Tire for vehicles

FIELD: tire industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed tire has tread band arranged along radius outside relative to breaker structure and consisting mainly of first elastomer material enclosing at least one part consisting mainly of second elastomer material. Tread band has at least one groove forced in at least one part consisting mainly of second elastomer material. Ratio between modulus of elasticity E' at compression at 100°C of second elastomer material and modulus of elasticity E' at compression at 100°C of first elastomer material is equal to at least approximately 1.3-, and ratio of rubber hardness degree according to international scale at 100°C of second elastomer material measured according to Standard ISO 48 and rubber hardness degree according to international scale at 100°C of first elastomer material measured according ISO 48 is equal to not less than approximately 1.10.

EFFECT: improved tire-to-road adhesion and steerability of tire.

36 cl, 2 ex, 3 tbl, 7 dwg

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to a pneumatic tire for two-wheeled or four-wheeled vehicles and, in particular, but not exclusively, to a pneumatic tire for vehicles with a motor of the so-called UHP type (ultra high performance).

In particular, the present invention relates to a pneumatic tire containing a frame structure having at least one carcass layer and at least one annular reinforcing structure connected to the layer of the carcass, the tread bracelet, made of elastomeric material, in a radially external position relative to the frame structure, Bracero design, placed between the frame structure and tread bracelet, and a pair of opposite-axis side on the frame structure, while the tread bracelet has a pattern that includes one or more longitudinal and/or transverse grooves.

In the framework of the present description of this type of pneumatic tyre will be referred to as a tire with grooves.

The level of technology

In the area of the tire with grooves for vehicles and, in particular, in the field tire with grooves for the so-called UHP vehicles one of the requirements that are most difficult to meet, is to limit the deterioration of the characteristic is cteristic grip and handling characteristics of the pneumatic tire, especially those that relate to the behavior of the bias that inevitably occurs when you use the bus.

In the case of tires with grooves this problem essentially is triggered by the fact that the tread with grooves makes the pneumatic tire is more pliable beneath the surface in contact with the ground, if the tire is subjected to shear stresses, such as, for example, the transverse shear stresses that are generated in the pneumatic tire when shifting, braking or acceleration.

Get local deformation actually created due to the hysteresis of an elastomeric material that constitutes the tread bracelet, a local temperature rise of the material, which changes its chemical and physical properties with irreversible deterioration of its mechanical properties. This deterioration, in turn, puts at a disadvantage even more performance characteristics of pneumatic tires, especially its behavior when shifting, in particular when it is exposed to high thermal and mechanical stresses, such as, for example, in cases of so-called "marginal" driving, which is frequent in the case of UHP pneumatic tyres.

In the technique, attempts were made to satisfy the above requirement by strengthening part protectore what about the bracelet, formed between the grooves (ribs or blocks), impacts on the geometry of the grooves, for example, when the tilt of their walls (operation known as "braces") or sacrificial bracelets comprising superimposed layers, known as "the treadmill and the substrate, in which the radial inner layer consists of a harder elastomeric material (see, for example, the publication WO 01/03954).

Alternatively, as proposed in the field of pneumatic tyres for motorcycles to improve performance in the rotation, and thus the characteristics of the displacement of the pneumatic tire through the creation of a sacrificial bracelet, consisting essentially of the many adjacent along the axis of sectors and having an Equatorial portion with a lower hardness and higher tan Delta with respect to the characteristics of the opposite parts of the shoulder zones of the tread bracelet. A decision of this kind is described, for example, in Japanese patent application JP 07-108805.

However, this known construction of pneumatic tires did not fully solve the problem of degradation of the tire with grooves in relation to mobility sacrificial pattern in contact with the ground surface, in particular tyres so-called UHP type.

The purpose of the invention

The aim of the present invention is to provide a W is t with grooves for two-wheeled or four-wheeled vehicles, which can achieve improved performance, such as traction and handling, in particular performance-related behavior of the tires when shifting, braking or acceleration.

The invention

In accordance with the first object of the present invention this goal is achieved through the creation of a pneumatic tire disclosed in claim 1 of the attached claims.

In order to achieve the desired improved performance grip and handling and, in particular, the behavior of the displacement of the pneumatic tire, it is necessary to impart stiffness of elastomeric material which surrounds the side walls of the grooves so as to change the state of the parts of the sacrificial bracelet, limited corresponding grooves, less prone to deformation resulting from stresses that a pneumatic tyre is subjected during movement, such as lateral stresses during rotation or longitudinal stress while accelerating or braking.

