Method of control of spacecraft solar battery position and system for realization of this method

FIELD: spacecraft systems for supply of power with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning of solar batteries to the working position corresponding to matching of normal to their illuminated surface with plane formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also measurement of density of fluxes of solar electromagnetic radiation and high-energy particles determining the moments of beginning of solar activity and arrival of said particles to spacecraft surface. Additional measurement includes determination of appearance of signs of negative action of particle flux on spacecraft. During these moments, onboard solar batteries are charged to maximum level. When density of particle flux exceeds threshold magnitude, solar battery panels are turned through angle between said normal and direction to the Sun corresponding to minimum action of particle fluxes on solar battery surfaces. Discharge of storage batteries is hoped to close the energy gap on board the spacecraft. At minimum permissible level of storage battery charge, storage batteries are disconnected from load. When action of particles on spacecraft is discontinued, solar battery panels are returned to working position. System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System is provided with unit for determination of current from solar batteries, unit for determination of moments of appearance of signs of negative action of high-energy particles on spacecraft and unit for setting the permissible level of charge of storage batteries.

EFFECT: reduction of negative action of high-energy particle flux on solar battery working surface due to maximum increase of angle of "protective" turn of solar batteries from direction of these fluxes to the Sun.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of space technology, and in particular to power supply systems (SES) SPACECRAFT (SC), and can be used in the position control panels of solar batteries (SB).

A known method of controlling the position of the panels SAT, adopted for similar (see [1], str-194). The method consists in the following. Panel SB oriented in such a way that the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface and the direction to the Sun is the minimum value that provides the maximum arrival power from SAT.

To provide a high performance SAT on most SPACECRAFT are installing automatic orientation to the Sun. The composition of such systems include sun sensors, logically transforming device and electric actuators that control the position of the Council.

The disadvantage of this method and system control the position of SA KA lies in the fact that their actions are not provided protection from the negative impact of external factors (FVS) on the work surface panels SB, as, for example, protection against gases, discharged from the working jet engines (RD) KA (see [2], str-312; [3], p.2-27), and fluxes of protons and electrons of high energy cosmic rays solar electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in periods of high Akti the surface of the Sun (see [2], str; [7], p.31, 33).

The closest analogues adopted for the prototype, is the method of controlling the position of the SB KA, described in [12]. The essence of the method is as follows.

Carry out the reversal of the panels SAT in working position, supplying the AC electric power corresponding to the combination of the normal to its illuminated work surface with the plane formed by the axis of rotation of the panels of the security Council and direction to the Sun. Next, determine the time of the beginning of the negative impact of FVS on the working surface SB and carry out the reversal of the panels SAT until the time of impact of these factors and return panels SAT in working position after the end of the specified exposure. To do this, measure the current density of the solar electromagnetic radiation and the measured values, determine the time of the beginning of the solar activity, determine the point in time achieve high energy particles the surface of the SPACECRAFT. At a specified point in time to measure the density of streams of high energy particles - protons and electrons - and make a comparison of measured values with threshold values. In case of exceeding the measured values of the threshold values of the fluxes of protons and electrons produce a reversal of the panels SAT on the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface the displacement and the direction to the Sun α s_mincorresponding to the minimum area of influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface of the SAT, which is determined by the equation:

αs min=arccos(In/Im),

where In- load current from consumers KA;

Im- maximum current produced when the orientation of the illuminated work surface panels SAT perpendicular to the rays of the sun,

at this point in time the beginning of a reversal of the panels SAT take time exceed the measured values of the upper threshold density flows of these high energy particles, and at the time of the beginning of the return panels SAT in working position take the point in time at which the density of streams of high energy particles becomes lower than the upper threshold value.

SAT in the system SES ISS are the main sources of electricity and provide its on-Board consumers, including charging rechargeable batteries), which is a secondary energy sources on Board the ISS (see [4]). Turn SB decreases the area of damage work surfaces SB thread FVS. To reverse the panel SAT along the slaying flow FVS is not possible, since it is necessary to ensure that the SPACECRAFT and its rechargeable battery produced by SA power proceeding from this the area in which agenia panels SAT by a stream of high energy particles is reduced to minimum by turning SAT on the corner α s minnecessary and sufficient to ensure that on-Board consumers energy.

On the basis of reasonable sufficiency for onboard systems of the AC load from the consumers Inshould not exceed the current I. Since the current I from SAT will be determined by the expression (see [9], p.109)

where Im- maximum current produced when the orientation of the illuminated working surface of the solar panels perpendicular to the sun's rays;

α - the current angle between the normal to the working surface SB and the direction to the Sun,

the current angle α must not exceed the value of αs mincalculated by the formula:

Control system the position of the security Council for the implementation of this method, adopted for the prototype described in [12] and contains SAT on the hard substrate body which has four photovoltaic cells (CF1, CF2, CF3, CF4), the device turn SB (UPSB); amplification-transforming device (UPU); the control unit orientation SAT on the Sun (BOOBS); block reversal SAT at the specified position (BRNBSP); two current regulator (PT1, RT2), block AB (BAB); battery charger for AB (CDD AB); block the formation of teams in charge AB (BFCS AB); the sensor load current (DT the); the control unit supply system (BUSES); the power bus (SHENG); the unit of measurement of the density of the current solar EMP (BIPAI); block definition of solar activity (BOS); block determine the time of impact of the particles on the SPACECRAFT (BMWC); unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles (IPCVA); block defining moment of time management SAT on load currents (BOMBAST); the control unit SAT for load currents (BUSTS). While SAT through the first output, combining the outputs of CF1and CF4connected to the first input of UPSB, and through the second output, combining the outputs of CF2and CF3connected with the second input UPSB. Outputs BOOBS and BRNBSP connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the UPA, the output of which, in turn, is connected to the third input UPSB. The first and second outputs UPSB connected respectively to the inputs PT1and RT2and outputs PT1and RT2connected with SHENG. BAB his entrance through the CDD AB is connected with SHENG. While CDD AB is connected to its first input to the specified bus and to the second input ZRU AB is connected to the output of an accident, the inlet of which is connected, in turn, to SHENG. BAB its output connected to the first input BFCS AB, and the second input of the specified block connected to the first output BUSES. Output BFCS AB is connected to the third input ZRU AB. Deut is e and third outputs BUSES connected respectively to the first inputs of BOOBS and BRNBSP. The third output UPSB connected with the second inputs of BOOBS and BRNBSP. The output BIBEMI connected to the input of BIOFEEDBACK, the first output of which, in turn, is connected to the input BMWC. Outputs BMWC, IPCVA respectively connected to first and second inputs of the block BOMBAST, and the entrance of IPCVA connected with the second output BAREFOOT. Output BOMBAST connected to the input BUSES. BASES his fourth output connected to the first input BUSBARS, and to the second input BUSBARS connected to the second output DTN. Output BUSBARS connected to the third input of the UPA. In addition, the third output UPSB connected to the third input BUSBARS.

Mode power supply AC system works as follows.

