8) and BRNBSP (9).

An example implementation of BUSES (16) can serve as radio equipment service control channel (SKU) SPACECRAFT onboard systems Yamal-100", consisting of earth is the second station (AP) and on-Board equipment (BA) (see the description in [10, 11]). In particular, BA SKU conjunction with CS SKU solves the issue in on-Board digital computer system (BCS) KA digital information (QI) and its subsequent handshake. Bcvs in turn manages the blocks BOOBS (8), BRNBSP (9), BUSTS(23), BURPS (27), BFCS AB (14).

In this implementation BUSES (16) the interaction of BA SKU in part exchange QI is on the main channel of exchange (ice) in accordance with the interface MIL-STD-1553. As a subscriber BCS uses the device - interface unit (BTS) of the BA of the SSI. The processor bcws periodically makes surveys the state of the BS to determine the availability of the data packet. If the package is available, then the processor starts sending data.

The UPA (7) plays the role of interface between BOOBS (8), BRNBSP (9), BUSTS (23) and UPSB (6) and is used to convert digital signals to analog and strengthening the latter.

MOMOKA (24), BIWA (25) and BISPO (26) can be made on the basis of sensors and equipment AIRCRAFT KA (see [6], [8]). BUSTS (23), BURPS (27) are airborne units KA, teams come from BUSES (16). The implementation of the block can be made on the basis of BCS. Element (28) and the key (29) can be made in the form of basic analog circuits.

Thus, we consider the example of realization of the fundamental units of the system, which adopts the HSIA solution proposed and implemented protective operations.

Describe the technical effect of the proposed inventions.

Proposed technical solutions to reduce the negative impacts streams of high energy particles on the working surface SAT at the points of location of the SPACECRAFT on the shadow part of the orbit. This is achieved by reducing the area of the working surface SB, which negatively affect the flow of these particles, by controlling the orientation SAT in the shadow of the Earth, namely the implementation of the flap normal to the working surface SS from the direction to the source of the streams of these particles is estimated direction to the Sun is at the highest possible angle up to 180°. Thus, the present invention provides the best possible protection from the negative impact of the flow of these particles on the shadow part of the orbit until its exceptions (reset). This is guaranteed to execute requirements necessary and sufficient illumination SAT immediately after the release of CA on the light part of the orbit.

LITERATURE

1. A.S. Eliseev Technology of space flight. Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye, 1983.

2. Rauschenbach, Guide for the design of solar panels. Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1983.

3. Flight rules when performing joint operations of the space SHUTTLE and ISS. Tom C. Management of flight operations. Space center. Lyndon B. Johnson. Houston Texas, the main variant, 8.11.2001.

4. The power supply system of the SPACECRAFT. Technical description. GC. 0000-ATO. RSC "Energia", 1998.

5. Center B. I., Lyzlov POSTGRADUATE, Metallographie electrochemical system. Leningrad. Chemistry, Leningrad branch, 1989.

6. System traffic management and navigation SATELLITES. Technical description. GC. 0000-ATO. RSC "Energia", 1998.

7. Halperin SCI, Dmitriev A.V., Green, L.M., Panasyuk L.M. Influence of space weather on the safety of aviation and space flight. "Flight in 2001, p.27-87.

8. Engineering Handbook of space technology. Izd-vo MO SSR, M., 1969.

9. Griliches, VA, Orlov P.P., Popov LB Solar and space flight. Moscow. "Nauka", 1984.

10. Earth station service control channel KA "Yamal". The user guide. TSCPC-RA. RSC "Energia", 2001.

11. Onboard equipment service control channel KA "Yamal". Technical description. GC. A-GR. RSC "Energia", 2002.

12. Kovtun V.S. Solov'ev S.V., Zaikin S.V., A.A. Gorodetsky way to control the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft and system for its implementation. RF patent 2242408 on the application 2003108114/11 from 24.03.2003,

1. The method of controlling the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft, including the reversal of the solar panels into position, ensuring the supply of the cosmic the ski apparatus of electricity and corresponding to the combination of the normal to the illuminated work surface with the plane, formed by the axis of rotation of the solar panels and the direction to the Sun, the density measurement of the current of the solar electromagnetic radiation, determining the point in time of the beginning of the solar activity, determining the point in time achieve high energy particles the spacecraft surface, the density measurement streams of high energy particles, comparing the measured density values of streams of high energy particles with the threshold values, the spread of solar panels on the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface and the direction to the Sun αs_mincorresponding to the minimum area of influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface of solar panels while maintaining spacecraft power, defined by the ratio