More specifically, the above task can be achieved through the creation of a pneumatic tire with tread bracelet, usually consisting of a first elastomeric material comprising at least one part essentially consists of the second elastomer the first material, when you do this:

i) a tread bracelet contains at least one groove formed in at least one part essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material,

ii) the ratio between the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°With the second elastomeric material and the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°From the first elastomeric material is not less than approximately 1,30, and

iii) the ratio between the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°With the second elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, and the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°From the first elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is less than approximately 1,10.

It should be noted that in the present description and in the subsequent claims, the term "elastomeric material" is used to denote a composition comprising at least one diene elastomeric polymer and at least one reinforcing filler, such as diesel particulate filler and/or silica filler. Preferably such a composition also includes additives such as, for example, a crosslinking agent and/or plasticizer. Due to the presence of a crosslinking agent such material may be crosslinked is ri heated so to form the final product.

In addition, in the present description and in the subsequent claims, the values of modulus of elasticity E' under compression, as well as the values of the loss modulus E" are designed to measure through the conventional devices, in themselves known, by provision of the cylindrical sample for testing of vulcanized elastomeric material having a length of 25 mm and a diameter of 14 mm, subjected to compression when the pre-load up to a longitudinal deformation of 25% of its original height and aged at a temperature of 100°With, to a dynamic sinusoidal deformation maximum width ±3,50% of the height at pre-load with a frequency of 100 cycles per second (100 Hz).

However, in order not to be attached to the General theory, it should be noted that during the formation of the groove or grooves of the tread pattern on the tread part of the bracelet, essentially consisting of elastomeric material having a hardness when heated (with respect to the values of the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100° (C)that, at least, is larger by 30%than the stiffness when heated elastomeric material that constitutes the rest of the tread bracelet and possessing at the same time, the hardness when heated (with respect to the values of staintondale rubber international the scale at 100° (C)that does not exceed by more than 10% hardness when heated elastomeric material that constitutes the rest of the tread bracelet, you can get the design of the pneumatic tire, having a suitable degree of resistance to shear deformation on the tracks, and relevant characteristics of wear resistance.

Part (s) of the second elastomeric material which surrounds the side walls of the grooves are mechanically more rigid and actually can effectively prevent deforming the effects of stress, which is part of elastomeric material, delimited between successive grooves (as axis and along a circular direction)are turning, accelerating or braking.

Thus, it is predominantly possible to significantly reduce the essence of the deformation to which the side walls of the grooves formed on a tread bracelet, and part of elastomeric material, delimited between successive grooves along the axial and/or peripheral areas), are subjected when the vehicle follows a curved trajectory, when braking or acceleration.

This preferential effect is also achieved without significant impact on the characteristics of pneumatic tires when the wear and tear that is Vlada fully comparable with characteristics of known pneumatic tires with the same tread pattern, due to the reduced difference between the hardness when heated mentioned first and second elastomeric materials.

Preferably the ratio between the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°With the second elastomeric material and the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°From the first elastomeric material is from about of 1.30 to about 1.50 in.

Thus, it is possible to achieve optimum mechanical reinforcing effect of lateral sides of the grooves together with a further improvement in resistance to shear stresses, which are part of the elastomeric material of the tread bracelet are exposed to when driving a pneumatic tire along the bend of the road, combined trajectories or even during acceleration and braking.

Preferably and to achieve the above-mentioned ratio of the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°From the first elastomeric material is from about 4 to about 8 MPa, while the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°With the second elastomeric material is from about 6 to about 12 MPa.

Noting the above values of modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°With the second elastomeric material, it was found that, primarily to achieve optimal stiffness of the side walls of the grooves (grooves), obrazovannoi tread on the bracelet so, to essentially reduce deformation of the elastomeric material during turning, braking or accelerating.

In the preferred embodiment of the invention the ratio between the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°With the second elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, and the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°From the first elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is from approximately 1 to approximately 1,05.

Thus, it is possible to achieve an optimal compromise between performance grip and handling pneumatic tyres with respect to a suitable rigidity of the side walls of the grooves (grooves)formed on the tread bracelet, and characteristic deterioration pneumatic tyres.

Keeping the difference between the hardness when heated two elastomeric materials inside suitable narrow tolerances, it is possible to minimize the emergence of the phenomenon of uneven wear of the tread of the bracelet, in particular, at the interface between the second elastomeric material, on which grooves are formed, and the first elastomeric material, which on the other hand is the remaining part of the sacrificial bracelet.