UPSB used for transit transmission of electricity from SAT to PT1and RT2. The voltage on the power rail SES is one of the RT. At the same time, another RT is in a state with closed-loop power transistors. Generators SS work in this case, the short circuit mode. When the load power becomes greater than the power connection of generators SAT in the stabilization mode voltage goes another RT, and energy nezadejstvovannye generators is supplied to the power bus SES. In certain periods, when the load power may exceed the capacity of SB, CS AB, due to the discharge unit AB, compensates for the deficit of electroa is ergie on Board the SPACECRAFT. For these purposes, the LRU AB Adjuster discharge AB.

In addition to the specified controller ZRU AB contains a regulator battery charging. The charge controller shall limit the charging current BAB at level (INC±1), where INC- rated charge current, when the excess power PMF and the voltage on the bus SES by regulating the charging current BAB when power BF, insufficient to supply AB-charge current (INC±1)A. To carry out the specified charge-discharge cycles the LRU AB uses information from DTN. This DTN connected to the SES in such a way that measures the load current not only from the side of consumers, but also takes into account the current battery charging. Charge BAB implements the LRU AB through BFCS AB.

Simultaneously with the operation of the AC power supply system solves the problem of position control of the planes of the panels SAT.

On command from BUSES block BOOBS manages orientation SAT in the Sun. BOOBS can be implemented on the basis of the movement management system and navigation (AIRCRAFT) KA (see [6]). The input information to the control algorithm SA are: the position of the unit direction vector of the Sun relative to the associated SPACECRAFT coordinate axes defined by the algorithms kinematic loop AIRCRAFT; status of SB relative to the body of the SPACECRAFT obtained in the form of those is the current measured values of the angle α from the angle sensors (DN)installed on UPSB. The value of α always starts from the current normal to the working surface SB (i.e. at orientation SAT in the Sun α minimum). Output information of the control algorithm are the team to the SB rotation about the axis of the output shaft UPSB and a command for stopping the rotation. Do UPSB generate discrete signals about the state of SAT. The magnitude of the increments determines the accuracy of the orientation SAT.

In normal mode the orientation of the SPACECRAFT, when the direction of motion of the Sun relative to the associated axes KA invariably, SB is set relative to the direction of the Sun ahead in the direction of the Sun by an angle corresponding to multiple increments DN. Further, the battery remains in this position until such time as the Sun, due to the motion of the SPACECRAFT in its orbit, not "move forward" relative to the security Council on the appropriate angle. After this the cycle of rotation resumes.

BRNBSP operates SB via BUSES software settings. The control algorithm SAT on software settings allows you to set the battery in any set position. To do this, given the original signal in BOOBS about installing SAT in its original position. Next, using BUKBZP is the desired turn angle αz. Thus to control the angle of spread in BRNBSP used also details rmacy remote control UPSB.

The UPA plays a role of interface between BOOBS, BRNBSP, BUSTS and UPSB.

BIBEMI constantly measures the current flow of the solar electromagnetic radiation (EMR) index of solar activity F10,7 and passes them to BARE. In BIOFEEDBACK by comparing the current values with predetermined threshold is determined by the beginning of the Sun's activity. On command, coming from the first output BAREFOOT on the entrance BMWC, in this last block is the definition of time possible early effects of high energy particles on the SPACECRAFT. From the second output BAREFOOT through the input IPCVA issued the command to start measurement of the flux of high energy particles. Information about the time the possible onset of action of particles on the SPACECRAFT is transmitted from the output BMWC in BOMBAST through his first entrance. To the second input BOMBAST transmitted measured value of density of streams of high energy particles with BIPPLE.

In BOMBAST is the actual assessment of the negative impact of FVS by comparing the current measured values of the characteristics of the impact of threshold values, since the time specified BMWC. A necessary condition for receiving the command output BOMBAST is the presence of two signals with outputs BMWC, BIPPLE. Output BOMBAST is formed by the command "start control When the load currents", which comes in BUSES.

When BOMBAST issues a command in BUSES, the team obtained BOMBAST, is higher priority than the command to restart BOOBS and BRNBSP. Therefore, having the specified command, BUSES disconnects from the management UPSB blocks lower priority and connects BUSTS.

After the reset command with BOMBAST input BUSES last rebuilds the logic of their work. Depending on the flight program as a priority in the management of SB is given one of the blocks BOOBS or BRNBSP.

BUSTS determines the angle αs_minaccording to expression (2). To calculate the specified angle are measured values of Inreceived from DTN. In addition, do UPSB in the specified unit receives information about the current value of the rotation angle SA α. After determining the value of the angle αs_minthe algorithm incorporated in BUSTS, compares it with the current value of angle αcalculates the angle of misalignment between the α and αs_minand the required number of control pulses to actuate the control drive SAT. Control pulses are transmitted to the UPA. After transformation and amplification of these pulses in the UPA they arrive at the entrance UPSB and lead the actuator is in motion.

Method and system for its implementation, adopted for the prototype, have significant faults is OK - they do not provide complete protection surface SS from the negative influence of streams of high energy particles and does not allow the use of additional opportunities to reduce this negative impact by performing special operations training SES KA to work in terms of negative influence of streams of high energy particles on the SPACECRAFT.

The task of the proposed method and system for its implementation, is to reduce the negative influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface SB. To do this, by performing a special preparatory operations in the SES KA and management of the security Council is expected to reduce the area of SAT, which negatively affects the flow of these particles.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of controlling the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft, including the reversal of the solar panels into position, ensuring the supply of spacecraft electric power corresponding to the combination of the normal to its illuminated work surface with the plane formed by the axis of rotation of the solar panels and the direction to the Sun, the density measurement of the current of the solar electromagnetic radiation, determining the point in time of the beginning of the solar activity, the definition of m is the moment in time achieve high energy particles the spacecraft surface, measurement of the density of streams of high energy particles, comparing the measured density values of streams of high energy particles with the threshold values, the spread of solar panels on the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface and the direction to the Sun, corresponding to the minimum area of influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface of solar panels while maintaining the spacecraft electrical power, time is exceeded, the measured density values of streams of high energy particles thresholds and the return of the solar panels into position in time at which the density of streams of high energy particles becomes lower than the threshold value, further define the time of occurrence of precursors negative influence of streams of high energy particles on spacecraft, in the time of appearance of the forerunners of the negative influence of streams of high energy particles on spacecraft carry out the batteries of the power supply system of the spacecraft to the maximum charge level, in excess of the measured values of density of streams of high energy particles compare them with thresholds perform the reversal of the solar panels on the achievements of the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface and the direction to the Sun α s_min_corresponding to the minimum area of influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface of solar panels while maintaining the spacecraft electricity from solar and battery power supply system defined by the equation:

αs_min_=arccos(max{0,In-IAB}/Im),

where In- load current from consumers spacecraft

Im- maximum current produced when the orientation of the illuminated working surface of the solar panels perpendicular to the sun's rays,

IAB- current valid current battery discharge,

and the resulting shortage of electricity on Board the spacecraft compensate due to battery discharge, thus controlling the level of charge of the batteries and to achieve the minimum value of the level of charge of the batteries reset the current value of the discharge current of the rechargeable batteries and produce off of rechargeable batteries from the external load.