αs_min=arccos(In/Im),

where In- load current consumers KA;

Im- maximum current produced when the orientation of the illuminated working surface of the solar panels perpendicular to the sun's rays,

in time exceed the measured values of density of streams of high energy particles thresholds and the return of the solar panels into position in time, to the m density streams of high energy particles becomes lower than the threshold values, characterized in that it further measure the height of the orbit of the spacecraft to measure the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane of the spacecraft, determine the illumination of the spacecraft with the Sun, in the time of illumination of the spacecraft with the Sun, in case of exceeding the measured values of density of streams of high energy particles compare them with thresholds, perform the reversal of the solar panels to reach the value of the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface and the direction to the Sun, equal to αs_minand in the moments of time of the spacecraft in the shadow of the Earth capture the moment of the beginning of the shadow area of the orbit, measured values of the orbital altitude of the spacecraft and the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane of the spacecraft determine the length of the shadow area of the orbit and, in case of exceeding the measured values of density of streams of high energy particles compare them with thresholds, perform additional reversal of the solar panels to reach the value of angle αs_maxbetween the normal to the working surface and the estimated direction of the Sun corresponding to the maximum possible top working surface of the sun B. Tara on the direction of the stream of high energy particles, determined by the formula

αs_max=min{(ω(tn+T-to)-αabouts_min)/2, 180°},

where tn- fixed the start shadow of a plot of the orbit;

T - define the duration of the shadow area of the orbit;

to- commencement additional reversal;

αo- the angle between the normal to the working surface of the solar cell and the direction to the Sun at the beginning of the additional reversal;

ω - the maximum angular velocity of rotation of the solar panels around the axis of rotation,

at this point in time the beginning of an additional reversal of the solar panels take the earliest point in time after entry of the spacecraft into the Earth's shadow, in which the measured density values of streams of high energy particles exceeds a threshold value, and when the spacecraft from the shadow of the Earth complete reverse the spread of solar panels to reach the value of the angle between the normal to the working surface and the direction to the Sun, equal to αs_min.

2. Control system the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft, representing installed on the four panels photovoltaic solar panels, including the moustache is the employment of rotation of solar panels, amplification-transforming device, the control unit orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun, block the spread of solar panels to a predetermined position, two of the current controller, battery pack, battery charger for rechargeable batteries, the power generation command to the batteries, the sensor load current, the control unit power supply system, the power bus, the power density measurement of the current of the solar electromagnetic radiation, the definition block of solar activity, the block defining moment of the impact of high energy particles on spacecraft, the unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles, the definition block of time beginning control solar panels on the load currents, the control unit solar cells for load currents, while the solar battery through its first output, combining the outputs of two photovoltaic cells that are connected to the first input device rotation, solar panels, and through the second output, combining the outputs of the other two photovoltaic cells that are connected to the second input of the rotation of the solar panels and the outputs of the control units of the orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun and spread of solar panels at a desired position connected with therefore, its, with the first and second amplifier inputs-transforming device, the output of which, in turn, is connected to the third input of the rotation of the solar panels, the first and second outputs of the device rotate solar panels connected respectively to the inputs of the first and second current regulators, and the outputs of the current controllers connected to the power bus of the spacecraft, the battery pack by its entrance, through a charger for rechargeable batteries connected to the power bus, when this charger rechargeable battery connected to its first input to the specified bus and to the second input of the charger for a rechargeable battery connected to the current sensor load that is connected, in turn, to the power bus, the battery pack with its output connected to the first input of the processing unit commands on the batteries, and to the second input of the specified block connected to the first output control unit power supply system, the output processing unit commands the batteries are connected to the third input of the charger, rechargeable battery, second and third outputs of the control unit power supply system connected to the first inputs of the control blocks orientation of the solar panels on the direction the Sun and spread of solar panels at a desired position, the third output of the rotation of the solar cells connected with the second input control blocks orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun and spread of solar panels at a desired position, the output of the measurement unit current density of the solar electromagnetic radiation is connected with the input of block definitions in solar activity, the first output of which, in turn, is connected to the input of the block defining moment of impact of the particles on spacecraft, the outputs of the block defining moment of impact of the particles on spacecraft and unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles connected with, respectively, the first and second inputs of the definition block of time beginning control solar panels the load currents and the input unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles is connected with the second output unit definition of solar activity, the fourth output control unit power supply system connected to the first input of the control unit solar cells for load currents, the second and third inputs and the output of which is connected, respectively, the second sensor output of the load current, the third output of the rotation of the solar panels and the third input amplifier-transforming device, characterized in that the stage is niteline entered the block defining moments of illumination of the spacecraft, the unit of measurement of the height of the orbit of the spacecraft, the unit of measurement of the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane of the spacecraft, the control unit reversal of solar panels in the sun position, the element "NOT" and the key, and the output of the block defining moments of illumination of the spacecraft is connected to the first and second information inputs key, respectively, directly and through the element of "NOT", the output of which is also connected to the first input of the control unit reversal of solar panels in the sun position, and the output and the inputs from the second to the sixth of this block are connected respectively to the first input unit of the reversal of the solar in the preset position, the third output of the rotating solar panels, the second sensor output of the load current, the outputs of the units of measurement of the height of the orbit of the spacecraft and the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane of the spacecraft and the fifth output control unit power supply system, the first and second inputs which are connected respectively with the first and second outputs of the key, a control input connected to the output of the block definition time start control solar panels for load currents.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: spacecraft systems for supply of power with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning of solar batteries to the working position corresponding to matching of normal to their illuminated surface with plane formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also measurement of density of fluxes of solar electromagnetic radiation and high-energy particles determining the moments of beginning of solar activity and arrival of said particles to spacecraft surface. Additional measurement includes determination of appearance of signs of negative action of particle flux on spacecraft. During these moments, onboard solar batteries are charged to maximum level. When density of particle flux exceeds threshold magnitude, solar battery panels are turned through angle between said normal and direction to the Sun corresponding to minimum action of particle fluxes on solar battery surfaces. Discharge of storage batteries is hoped to close the energy gap on board the spacecraft. At minimum permissible level of storage battery charge, storage batteries are disconnected from load. When action of particles on spacecraft is discontinued, solar battery panels are returned to working position. System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System is provided with unit for determination of current from solar batteries, unit for determination of moments of appearance of signs of negative action of high-energy particles on spacecraft and unit for setting the permissible level of charge of storage batteries.