Preferably and to achieve the above-mentioned ratios, the degree of solid the spine of rubber on the international scale at 100° With the first and the second elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is from about 50 to about 70.

Mostly this preferred feature allows you to achieve optimal characteristics of resistance to wear of the tread bracelet, eliminating the phenomenon of uneven wear.

In a preferred variant embodiment of the invention the ratio between the Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°With the second unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, and a Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°From the first unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, ranges from approximately 1 to approximately 1,10.

Thus, the unvulcanized elastomeric materials are reologicheskie comparable with each other, it is therefore a primary way to obtain sacrificial bracelet by extrusion with a substantial absence of undesirable phenomena of delamination between the parts of the sacrificial bracelet, made of first and second elastomeric materials.

Even more preferably the ratio between the Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°With the second unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, and vascotto Mooney ML (1+4) at 100° From the first unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, ranges from approximately 1 to approximately 1,02.

Preferably and to achieve the above-mentioned ratios, the Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°With the first and second unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, is from about 50 to about 60.

In the framework of the invention desirable mechanical properties and hardness when heated, the first and especially the second elastomeric materials can be achieved with the right composition of ingredients of these materials by methods known to experts in this field of technology.

In a preferred variant embodiment of the invention the desired mechanical characteristics and characteristics of hardness when heated second elastomeric material can be achieved by strengthening of such material specified reinforcing material, with characteristics that can increase the modulus of elasticity E' under compression without a significant increase in hardness.

Thus, in this preferred variant embodiment of the second elastomeric material comprises at least one diene elastomeric polymer, reinforced, at least one usilivaya the material, dispersed therein and selected from the layered inorganic materials, short fibrillated fibers of polyamide materials and mixtures thereof.

It should be noted that the use of such reinforcing materials can preferably increase the stiffness characteristics of the second elastomeric material which surrounds the grooves formed on the sacrificial bracelet, without significant changes other mechanical characteristics of the elastomer material, in particular hardness.

In a particularly preferred variant embodiment of the first and second elastomeric materials include appropriate diene elastomeric polymers having essentially the same mechanical characteristics, and more preferably essentially the same composition, and still be mentioned various characteristics of rigidity and hardness when heated due to the strengthening of the second elastomeric material, achieved above-mentioned reinforcing materials.

In accordance with the first preferred embodiment mentioned layered inorganic materials consist of layered inorganic materials capable of forming the reinforcing nanoparticles in an elastomeric material, known as nanocomposites. More information about morphology and features the Kah data of inorganic materials can be found, for example, in "Polymer-Silicate Nanocomposites: Model Systems for Confined Polymers and Polymer Brushes", E.P.Giannelis, R.Krishnamoorti, E.Manias, Advances in Polymer Science (1999), Vol.138, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pg.107-147.

Preferably specified at least one layered inorganic material has a thickness of individual layers constituting from 0.01 nm to 30 nm.

The design of the layered inorganic material can be determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD) or transmission electron microscopy (THEMES).

In a preferred variant embodiment of the specified layered inorganic material has a second elastomeric material is d-location in the analysis of x-ray diffraction, of at least 10% higher, preferably at least 20% higher compared to the value d is the location of the layered inorganic material prior to dispersing it in the diene elastomeric polymer.

For the purposes of the invention variance (%) values for d-location in the analysis of x-ray diffraction was calculated as follows. The analysis was carried out by placing the sample for testing in a diffractometer Philips Xpert using analysisfor radiation type CuKα. Received data with an interval of 0.04°2θ and pulse in 6 seconds interval within 1.4°2θ-32,0°2θ. The value of d-location was calculated using the following formula:

d-RA is the position=λ /2senθ,

where λ is the wavelength kα Cu radiation (average between kα1 and kα2)equal 1,54178 Å.

The value d is the location corresponds to the value of the distance between the crystal planes of the layered inorganic material in the second elastomeric material; in particular, the specified value is an average distance between the corresponding surfaces of adjacent layers of the layered inorganic material. Effective distance between the solid layers is obtained by subtracting the thickness of the individual layers of the values of the d-position.

In a preferred variant embodiment of the second elastomeric material comprises from 1 to 80 weight parts, even more preferably from 5 to 40 parts by weight of the specified at least one layered inorganic material per 100 parts by weight of diene elastomeric polymer.

In the framework of the present description and the subsequent claims the weight of this component of a particular elastomeric material per 100 parts by weight of diene elastomeric polymer such material will also be indicated by the term: parts

In the framework of this preferred embodiment of the layered inorganic material can be, for example, from phyllosilicates such as smectites, such as montmorillonite, nontronite, Baldelli is, volkonskoit, hectorite, saponite, suconet; vermiculite; halloysite; sericite or mixtures thereof. Especially preferred is montmorillonite.