In addition, the problem is solved in that the control system the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft, including the solar battery installed four photovoltaic battery and, device rotation, solar battery, audio-transforming device, the control unit orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun, block the spread of solar panels to a predetermined position, two of the current controller, battery pack, battery charger for rechargeable batteries, the power generation command to the batteries, the sensor load current, the control unit power supply system, the power bus, the power density measurement of the current of the solar electromagnetic radiation, the definition block of solar activity, the block defining moment of impact of the particles on spacecraft, the unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles, the block defining moment of time management solar panels on the load currents, the control unit solar cells for load currents, while the solar battery through its first output, combining the outputs of two photovoltaic cells that are connected to the first input device rotation, solar panels, and through the second output, combining the outputs of the other two photovoltaic cells that are connected to the second input of the rotation of the solar panels and the outputs of the control units of the orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun and spread of solar panels in the set is ulozhenie connected respectively with the first and second amplifier inputs-transforming device, the output of which, in turn, is connected to the third input of the rotation of the solar panels, the first and second outputs of the device rotate solar panels connected respectively to the inputs of the first and second current regulators, and the outputs of the current controllers connected to the power bus of the spacecraft, the battery pack by its entrance, through a charger for rechargeable batteries connected to the power bus, when this charger rechargeable battery connected to its first input to the specified bus and to the second input of the charger for the battery sensor is connected the load current, which is connected, in turn, to the bus power supply, battery pack with its output connected to the first input of the processing unit commands on the batteries, and to the second input of the specified block connected to the first output control unit power supply system, the output processing unit commands the batteries are connected to the third input of the battery charger rechargeable batteries, second and third outputs of the control unit power supply system connected to the first inputs of the control blocks orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun and spread of solar panels at a desired position, Proc. of the enterprises, the output rotation of the solar cells connected with the second input control blocks orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun and reversal of solar panels at a desired position, the output of the measurement unit current density of the solar electromagnetic radiation is connected with the input of block definitions in solar activity, the first output of which, in turn, is connected to the input of the block defining moment of impact of the particles on spacecraft, the outputs of the block defining moment of impact of the particles on spacecraft and unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the definition block of time beginning control solar panels on the load currents and the input unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles is connected with the second output unit definition of solar activity, the output of block defining moment of time management solar panels for load currents is connected to the input of the control unit power supply system, the fourth output of which, in turn, connected to the first input of the control unit solar cells for load currents, the third input and the output of which is respectively connected to the third output of the rotation of the solar panels and the third input amplifier-transforming device further introduced the definition block of the required current from the solar cell, the block defining moments of time forerunners negative who is Astia of high energy particles on spacecraft and unit specify the valid values of the level of charge of the batteries, while the first and second inputs and an output unit determine the required current from the solar panels are connected respectively with the second sensor output of the load current, the second output of the battery charger rechargeable battery and a second input of the control unit solar cells for load currents, outputs unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles and measurement unit current density of the solar electromagnetic radiation is connected with respectively the first and second inputs of the block defining moments of time forerunners of the negative impact of high energy particles on spacecraft, the output of which is connected with the second input control unit power supply system, and first and second outputs of the block specify the valid values the level of charge of the batteries respectively connected to the third input of the block forming teams on the batteries and the fourth input charger rechargeable batteries.

The essence of the proposed method consists in the following.

Directly protective lapel SAT on the direction of the negative impact streams of high energy particles is in excess of the density of streams of high energy particles some threshold. At the same time as the initial steps performed by the x to the immediate implementation of protective measures, continuously checks the current state of near-earth space and the solar activity and examines the performance and failure criteria of dangerous radiation environment, in particular criteria for the control of solar activity developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (see [12]). In this situation, when the criteria of absolute risk is still not finished, but already reached the threshold of the preceding severity, should be considered as a situation-"harbingers" of the negative impact.

If foreshadowing the negative impact streams of high energy particles on SPACECRAFT provide maximum battery charging SES KA. This allows further, in moments of exceeding the measured density values of streams of high energy particles compare them with the threshold values, Unscrew the working surfaces of the panels SAT on the direction of data flow of particles at the maximum possible angle, provided compensation arising shortage of electricity on Board the SPACECRAFT due to the discharge of the battery. This is αs_min_corner protective lapel SB is determined by the ratio:

where Im- maximum current produced when the orientation of the illuminated work surface panels SAT perpendicular to Solnechnaya,

ISAT- the required current from SAT.

Thus the required current from SB ISATis defined as the minimum current that must develop security Council to provide consumers with KA, considering energy use BAB SES SATELLITES (i.e. compensation arising shortage of electricity on Board the SPACECRAFT due to the discharge AB SES), based on the following ratios:

or

where In- load current from consumers KA,

IABthe current maximum discharge current AB SES KA.

To implement the method proposed system, shown in the drawing and containing the following:

1 - SAT, on a rigid substrate body which has four photovoltaic cells;

2, 3, 4, 5 - CF1, CF2, CF3, CF4;

6 - UPSB;

7 - URA;

8 - BOOBS;

9 - BRNBSP;

10, 11 - RT1and RT2;

12 - BAB;

13 - ZRU AB;

14 - BFCS AB;

15 - DTN;

16 - BUSES;

17 - SHENG;

18 BIBEMI;

19 BIOFEEDBACK;

20 - BMWC;

21 IPCVA;

22 - BOMBAST;

23 - BUSTS;

24 is a block defining moments of time forerunners of the negative impact of high energy particles on spacecraft (BMUPNC),

25 is a block for determining the required current from the solar panels (BPDB),

26 - unit assignments PERMIS shall imih values of the level of charge of the batteries (BSJUTS).

While SB (1) through the first output, combining the outputs of CF1(2) and CF4(5), connected to the first input of UPSB (6), and through the second output, combining the outputs of CF2(3) and CF3(5), is connected to the second input UPSB (6). Outputs BOOBS (8) and BRNBSP (9) are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the UPA (7), the output of which, in turn, is connected to the third input UPSB (6). The first and second outputs UPSB (6) are connected respectively to the inputs PT1(10) and RT2(11), and outputs PT1(10) and RT2(11) is connected with SHENG (17). BAB (12) with its entrance through the CDD AB (13) is connected with SHENG (17). While CDD AB (13) is connected to its first input to the specified bus and to the second input ZRU AB (13) connected to the output of an accident (15), the inlet of which is connected, in turn, to SHENG (17). BAB (12) with its output connected to the first input BFCS AB (14)and to the second input of the specified block connected to the first output BUSES (16). Output BFCS AB (14) is connected to the third input ZRU AB (13). The second and third outputs BUSES (16) are connected respectively to the first inputs of BOOBS (8) and BRNBSP (9). The third output UPSB (6) is connected with the second inputs of BOOBS (8) and BRNBSP (9). The output BIBEMI (18) is connected to the input of BIOFEEDBACK (19). The first output BAREFOOT (19) is connected to the input BMWC (20). Outputs BMWC (20), BIPPLE (21) are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the block BOMBAST (22). The input BIPPLE (21) is connected with in which that output BAREFOOT (19). Output BOMBAST (22) connected to the first input BUSES (16). BUSES (16) to its fourth output connected to the first input BUSBARS (23). The third output UPSB (6) is connected with the third input BUSBARS (23). Output BUSBARS (23) is connected to the third input of the UPA (7). The first input BPDB (25) is connected to the second output DTN (15). The second input BPDB (25) is connected to the second output of the LRU AB (13). Output BPDB (25) is connected to a second input BUSBARS (23). The output BIPPLE (21) connected to the first input BMUPNC (24). The output BIBEMI (18) is connected to a second input BMUPNC (24). Output BMUPNC (24) is connected with the second input BUSES (16). The first and second outputs BSJUTS (26) respectively connected to the third input BFCS AB (14) and the fourth input ZRU AB (13).