EFFECT: reduction of negative action of high-energy particle flux on solar battery working surface due to maximum increase of angle of "protective" turn of solar batteries from direction of these fluxes to the Sun.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft systems for supply of power with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning the solar battery panels to working position corresponding to matching of normal to illuminated surface of solar batteries with plane formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also determination of moments of the beginning of solar activity and arrival of high-energy particles onto the spacecraft surface. Then, density of fluxes of said particles is measured and the results are compared with threshold magnitudes. When threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned through angle between the said normal and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of particle fluxes on solar battery surfaces at simultaneous supply of spacecraft with electric power. When action of particles is discontinued, solar battery panels are returned to working position. Angle between direction to the Sun and axis of rotation of solar battery panels is measured additionally. In case threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned to magnitude of angle between normal to their illuminated surface and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of said particle fluxes on spacecraft surfaces (provided the spacecraft is supplied with electric power). System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System is additionally provided with unit for measurement of angle between direction to the Sun and direction of axis of rotation of solar battery panels, as well as unit for determination of maximum current.

EFFECT: avoidance of lack of electric power on board the spacecraft at performing the "protective" turn from high-energy particle fluxes; possibility of using these measures for arbitrary orientation.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: centrifugal frameless structures formed in space and used for deployment of solar batteries, reflectors and other large-sized systems.

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EFFECT: enhanced reliability; facilitated procedure.

12 cl,, 11 dwg

FIELD: space power engineering; film-type solar batteries on base of amorphous silicon.

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EFFECT: enhanced reliability of film-type panel tension.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft onboard power supply systems.

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EFFECT: enhanced reliability of method due to enhanced use of onboard and external power sources.

7 dwg

FIELD: satellites of small mass and methods of mounting them on carriers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed mini-satellite has body in form of parallelepiped, solar battery panels secured on its side plates and units for connection with separation system which are located on one of side plates and on end plate. Each panel is made in form of tip and root parts articulated together. Root parts of panel are articulated on side plate of mini-satellite body where connection units are mounted. Mechanical locks mounted on opposite side plate are used for interconnecting the tip parts of panels and for connecting them with body. Articulation units are provided with drives for turning of parts. Articulation units are located above mechanical locks relative to plate on which these locks are mounted. Novelty of invention consists in reduction of area of end part of mini-satellite by 35%, reduction of its height in center of cross section by 23%, reduction of mass by 6-7% and increase of density of arrangement by 17-18%.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; increased number of mini-satellites carried on adapter.