To obtain the layered inorganic material more compatible with the diene elastomeric polymer that is similar to the layered inorganic material surface can be processed by combining agent.

Preferably combining this agent can be, for example, Quaternary ammonium salts or phosphonium having the General formula (I):

where:

Y represents N or P;

R1, R2, R3and R4that may be the same or different, represent a linear or branched alkyl or hydroxyalkyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms; linear or branched alkenylphenol or hydroxyalkyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms; a group R5-SH or R5-NH in which R5 represents a linear or branched alkylenes group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms; aryl group having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms; arylalkyl or alcylaryl group having from 7 to 20 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl group having from 5 to 18 carbon atoms; and specified cycloalkyl group may contain heteroatoms, such as keys, the location, the nitrogen or sulphur;

Xnis an anion such as chlorine ion, sulfate ion or ion phosphate; and

n is 1, 2 or 3.

An example of a layered inorganic material that can be used in accordance with the present invention, is the product available on the market under the name of Dellite®67G from Laviosa Chimica Mineraria S.p.A.

In accordance with a second preferred embodiment of the above-mentioned reinforcing material consisting of short fibrillated fibers of polyamide materials are represented, for example, so-called aramid pasta (short fibrillated fibers polyparaphenyleneterephtalamide), such as "Kevlar®-pulp" or "Twaron®-pulp" (Kevlar and Twaron are registered trademarks of the companies DuPont and Akzo respectively).

Preferably such a short fibrillated fibers are mixed with the diene elastomeric material in a quantity of about 1 to about 80 parts, and even more preferably from about 5 to about 40 parts, preferably having a length comprising from 0.1 mm to 2.5 mm

The second elastomeric material may also contain at least one additional reinforcing filler commonly used in rubber mixtures for pneumatic tires, such as soot is first filler and/or silica filler, in amounts generally from 5 to 80 parts, preferably from 10 to 50 parts

In a preferred variant embodiment of the invention the tread bracelet has many transverse and/or longitudinal grooves defined in the relevant parts of the sacrificial bracelet, essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material.

The location and number of transverse and/or longitudinal grooves and parts, essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material from which they are formed, can be easily determined by the expert in accordance with the specific requirements of the application. Thus, for example, transverse and/or longitudinal grooves may or may not be apart from each other around the circumference or along the axis with a constant pitch between them in accordance with characteristics that are desirable to give the tread pattern.

In a preferred variant embodiment of the invention, the aforementioned at least one portion of the sacrificial bracelet, essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material, is formed in such a way as to form a coating surrounding the specified at least one groove.

Thus, it is possible to obtain the desired technical effect of increasing the rigidity characteristics of the side walls of the grooves, using a reduced number of Deuteronomy is the second elastomeric material, you can ekstradiroval in the form of a relatively thin layer simultaneously with the first elastomeric material constituting the rest of the tread bracelet, upon receipt sacrificial bracelet to the formation of the grooves at the stage of molding and vulcanization of pneumatic tires.

Preferably, such a coating has a thickness, comprising from 1 to 10 mm

In a preferred variant embodiment of the invention the tread bracelet is adjacent along the axis of the sector and contains:

i) at least one first sector, through radius and essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material;

ii) a set of second sectors, through radius and placed on the opposite axis, at least one first sector and the second sector is essentially made of a first elastomeric material;

in this case, at least one groove formed on at least one first sector.

Thus, it is possible to obtain the desired technical effect of increasing the rigidity characteristics of the side walls of the grooves, using adjacent along the axis of the sector that receive simultaneous extrusion of the first and second elastomeric materials having different stiffness characteristics and hardness when heated.

In this variant embodiment, at measures which, one groove is preferably longitudinal groove, passing essentially over the entire peripheral length of the tread bracelet.

Therefore, in a variant embodiment of the tread bracelet with a connecting axis sectors, at least one longitudinal groove is formed on said at least one first sector consists of the second elastomeric material.

Even more preferably, the tread bracelet had a plurality of longitudinal grooves formed on the respective first sectors sacrificial bracelet, consisting of a second elastomeric material passing through the radius and spaced from each other along the axis.

Thus, it is possible to get the tread bracelet with defined drainage features from contact with the ground surface of the pneumatic tire at the location of a suitable number of longitudinal grooves spaced from each other along the axis.