The drawing also the dashed line shows the mechanical connection UPSB (6) with housing SA (1) via the output shaft of the drive battery.

Mode power supply AC system works as follows. UPSB (6) is used for transit transmission of electricity from SB (1) to PT1(10) and RT2(11). The voltage on the power rail SES is one of the RT. At the same time, another RT is in a state with closed-loop power transistors. Generators SB (1) (BF1-CF4) work in this case, the short circuit mode. When the load power becomes greater than the power connection of generators SB (1), mode Stabi is Itachi voltage goes another RT, and energy nezadejstvovannye generators is supplied to the power bus SES. In certain periods, when the load power may exceed the capacity of SB (1), CS AB (13), due to the discharge unit AB (12), compensates for the shortage of electricity on Board the SPACECRAFT. For these purposes, the LRU AB (13) is the regulator discharge AB, which, in particular, monitors the level of charge of the batteries and to achieve the minimum value of the level of charge of the battery, the value of which enters the LRU AB (13) from BSJUTS (26), disables BAB (12) from the external load. While CDD AB (13)based on the current level of charge of the battery, determines and delivers on its second output current value of the discharge current AB (shutdown mode BAB (12) from the external load, this value is zero).

In addition to the specified controller ZRU AB (13) contains a regulator battery charging. For conducting charge-discharge cycles the LRU AB (13) uses information from DTN (15). Charge BAB (12) carry out CDD AB (13) through BFCS AB (14). For the case metholodology AB it is described in [5]. The bottom line is that the pressure sensors installed inside the battery, and the temperature on the battery cases is the determination of the density of hydrogen in the case of AB. In turn, the density of hydrogen determines the level of charge of the battery. When decreasing the density of hydrogen in the battery below the plant level command on its charge, and when reaching the maximum density level is at charge termination. These battery levels are regulated by teams from BFCS AB (14), with the maximum level of charge of the battery received in BFCS AB (14) with BSJUTS (26). Maintaining AB in the most charged negatively affects their condition, and AB are supported by the current discharge rate, at which the operation of the battery charging is performed only periodically (for example, when the management of the SES satellite "Yamal-100" - every few days, when reducing the charge level BAB 30% of the maximum level).

Simultaneously with the operation of the AC power supply system solves the problem of position control of the planes of the panels SB (1).

On command from BUSES (16) block BOOBS (8) controls the orientation of the SB (1) in the Sun. BOOBS (8) can be implemented on the basis of AIRCRAFT KA (see [6]). The input information to the control algorithm SA are: the position of the unit direction vector of the Sun relative to the associated SPACECRAFT coordinate axes defined by the algorithms kinematic loop AIRCRAFT; status of SB relative to the body of the SPACECRAFT obtained in the form of current measured values of the angle α remote control UPSB (6). Output information of the control algorithm are the team to the SB rotation about the axis of the output shaft UPSB (6)commands on prekrashenie rotation. Do UPSB (6) generate discrete signals about the state of SA (1).

BIBEMI (18) produces a measurement of the current threads solar AMY and forwards them to the BARE (19). In BIOFEEDBACK (19) by comparing the current values with predetermined threshold is determined by the beginning of the Sun's activity. On command, coming from the first output BAREFOOT (19) to the input BMWC (20), in that the last block is the definition of time possible early effects of high energy particles on the SPACECRAFT. From the second output BAREFOOT (19) through the input BIPPLE (21) is given a command to start measurement of the flux of high energy particles.

With BIPPLE (21) the measured value of density of streams of high energy particles is transmitted to the first input BMUPNC (24) and to the second input BOMBAST (22). To the second input BMUPNC (24) with BIPAI (18) are the measured values of the current threads solar EMP.

In BMUPNC (24) evaluation of the dynamics of change in the density of streams of high energy particles and identifies situations which may be considered as the forerunners of the negative impact of the particles on the SPACECRAFT. Such situations are exceeding the measured density of streams of high-energy particles of the specified critical values with a tendency to further increase. When the detection and identification of such situations are also used data flux is s solar EMP received from BIBEMI (18). At check-in BMUPNC (24) such a situation precursors at the output of this block generates a signal that is supplied to the second input BUSES (16).

On the second input BUSES (16) this unit sends the command to BFCS AB (14)on which the block through CDD AB (13) charge BAB (12) to the maximum charge level. Thus, for the case metholodology AB (see [5]), pressure sensors installed inside the battery, and the temperature on the battery cases is the determination of the density of hydrogen in the case of AB, which is determined by the condition of charge of the battery. When reaching the maximum density level command for charge termination.

The inputs BPDB (25) second outputs DT (15) and CDD AB (13) are the current values of the load current from consumers KA Inand the allowable discharge current AB IAB. Using these values BPDB (25), formula (4), (5) determines the value of ISAT- the current minimum value of the required current from the SAT (with the possibility of use by consumers energy from BAB (12)), and outputs it to the second input BUSBARS (23).

Information about the time the possible onset of action of particles on the SPACECRAFT is transmitted from the output BMWC (20) in BOMBAST (22) through his first entrance. In BOMBAST (22) is the actual assessment of the negative the main impact of FVS by comparing the current measured values of the characteristics of the impact of threshold values, since the time specified BMWC (20). A necessary condition for receiving the command output BOMBAST (22) is the presence of two signals with outputs BMWC (20), BIPPLE (21).

When BOMBAST (22) issues a command to the first input BUSES (16), this block generates the command at its fourth output, which connects to the management SAT BUSTS (23).

BUSTS (23) determines the angle αs_min_according to expression (3). To calculate the specified angle is the current value of the required current from SB received from BPDB (25). In addition, do UPSB (6) in the specified unit receives information about the current value of the rotation angle SA α. After determining the value of the angle αs_min_the algorithm incorporated in BUSTS (23), compares it with the current value of angle α and calculates the angle of misalignment between the α and αs_min_and the required number of control pulses to actuate the steering actuator SA (1). Control pulses are transmitted to the UPA (7). After transformation and amplification of these pulses in the UPA (7) they arrive at the entrance UPSB (6) and cause the actuator to move.

When BOMBAST (22) does not issue a command to the first input BUSES (16), this unit, depending on the flight SPACECRAFT passes control to the SB (1) to one of the blocks BOOBS (8) and BRNBSP (9).

The functioning of BOOBS (8) described above.

BRNBSP (9) manages SB (1) software setting. The control algorithm SAT (1) software setting allows you to set the battery in any set position α=αz. Thus to control the angle of spread in BRNBSP (9) uses information from the remote control UPSB (6).

Implementation BOMBAST (22) and BMUPNC (24) is possible on the basis of hardware and software DRM KA, and on Board the SPACECRAFT. Outputs BOMBAST (22) and BMUPNC (24) are formed, respectively, commands, "starting the administration SAT on load currents" and "start control SES in preparation of the negative influence of high-energy particles on SPACECRAFT", which come in BUSES (16), while the last command is functionally perceived BUSES (16) as the command to execute charging up to the maximum charge level.