7 dwg

FIELD: power supply for spacecraft onboard supply systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes conversion of light energy into electrical energy on board spacecraft, accumulation of electric energy by conversion into other kinds of energy and check of onboard power requirements. In addition to conversion of light energy, other kinds of energy received from outside sources are transformed into energy consumed on board aircraft. Provision is made for prediction of time intervals when consumption of electric energy exceeds amount of electrical energy converted from light energy. Kinds of consumed energy obtained from conversion of electric energy are also determined. Before beginning of passage of intervals, respective transformable kinds of energy from outside sources are accumulated. Beginning of accumulation of these kinds of energy is determined depending on consumed amount of energy and rate of accumulation of energy with change in spacecraft parameters caused by action of these kinds of energy taken into account. At predicted interval, first of all accumulated transformable kinds of energy are consumed and when necessary, energy accumulated on board spacecraft is consumed after conversion into electrical energy.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of energy supply system due to increased total power.

12 dwg

FIELD: solar-electric power supplies; modular solar-electric generators for space vehicles.

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EFFECT: reduced space requirement, enhanced strength and stiffness of generator panel, reduced mass of passive structure, improved heat transfer from working components of panel.

17 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: control of group of satellites in one and the same orbit or in crossing longitude and latitude ranges of geostationary orbit.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in measurement of parameters of satellite orbits, determination of orbital elements, comparison of them with required ones and performing of correcting maneuvers with the aid of thrusters. Satellite inclination vectors are brought to circular areas of their permissible change which are spaced apart so that angle between line connecting the end of vector with center of its circular area and direction to Sun should exceed right ascension of Sun by 180°. According to first version, vectors of satellite eccentricity are shifted to similar circular areas so that similar line lags behind direction to the Sun by half angular displacement of vector over circumference of its natural drift within circular area. Then, distances between satellites are changed within required limits compensating for quasi-secular increment of inclination vector and correcting eccentricity vector so that at passing the center of interval between point of circumference entry of its natural drift to its circular area and point of exit from this area, line connecting the center of this circumference and center of circular area coincide with direction to the Sun. In case circular area of permissible change of each eccentricity vector is close to circumference of its natural drift (second version), said line for this area is matched with direction to the Sun and no correction is made in this case.

EFFECT: saving of propellant for correction; protracted flight of satellites at safe distance.

3 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft power supply systems on base of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed spacecraft has form of right-angle prism with cross-section in form of equilateral tetragon (rhomb). Mounted on side faces of prism are solar battery panels. Spacecraft is provided with passive or combined system of gravitational stabilization in orbit. Acute angle of tetragon ranges from 50 to 90° to ensure required power supply for spacecraft equipment. Main central axes of symmetry of spacecraft in transversal plane are parallel to tetragon diagonal. Lesser axis is parallel to larger diagonal, thus enhancing stable gravitational orientation of spacecraft by larger diagonal perpendicularly to orbit axis.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft systems for supply of power with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning of solar batteries to the working position corresponding to matching of normal to their illuminated surface with plane formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also measurement of density of fluxes of solar electromagnetic radiation and high-energy particles determining the moments of beginning of solar activity and arrival of said particles to spacecraft surface. Additional measurement includes determination of appearance of signs of negative action of particle flux on spacecraft. During these moments, onboard solar batteries are charged to maximum level. When density of particle flux exceeds threshold magnitude, solar battery panels are turned through angle between said normal and direction to the Sun corresponding to minimum action of particle fluxes on solar battery surfaces. Discharge of storage batteries is hoped to close the energy gap on board the spacecraft. At minimum permissible level of storage battery charge, storage batteries are disconnected from load. When action of particles on spacecraft is discontinued, solar battery panels are returned to working position. System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System is provided with unit for determination of current from solar batteries, unit for determination of moments of appearance of signs of negative action of high-energy particles on spacecraft and unit for setting the permissible level of charge of storage batteries.

EFFECT: reduction of negative action of high-energy particle flux on solar battery working surface due to maximum increase of angle of "protective" turn of solar batteries from direction of these fluxes to the Sun.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft systems for supply of power with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning the solar battery panels to working position corresponding to matching of normal to illuminated surface of solar batteries with plane formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also determination of moments of the beginning of solar activity and arrival of high-energy particles onto the spacecraft surface. Then, density of fluxes of said particles is measured and the results are compared with threshold magnitudes. When threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned through angle between the said normal and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of particle fluxes on solar battery surfaces at simultaneous supply of spacecraft with electric power. When action of particles is discontinued, solar battery panels are returned to working position. Angle between direction to the Sun and axis of rotation of solar battery panels is measured additionally. In case threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned to magnitude of angle between normal to their illuminated surface and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of said particle fluxes on spacecraft surfaces (provided the spacecraft is supplied with electric power). System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System is additionally provided with unit for measurement of angle between direction to the Sun and direction of axis of rotation of solar battery panels, as well as unit for determination of maximum current.

EFFECT: avoidance of lack of electric power on board the spacecraft at performing the "protective" turn from high-energy particle fluxes; possibility of using these measures for arbitrary orientation.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: astro-navigation, control of attitude and orbital position of spacecraft.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes control computer, star sensor, Earth sensor, storage and timing device, processors for control of attitude, processing angular and orbital data, inertial flywheels and spacecraft orbit correction engine plant. Used as astro-orienters are reference and navigational stars from celestial pole zone. Direction of spacecraft to reference star and direction of central axis of Earth sensor to Earth center are matched with plane formed by central axes of sensors with the aid of onboard units. Shift of direction to reference star relative to central axis of Earth sensor is considered to be latitude change in orbital position of spacecraft. Turn of navigational star around reference star read off sensor base is considered to be inertial longitude change. Point of reading of longitude is point of spring equinox point whose hour angle is synchronized with the board time. This time is zeroed upon completion of Earth revolution. Stochastic measurements by means of static processing are smoothed-out and are converted into geographic latitude and longitude parameters. Smoothed inertial parameters are compared with parameters of preset turn of spacecraft orbit found in storage. Revealed deviations of orbit are eliminated by means of correction engine plant.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determination of spacecraft attitude and orbital position; automatic elimination of deviation from orbit.

44 dwg

FIELD: rocketry, applicable at an air start, mainly of ballistic missiles with liquid-propellant rocket engines.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in separation of the missile with a payload from the carrier aeroplane and its transition to the state with initial angular parameters of motion in the vertical plane. After separation the missile is turned with the aid of its cruise engine, preliminarily using the parachute system for missile stabilization. The parachute system makes it possible to reduce the duration of the launching leg and the losses in the motion parameters (and the energy) in this leg. To reduce the missile angular bank declination, the strand of the parachute system fastened in the area of the missile nose cone is rehooked. To reduce the time of missile turning towards the vertical before the launcher, the cruise engine controls are preliminarily deflected to the preset angles and rigidly fixed. By the beginning of missile control in the trajectory of injection this fixation is removed. In the other modification the missile turning is accomplished by an additional jet engine installation. It is started depending on the current angular parameters of missile motion so that by the beginning of controlled motion in the trajectory of injection the missile would have the preset initial angular parameters of motion.

EFFECT: enhanced mass of payload injected to the orbit.

4 cl

FIELD: control of group of satellites in one and the same orbit or in crossing longitude and latitude ranges of geostationary orbit.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in measurement of parameters of satellite orbits, determination of orbital elements, comparison of them with required ones and performing of correcting maneuvers with the aid of thrusters. Satellite inclination vectors are brought to circular areas of their permissible change which are spaced apart so that angle between line connecting the end of vector with center of its circular area and direction to Sun should exceed right ascension of Sun by 180°. According to first version, vectors of satellite eccentricity are shifted to similar circular areas so that similar line lags behind direction to the Sun by half angular displacement of vector over circumference of its natural drift within circular area. Then, distances between satellites are changed within required limits compensating for quasi-secular increment of inclination vector and correcting eccentricity vector so that at passing the center of interval between point of circumference entry of its natural drift to its circular area and point of exit from this area, line connecting the center of this circumference and center of circular area coincide with direction to the Sun. In case circular area of permissible change of each eccentricity vector is close to circumference of its natural drift (second version), said line for this area is matched with direction to the Sun and no correction is made in this case.

EFFECT: saving of propellant for correction; protracted flight of satellites at safe distance.

3 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: terminal control of motion trajectory of cryogenic stages injecting spacecraft into preset orbits by means of cruise engines.