An example implementation of BUSES (16) can serve as radio equipment service control channel (SKU) SPACECRAFT onboard systems Yamal-100", which consists of earth stations (es) and on-Board equipment (BA) (see description in [10, 11]). In particular, BA SKU conjunction with CS SKU solves the issue in on-Board digital computer system (BCS) KA digital information (QI) and its subsequent handshake. Bcws, in turn, manages the blocks BOOBS (8), BRNBSP (9), BUSTS(23), BFCS AB (14).

In this implementation BUSES (16) the interaction of BA SKU in part exchange QI is on the main Caen is Lou exchange (ice) in accordance with the interface MIL-STD-1553. As a subscriber BCS uses the device - interface unit (BTS) of the BA of the SSI. The processor bcws periodically makes surveys the state of the BS to determine the availability of the data packet. If the package is available, then the processor starts sending data.

The UPA (7) plays the role of interface between BOOBS (8), BRNBSP (9), BUSTS (23) and UPSB (6) and is used to convert digital signals to analog and strengthening the latter.

BUSTS (23) is the onboard unit KA, commands which come from BUSES (16). Implementation BUSTS (23), BPDB (25), BSJUTS (26) may be made on the basis bcws KA (see[6], [8]).

Thus, we consider the example of realization of the fundamental units of the system.

Describe the technical effect of the proposed inventions.

Proposed technical solutions to reduce the negative impacts streams of high energy particles on the working surface SB in moments of execution of operation "defensive" lapel SB from the direction to the Sun. This is achieved by reducing the area of the working surface SB, which negatively affect the data streams of particles, by maximizing the angle of the flap normal to the working surface SS from the direction to the Sun, with a guaranteed performance requirements provide AC electricity. Maximizing the angle of the flap is achieved by the fact that the CA SES in advance p is iodide in the state of maximum battery charging, that provides the opportunity to achieve the highest possible angle "protective" lapel SB from the direction to the Sun. Considering, for example, that the management of the SES satellite "Yamal-100" after the operation, charging up to the maximum level possible increase of the discharge current of the battery is about 30%, the corresponding increase in the angle of the "protective" lapel SB and, consequently, reduce the negative impact streams of high energy particles on the working surface SB is a significant amount.

LITERATURE

1. A.S. Eliseev Technology of space flight. Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye, 1983.

2. Rauschenbach, Guide for the design of solar panels. Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1983.

3. Flight rules when performing joint operations of the space SHUTTLE and ISS. Tom C. Management of flight operations. Space center. Lyndon B. Johnson. Houston, Texas, is the primary option, 8.11.2001.

4. The power supply system of the SPACECRAFT. Technical description. GC. 0000-ATO. RSC "Energia", 1998.

5. Center B. I., Lyzlov POSTGRADUATE, Metallographie electrochemical system. Leningrad. Chemistry, Leningrad branch, 1989.

6. System traffic management and navigation SATELLITES. Technical description. GC. 0000-ATO. RSC "Energia", 1998.

7. Halperin SCI, Dmitriev A.V., Green, L.M., Panasyuk L.M. Influence of space weather on aviation security and space is their flight. "Flight in 2001, p.27-87.

8. Engineering Handbook of space technology. Izd-vo MO SSR, M., 1969.

9. Griliches, VA, Orlov P.P., Popov LB Solar and space flight. Moscow, "Nauka", 1984.

10. Earth station service control channel KA "Yamal". The user guide. TSCPC-DC. RSC "Energia", 2001.

11. Onboard equipment service control channel KA "Yamal". Technical description. GC. A-GR. RSC "Energia", 2002.

12. Kovtun V.S. Solov'ev S.V., Zaikin S.V., A.A. Gorodetsky way to control the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft and system for its implementation. RF patent 2242408 on the application 2003108114/11 from 24.03.2003,

1. The method of controlling the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft, including the reversal of the solar panels into position, ensuring the supply of spacecraft power and corresponding to the combination of the normal to the illuminated work surface with the plane formed by the axis of rotation of the solar panels and the direction to the Sun, the density measurement of the current of the solar electromagnetic radiation, determining the point in time of the beginning of the solar activity, determining the point in time achieve high energy particles the spacecraft surface, the density measurement streams of high energy particles is th, comparing the measured density values of streams of high energy particles with the threshold values, the spread of solar panels on the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface and the direction to the Sun, corresponding to the minimum area of influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface of solar panels while maintaining the spacecraft electrical power, time is exceeded, the measured density values of streams of high energy particles thresholds and the return of the solar panels into position in time at which the density of streams of high energy particles becomes lower than the threshold value, characterized in that it further determine the time of appearance of the forerunners of the negative impact of flows high energy on the spacecraft and in these moments of time, perform the batteries of the power supply system of the spacecraft to the maximum charge level, in excess of the measured values of density of streams of high energy particles compare them with thresholds, perform the reversal of the solar panels to reach the value of the angle between the normal to the illuminated work surface and the direction to the Sun αs_min_with the appropriate minimum area of influence of streams of high energy particles on the surface of solar panels, while ensuring spacecraft electricity from solar and battery power supply system, and defined by a relation

αs_min_=arccos (max{0, In-IAB}/Im),

where In- load current consumers spacecraft;

Im- maximum current produced when the orientation of the illuminated working surface of the solar panels perpendicular to the sun's rays;

IAB- current valid current battery discharge, and the resulting shortage of electricity on Board the spacecraft compensate due to battery discharge, thus controlling the level of charge of the batteries and to achieve the minimum value of the level zero current value of the discharge current of the rechargeable batteries and produce off of rechargeable batteries from the external load.