SUBSTANCE: swivel combustion chamber of cruise engine is used for angular orientation and stabilization of cryogenic stage of spacecraft. Proposed method includes predicting parameters of motion of cryogenic stage at moment of cut-off of cruise engine; deviation of radius and radial velocity from preset magnitudes are determined; angle of pitch and rate of pitch are corrected and program of orientation of thrust vector for subsequent interval of terminal control is determined. By projections of measured phantom accelerations, angle of actual orientation of cruise engine thrust vector and misalignment between actual and programmed thrust orientation angles are determined. This misalignment is subjected to non-linear filtration, non-linear conversion and integration. Program of orientation of cryogenic stage is determined as difference between programmed thrust orientation angle and signal received after integration. Proposed method provides for compensation for action of deviation of cruise engine thrust vector relative to longitudinal axis of cryogenic stage on motion trajectory.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of forming preset orbit.

5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: cosmonautics, applicable in space activity - space exploration, exploration of the solar system, observation of the Earth from the space, at which it is necessary to determine the space co-ordinates of the space vehicles and the components of their flight velocity vectors.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that in the intermediate orbit simultaneously with determination of the co-ordinates of the space vehicle (SV) at initial time moment t0 by signals of the Global Satellite Navigation Systems the determination and detection of radiations at least of three pulsars is carried out, and then in the process of further motion of the space vehicle determination of the increment of full phase Δะคp=Δϕp+2·π·Np of periodic radiation of each pulsar is effected, the measurement of the signal phase of pulsar Δϕp is determined relative to the phase of the high-stability frequency standard of the space vehicle, and the resolution of phase ambiguity Np is effected by count of sudden changes by 2·π of the measured phase during flight of the space vehicle - Δt=t-t0; according to the performed measurements determined are the distances covered by the space vehicle during time Δt in the direction to each pulsar and the position of the space vehicle in the Cartesian coordinate system for the case when the number of pulsars equals three is determined from expression where Dp - the distance that is covered by the space vehicle in the direction to the p-th pulsar; Δt - the value of the difference of the phases between the signal of the p-th pulsar and the frequency standard of the space vehicle, measured at moment Tp - quantity of full periods of variation of the signal phase of the p-th pulsar during time Δϕp; Np - column vector of the position of the space vehicle at moment Δt; - column vector of the space vehicle position at initial moment t0; -column vector of estimates of space vehicle motions in the direction cosines determining the angular position of three pulsars.

EFFECT: provided high-accuracy determination of the space vehicle position practically at any distance from the Earth.

2 dwg

FIELD: space engineering; on-board terminal control facilities of cryogenic stages with non-controllable cruise engines.

SUBSTANCE: parameters of motion of cryogenic stage at moment of cruise engine cutoff are predicted and radius of deviation of radius and radial velocity of cryogenic stage from their preset magnitudes are determined. Signals for correction of pitch angle and rate of pitch are shaped for compensation of said deviation. Pitch angle correction signal is limited at preset level and its excess above this level is determined. When signal is shaped for limitation, addition to correction pitch rate signal is formed. This correction is equal to product of said excess by ratio of functions of sensitivity of radial velocity of cryogenic stage to pitch angle and rate of pitch. Resultant pitch rate correction signal is formed as sum of this signal determined without taking into account pitch angle correction signal limitation and addition. Thus, priority follow-up of velocity error is ensured at limited pitch angle correction.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of forming preset orbit due to reduction of disturbance level on angular stabilization loop.

9 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: space engineering; designing spacecraft motion control systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is performed by information of orientation unit to Sun by introducing the orbit parameters into on-board computer followed by calculating the Sun position in observation field of orientation unit for each point of orbit for orientation of axes in orbital coordinate system; search angular velocity is set for spacecraft to ensure capture of Sun by observation field of orientation unit, after which angular velocity is decreased to zero ensuring position of Sun in observation field of orientation unit. Then spacecraft is turned in such way that Sun should move to required initial point; turning the spacecraft to preset points is continued for each orbital point.

EFFECT: reduced mass; simplified construction of spacecraft due to reduced number of instruments and units; extended field of application.

3 dwg

The invention relates to rocket and space technology and can be used to create launch vehicles (LV), including conversion, for a spacecraft in low earth orbit

FIELD: space engineering; designing spacecraft motion control systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is performed by information of orientation unit to Sun by introducing the orbit parameters into on-board computer followed by calculating the Sun position in observation field of orientation unit for each point of orbit for orientation of axes in orbital coordinate system; search angular velocity is set for spacecraft to ensure capture of Sun by observation field of orientation unit, after which angular velocity is decreased to zero ensuring position of Sun in observation field of orientation unit. Then spacecraft is turned in such way that Sun should move to required initial point; turning the spacecraft to preset points is continued for each orbital point.

EFFECT: reduced mass; simplified construction of spacecraft due to reduced number of instruments and units; extended field of application.

3 dwg

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