2. Control system the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft, representing installed on the four panels photovoltaic solar panels, including the device, turning these solar cells, amplification-transforming device, the control unit orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun block reversal Sol is echnik battery to a predetermined position, two of the current controller, battery pack, battery charger for rechargeable batteries, the power generation command to the batteries, the sensor load current, the control unit power supply system, the power bus, the power density measurement of the current of the solar electromagnetic radiation, the definition block of solar activity, the block defining moment of the impact of high energy particles on spacecraft, the unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles, the definition block of time beginning control solar panels on the load currents, the control unit solar cells for load currents, while the solar battery through its first output, combining the outputs of two photovoltaic cells that are connected to the first input device rotation, solar panels, and through the second output, combining the outputs of the other two photovoltaic cells that are connected to the second input of the rotation of the solar panels and the outputs of the control units of the orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun and spread of solar panels at a desired position are connected, respectively, with first and second inputs of the amplifier-transforming device, the output of which, in turn, is connected to the third input of the rotation of the sun is Atara, the first and second outputs of the device rotate solar panels connected respectively to the inputs of the first and second current regulators, and the outputs of the current controllers connected to the power bus of the spacecraft, the battery pack by its entrance, through a charger for rechargeable batteries connected to the power bus, when this charger rechargeable battery connected to its first input to the specified bus and to the second input of the charger for the battery sensor is connected the load current, which is connected, in turn, to the power bus, the battery pack with its output connected to the first input of the processing unit commands on the charge rechargeable battery and to the second input of the specified block connected to the first output control unit power supply system, the output processing unit commands the batteries are connected to the third input of the battery charger rechargeable batteries, second and third outputs of the control unit power supply system connected to the first inputs of the control blocks orientation of the solar panels towards the Sun and spread of solar panels to a predetermined position, the third output of the rotation of the solar cells connected with the second inputs of the control units is Rantala solar panels towards the Sun and spread of solar panels at a desired position, the output of the measurement unit current density of the solar electromagnetic radiation is connected with the input of block definitions in solar activity, the first output of which, in turn, is connected to the input of the block defining moment of impact of the particles on spacecraft, the outputs of the block defining moment of impact of the particles on spacecraft and unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles connected with, respectively, the first and second inputs of the definition block of time beginning control solar panels on the load currents and the input unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles is connected with the second output unit definition of solar activity, the output of block definition time start control solar panels on the load currents is connected to the input of the control unit power supply system, the fourth output of which, in turn, connected to the first input of the control unit solar cells for load currents, the third input and the output of which is connected to, respectively, the third output of the rotation of the solar panels and the third input amplifier-transforming device, characterized in that it additionally introduced the definition block of the required current from the solar cell, the block defining moments we get the forerunners of the negative impact of high energy particles on spacecraft and unit specify the valid values of the level of charge of the batteries, while the first and second inputs and an output unit determine the required current from the solar panels are connected to, respectively, the second sensor output of the load current, the second output of the battery charger rechargeable battery and a second input of the control unit solar cells for load currents, outputs unit of measurement density of streams of high energy particles and measurement unit current density of the solar electromagnetic radiation also connected, respectively, with first and second inputs of the block defining moments of time forerunners of the negative impact of high energy particles on spacecraft, the output of which is connected with the second input control unit power supply system, and first and second outputs of the block specify the valid values of the level of charge of the batteries are connected, respectively, with the third input of the block forming teams on the batteries and the fourth input charger rechargeable batteries.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: spacecraft systems for supply of power with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning the solar battery panels to working position corresponding to matching of normal to illuminated surface of solar batteries with plane formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also determination of moments of the beginning of solar activity and arrival of high-energy particles onto the spacecraft surface. Then, density of fluxes of said particles is measured and the results are compared with threshold magnitudes. When threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned through angle between the said normal and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of particle fluxes on solar battery surfaces at simultaneous supply of spacecraft with electric power. When action of particles is discontinued, solar battery panels are returned to working position. Angle between direction to the Sun and axis of rotation of solar battery panels is measured additionally. In case threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned to magnitude of angle between normal to their illuminated surface and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of said particle fluxes on spacecraft surfaces (provided the spacecraft is supplied with electric power). System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System is additionally provided with unit for measurement of angle between direction to the Sun and direction of axis of rotation of solar battery panels, as well as unit for determination of maximum current.

EFFECT: avoidance of lack of electric power on board the spacecraft at performing the "protective" turn from high-energy particle fluxes; possibility of using these measures for arbitrary orientation.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: centrifugal frameless structures formed in space and used for deployment of solar batteries, reflectors and other large-sized systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing the flexible sectors on carrier, rotating the carrier in plane corresponding to working position of frameless centrifugal structure and deploying the sectors from carrier under action of centrifugal forces. Sectors are interconnected by side edges forming single working surface in the course of their deployment and preliminarily when necessary. Additional deploying force is applied to sectors along joint areas from periphery of centrifugal frameless structure to its center. Device proposed for realization of this method has carrier for placing the sectors, its rotation drive, as well as drive and mechanism for extension of sectors. Articulated on bearing part of extension mechanism are brackets provided with pairs of hold-down and drive rollers. One sector joint area is passed through each pair of roller. Drive roller is provided with drive which is kinematically aligned with sector extension drive, thus forming additional deploying force. Side edges of sectors may be connected at points of application of this force (or near them) with the aid of connecting elements, such as zipper, as well as by welding, bonding, sewing, etc. Carrier may be made in form of common drum or in form of reels separate for each sector. Device forming the centrifugal frameless structure has surface smoothly stretched in two axes.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability; facilitated procedure.

12 cl,, 11 dwg

FIELD: space power engineering; film-type solar batteries on base of amorphous silicon.

SUBSTANCE: proposed solar battery has central power member. Solar battery consists of two sections. Each section is formed from standard film-type trihedral prisms on base of inflatable tubular skeleton. Outer surface of this skeleton is coated with compound which gets hardened under action of ultraviolet and visible solar radiations. Solar battery deployment system includes two electric motors of central power member and additional electric motor. Inputs of these electric motors are connected with outputs of pitch, yaw and roll channels of solar battery control unit. Solar battery is additionally provided with additional position electric motors which are used for discrete turn of each trihedral film-type prism through angle of 0o to 360o at pitch of 120o. Specification gives description of solar battery modification which includes reserve film-type panels increasing active life of solar battery. Total power of proposed solar battery is about 120 kW.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of film-type panel tension.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft onboard power supply systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes determination of charge-discharge characteristics of onboard power supply sources, transformation of energy of external power sources, maintenance of required state of charge of onboard power sources due to energy of external power sources and consumption of energy power requirements exceed transformed energy of external power sources. Intervals of flight time required for maintenance of probable and determined level of state of charge of onboard power sources are also determined. At probable level when power requirements exceed transformed energy of external power sources, amount of energy in onboard power source required for performing the program is determined. Then, intervals of time of charge and self-discharge of onboard power sources are determined; besides that, shift of beginning of charge of onboard power sources ensuring required amount of energy is determined. Required state of charge of onboard power sources is maintained at said intervals of their charge-discharge at control of power consumption in accordance with flight program. When energy transformed from external power sources exceed consumed power, onboard power source is charged and state of charge is maintained at charge-discharge intervals. Time intervals for maintenance of determined state of charge of onboard power sources when consumed power exceeds transformed power of external sources is predicted. Before beginning of these intervals, determined charge of onboard power sources is performed at said charge-discharge intervals. Then, power requirements of onboard power sources are regulated in accordance with flight program ensuring excess of discharge energy of onboard power sources by consumed energy. Upon completion of predicted interval, onboard power source is charged for subsequent maintenance of probable state of charge of onboard power sources. When necessary shift is made for above-indicated determined charge of onboard power sources after which probable and determined charge are alternated.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of method due to enhanced use of onboard and external power sources.

7 dwg

FIELD: satellites of small mass and methods of mounting them on carriers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed mini-satellite has body in form of parallelepiped, solar battery panels secured on its side plates and units for connection with separation system which are located on one of side plates and on end plate. Each panel is made in form of tip and root parts articulated together. Root parts of panel are articulated on side plate of mini-satellite body where connection units are mounted. Mechanical locks mounted on opposite side plate are used for interconnecting the tip parts of panels and for connecting them with body. Articulation units are provided with drives for turning of parts. Articulation units are located above mechanical locks relative to plate on which these locks are mounted. Novelty of invention consists in reduction of area of end part of mini-satellite by 35%, reduction of its height in center of cross section by 23%, reduction of mass by 6-7% and increase of density of arrangement by 17-18%.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; increased number of mini-satellites carried on adapter.

7 dwg

FIELD: power supply for spacecraft onboard supply systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes conversion of light energy into electrical energy on board spacecraft, accumulation of electric energy by conversion into other kinds of energy and check of onboard power requirements. In addition to conversion of light energy, other kinds of energy received from outside sources are transformed into energy consumed on board aircraft. Provision is made for prediction of time intervals when consumption of electric energy exceeds amount of electrical energy converted from light energy. Kinds of consumed energy obtained from conversion of electric energy are also determined. Before beginning of passage of intervals, respective transformable kinds of energy from outside sources are accumulated. Beginning of accumulation of these kinds of energy is determined depending on consumed amount of energy and rate of accumulation of energy with change in spacecraft parameters caused by action of these kinds of energy taken into account. At predicted interval, first of all accumulated transformable kinds of energy are consumed and when necessary, energy accumulated on board spacecraft is consumed after conversion into electrical energy.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of energy supply system due to increased total power.

12 dwg

FIELD: solar-electric power supplies; modular solar-electric generators for space vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed solar generator module has at least one cellular-structure panel 1 incorporating front face sheet, rear face sheet, and cellular lattice in-between. Front sheet mounts alternating rows of solar cells 2 and wedge-shaped reflectors 3. The latter may be of developable type, for instance made of thin film stretched on stiff frame which do not cover solar cells 2 in folded condition. One of generator-module design alternates may have additional cellular-structure lattice attached to rear face sheet. At least one of face sheets is made of polymer incorporating high-heat-conductivity threads positioned in average perpendicular to longitudinal axis of rows of solar cells 2. Module may incorporate at least two hinged cellular panels folded along hinge whose reflectors 3, for instance non-developable ones, are alternating in folded condition without contacting each other. Panel mechanical design affords maintenance of uniform sun radiation distribution among all cells of generator module at small deviations from sun rays. Reflectors may be covered with aluminum layer or better silver one applied by vacuum evaporation and incorporating additional shield.

EFFECT: reduced space requirement, enhanced strength and stiffness of generator panel, reduced mass of passive structure, improved heat transfer from working components of panel.

17 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: control of group of satellites in one and the same orbit or in crossing longitude and latitude ranges of geostationary orbit.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in measurement of parameters of satellite orbits, determination of orbital elements, comparison of them with required ones and performing of correcting maneuvers with the aid of thrusters. Satellite inclination vectors are brought to circular areas of their permissible change which are spaced apart so that angle between line connecting the end of vector with center of its circular area and direction to Sun should exceed right ascension of Sun by 180°. According to first version, vectors of satellite eccentricity are shifted to similar circular areas so that similar line lags behind direction to the Sun by half angular displacement of vector over circumference of its natural drift within circular area. Then, distances between satellites are changed within required limits compensating for quasi-secular increment of inclination vector and correcting eccentricity vector so that at passing the center of interval between point of circumference entry of its natural drift to its circular area and point of exit from this area, line connecting the center of this circumference and center of circular area coincide with direction to the Sun. In case circular area of permissible change of each eccentricity vector is close to circumference of its natural drift (second version), said line for this area is matched with direction to the Sun and no correction is made in this case.

EFFECT: saving of propellant for correction; protracted flight of satellites at safe distance.

3 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft power supply systems on base of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed spacecraft has form of right-angle prism with cross-section in form of equilateral tetragon (rhomb). Mounted on side faces of prism are solar battery panels. Spacecraft is provided with passive or combined system of gravitational stabilization in orbit. Acute angle of tetragon ranges from 50 to 90° to ensure required power supply for spacecraft equipment. Main central axes of symmetry of spacecraft in transversal plane are parallel to tetragon diagonal. Lesser axis is parallel to larger diagonal, thus enhancing stable gravitational orientation of spacecraft by larger diagonal perpendicularly to orbit axis.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

3 dwg

Spacecraft // 2271965

FIELD: spacecraft for interplanetary flights, research and development of celestial bodies.

SUBSTANCE: proposed spacecraft is equipped with solar sail, central fixed module and movable module which is coaxial relative to first module and is provided with bio-energy complex. Laid spirally on surface of movable module are growth tubes with plant conveyers which ensure turn of movable module around central axis. Connected with modules are generator and electric power accumulator. Fixed module is provided with cylindrical separable ice melting modules. Each module is provided with parachute for descent on planet, its own bio-energy complex and ice melting chamber for forming shaft in ice cover of planet. Ring of reactors located around central axis of module are combined with toruses. On side of central axis reactors are coated with warmth-keeping jacket and are provided with heaters and units for filling the reactors with water in lower part and with oil in upper part. These units ensure operation of hydraulic generator generating vapor for melting ice and supplying distilled water to bio-energy complex. Modules are provided with envelope pressurizing units, deploying their parachutes and supplying sea water from shafts to envelope surfaces for forming ice domes. When domes are combined, stations may be formed for research of planet followed by its populating. Modules are equipped with descent bathyspheres for research of under-ice ocean and robots for performing jobs on planet surface. Spacecraft may include manned separable raiders and bathyscaphs for research of ocean depth. Both of them may be provided with their own bio-energy complexes.

EFFECT: extended boundaries of research and development of far celestial bodies, mainly planets and satellites with thick ice cover.

3 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft systems for supply of power with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning the solar battery panels to working position corresponding to matching of normal to illuminated surface of solar batteries with plane formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also determination of moments of the beginning of solar activity and arrival of high-energy particles onto the spacecraft surface. Then, density of fluxes of said particles is measured and the results are compared with threshold magnitudes. When threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned through angle between the said normal and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of particle fluxes on solar battery surfaces at simultaneous supply of spacecraft with electric power. When action of particles is discontinued, solar battery panels are returned to working position. Angle between direction to the Sun and axis of rotation of solar battery panels is measured additionally. In case threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned to magnitude of angle between normal to their illuminated surface and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of said particle fluxes on spacecraft surfaces (provided the spacecraft is supplied with electric power). System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System is additionally provided with unit for measurement of angle between direction to the Sun and direction of axis of rotation of solar battery panels, as well as unit for determination of maximum current.

EFFECT: avoidance of lack of electric power on board the spacecraft at performing the "protective" turn from high-energy particle fluxes; possibility of using these measures for arbitrary orientation.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: astro-navigation, control of attitude and orbital position of spacecraft.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes control computer, star sensor, Earth sensor, storage and timing device, processors for control of attitude, processing angular and orbital data, inertial flywheels and spacecraft orbit correction engine plant. Used as astro-orienters are reference and navigational stars from celestial pole zone. Direction of spacecraft to reference star and direction of central axis of Earth sensor to Earth center are matched with plane formed by central axes of sensors with the aid of onboard units. Shift of direction to reference star relative to central axis of Earth sensor is considered to be latitude change in orbital position of spacecraft. Turn of navigational star around reference star read off sensor base is considered to be inertial longitude change. Point of reading of longitude is point of spring equinox point whose hour angle is synchronized with the board time. This time is zeroed upon completion of Earth revolution. Stochastic measurements by means of static processing are smoothed-out and are converted into geographic latitude and longitude parameters. Smoothed inertial parameters are compared with parameters of preset turn of spacecraft orbit found in storage. Revealed deviations of orbit are eliminated by means of correction engine plant.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determination of spacecraft attitude and orbital position; automatic elimination of deviation from orbit.

44 dwg

FIELD: rocketry, applicable at an air start, mainly of ballistic missiles with liquid-propellant rocket engines.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in separation of the missile with a payload from the carrier aeroplane and its transition to the state with initial angular parameters of motion in the vertical plane. After separation the missile is turned with the aid of its cruise engine, preliminarily using the parachute system for missile stabilization. The parachute system makes it possible to reduce the duration of the launching leg and the losses in the motion parameters (and the energy) in this leg. To reduce the missile angular bank declination, the strand of the parachute system fastened in the area of the missile nose cone is rehooked. To reduce the time of missile turning towards the vertical before the launcher, the cruise engine controls are preliminarily deflected to the preset angles and rigidly fixed. By the beginning of missile control in the trajectory of injection this fixation is removed. In the other modification the missile turning is accomplished by an additional jet engine installation. It is started depending on the current angular parameters of missile motion so that by the beginning of controlled motion in the trajectory of injection the missile would have the preset initial angular parameters of motion.

EFFECT: enhanced mass of payload injected to the orbit.

4 cl

FIELD: control of group of satellites in one and the same orbit or in crossing longitude and latitude ranges of geostationary orbit.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in measurement of parameters of satellite orbits, determination of orbital elements, comparison of them with required ones and performing of correcting maneuvers with the aid of thrusters. Satellite inclination vectors are brought to circular areas of their permissible change which are spaced apart so that angle between line connecting the end of vector with center of its circular area and direction to Sun should exceed right ascension of Sun by 180°. According to first version, vectors of satellite eccentricity are shifted to similar circular areas so that similar line lags behind direction to the Sun by half angular displacement of vector over circumference of its natural drift within circular area. Then, distances between satellites are changed within required limits compensating for quasi-secular increment of inclination vector and correcting eccentricity vector so that at passing the center of interval between point of circumference entry of its natural drift to its circular area and point of exit from this area, line connecting the center of this circumference and center of circular area coincide with direction to the Sun. In case circular area of permissible change of each eccentricity vector is close to circumference of its natural drift (second version), said line for this area is matched with direction to the Sun and no correction is made in this case.

EFFECT: saving of propellant for correction; protracted flight of satellites at safe distance.

3 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: terminal control of motion trajectory of cryogenic stages injecting spacecraft into preset orbits by means of cruise engines.

SUBSTANCE: swivel combustion chamber of cruise engine is used for angular orientation and stabilization of cryogenic stage of spacecraft. Proposed method includes predicting parameters of motion of cryogenic stage at moment of cut-off of cruise engine; deviation of radius and radial velocity from preset magnitudes are determined; angle of pitch and rate of pitch are corrected and program of orientation of thrust vector for subsequent interval of terminal control is determined. By projections of measured phantom accelerations, angle of actual orientation of cruise engine thrust vector and misalignment between actual and programmed thrust orientation angles are determined. This misalignment is subjected to non-linear filtration, non-linear conversion and integration. Program of orientation of cryogenic stage is determined as difference between programmed thrust orientation angle and signal received after integration. Proposed method provides for compensation for action of deviation of cruise engine thrust vector relative to longitudinal axis of cryogenic stage on motion trajectory.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of forming preset orbit.

5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: cosmonautics, applicable in space activity - space exploration, exploration of the solar system, observation of the Earth from the space, at which it is necessary to determine the space co-ordinates of the space vehicles and the components of their flight velocity vectors.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that in the intermediate orbit simultaneously with determination of the co-ordinates of the space vehicle (SV) at initial time moment t0 by signals of the Global Satellite Navigation Systems the determination and detection of radiations at least of three pulsars is carried out, and then in the process of further motion of the space vehicle determination of the increment of full phase Δะคp=Δϕp+2·π·Np of periodic radiation of each pulsar is effected, the measurement of the signal phase of pulsar Δϕp is determined relative to the phase of the high-stability frequency standard of the space vehicle, and the resolution of phase ambiguity Np is effected by count of sudden changes by 2·π of the measured phase during flight of the space vehicle - Δt=t-t0; according to the performed measurements determined are the distances covered by the space vehicle during time Δt in the direction to each pulsar and the position of the space vehicle in the Cartesian coordinate system for the case when the number of pulsars equals three is determined from expression where Dp - the distance that is covered by the space vehicle in the direction to the p-th pulsar; Δt - the value of the difference of the phases between the signal of the p-th pulsar and the frequency standard of the space vehicle, measured at moment Tp - quantity of full periods of variation of the signal phase of the p-th pulsar during time Δϕp; Np - column vector of the position of the space vehicle at moment Δt; - column vector of the space vehicle position at initial moment t0; -column vector of estimates of space vehicle motions in the direction cosines determining the angular position of three pulsars.

EFFECT: provided high-accuracy determination of the space vehicle position practically at any distance from the Earth.

2 dwg

FIELD: space engineering; on-board terminal control facilities of cryogenic stages with non-controllable cruise engines.

SUBSTANCE: parameters of motion of cryogenic stage at moment of cruise engine cutoff are predicted and radius of deviation of radius and radial velocity of cryogenic stage from their preset magnitudes are determined. Signals for correction of pitch angle and rate of pitch are shaped for compensation of said deviation. Pitch angle correction signal is limited at preset level and its excess above this level is determined. When signal is shaped for limitation, addition to correction pitch rate signal is formed. This correction is equal to product of said excess by ratio of functions of sensitivity of radial velocity of cryogenic stage to pitch angle and rate of pitch. Resultant pitch rate correction signal is formed as sum of this signal determined without taking into account pitch angle correction signal limitation and addition. Thus, priority follow-up of velocity error is ensured at limited pitch angle correction.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of forming preset orbit due to reduction of disturbance level on angular stabilization loop.

9 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: space engineering; designing spacecraft motion control systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is performed by information of orientation unit to Sun by introducing the orbit parameters into on-board computer followed by calculating the Sun position in observation field of orientation unit for each point of orbit for orientation of axes in orbital coordinate system; search angular velocity is set for spacecraft to ensure capture of Sun by observation field of orientation unit, after which angular velocity is decreased to zero ensuring position of Sun in observation field of orientation unit. Then spacecraft is turned in such way that Sun should move to required initial point; turning the spacecraft to preset points is continued for each orbital point.

EFFECT: reduced mass; simplified construction of spacecraft due to reduced number of instruments and units; extended field of application.

3 dwg

The invention relates to rocket and space technology and can be used to create launch vehicles (LV), including conversion, for a spacecraft in low earth orbit

The invention relates to space technology, and more particularly to management of orbital maneuvers boosters with lively marching rocket engines

FIELD: space engineering; designing spacecraft motion control systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is performed by information of orientation unit to Sun by introducing the orbit parameters into on-board computer followed by calculating the Sun position in observation field of orientation unit for each point of orbit for orientation of axes in orbital coordinate system; search angular velocity is set for spacecraft to ensure capture of Sun by observation field of orientation unit, after which angular velocity is decreased to zero ensuring position of Sun in observation field of orientation unit. Then spacecraft is turned in such way that Sun should move to required initial point; turning the spacecraft to preset points is continued for each orbital point.

EFFECT: reduced mass; simplified construction of spacecraft due to reduced number of instruments and units; extended field of application.

3 dwg

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