In a preferred variant embodiment of the invention mentioned above, at least one first sector passes through the radius essentially through the entire thickness of the tread bracelet to achieve the desired technical effect of preserving the characteristics of the transverse rigidity of the grooves essentially over the entire useful life of pneumatic tires.

In a preferred alternative is a variant embodiment of the invention a pneumatic tire may optionally have a layer of a suitable elastomeric material, located between the tread bracelet and braceros design.

Thus, it is possible, if desired, to optimize specific characteristics of pneumatic tires, such as the transverse stiffness or resistance to rolling.

In this variant embodiment of the invention, this layer preferably is essentially composed of a second elastomer material.

Thus, it is possible to additionally increase the characteristics of rigidity and resistance to deformation of the parts of the sacrificial bracelet, delimited between successive grooves, thanks to the support effect promoted by this additional layer.

Preferably the layer placed between the tread bracelet and braceros design, has a thickness, comprising from 1 to 5 mm, to better achieve the above technical effects.

In a preferred variant embodiment, the width of at least one of the first passing through the radius of the sector is at least equal to the width of longitudinal grooves formed therein. Thus, it is possible to achieve the desired technical effect of limiting, to the extent possible, the deformation of the parts of the sacrificial bracelet (ribs or blocks), differentiated between successive along the axis of the grooves.

Preferably the difference medusirena, at least one first radial sector and a width of at least one longitudinal groove is from 4 to 10 mm, Thus, on both sides of the groove can provide a greater amount of the second elastomeric material than sufficient to avoid undesirable deformation of the side walls of the grooves, when the pneumatic tire is subjected to a voltage offset.

In a preferred variant embodiment of the opposite axis side walls of the longitudinal grooves (grooves)formed on the first sectors of the sacrificial bracelet, narrowing along the inner radius direction and are essentially straight.

Furthermore, the said at least one longitudinal groove is preferably located on both sides of the median plane passing through the corresponding radius of the first sector due to the symmetry in order to achieve essentially the same stiffness characteristics of the opposite axis side walls of the groove.

Brief description of drawings

Additional features and advantages of the invention will be more apparent from the following description of some preferred variants of the embodiment of the pneumatic tire in accordance with the invention, which is not limiting and is made with reference to the accompanying the drawings, on which:

Figure 1 is a view in cross section of the first variant embodiment of the pneumatic tire according to the present invention;

Figure 2 is a view in cross section on an enlarged scale of some details of the pneumatic tire 1;

Figure 3 is a view in cross section of a second variant embodiment of the pneumatic tire according to the present invention, with many interconnecting axis sectors;

4 is a view in cross section on an enlarged scale of some details of the pneumatic tire 3;

5 is a view in cross section of a third variant embodiment of the pneumatic tire according to the present invention having multiple adjacent axis sectors;

6 is a view in cross section on an enlarged scale of some details of the pneumatic tire 5;

Figa - additional view in cross section on an enlarged scale passing along the radius of the sector and formed therein longitudinal grooves of the tread bracelet pneumatic tires with 5.

A detailed description of the preferred options of the incarnation

Figure 1-2 pneumatic tire made in accordance with the first preferred embodiment of the invention, this example being the so-called bus UHP type and designed for installation on a vehicle with a motor, generally denoted by salacinol position 1.

Pneumatic tire 1 includes a frame structure 2 having at least one layer 2A of the frame, the opposite side edges of which are rolled out around the respective annular reinforcing structures 3, usually known as "side cores", each of which is enclosed in the Board 4 is formed along the inner peripheral edge of the pneumatic tire 1, and which is itself a pneumatic tyre comes into contact part, forming a rim (not shown) of the vehicle wheels.

Pneumatic tire 1 includes a tread bracelet 6 made of an elastomeric material in the external radius of the position relative to the frame structure 2, Bracero design 5, placed between the frame structure 2 and the tread bracelet 6 and a pair of sidewalls 7, 8 in the opposite axis positions on the frame structure 2.

Preferably brekina design 5 includes one or more bragarnyk layers made, for example, with the material of the metal cords or wires located in the rubber layer, parallel to each other in each layer and crossed relative to the cords of adjacent layers and one or more so-called 0° cords, spirally and coaxially wound on the pneumatic tire 1 in the external radius of the position of the relatively intersecting cord materials.

Tread bracelet 6 imposed on the periphery around braceros structure 5, as a rule, consists of a first elastomeric material, comprising at least one portion 9, preferably many parts 9 is essentially made of a second elastomeric material.

In accordance with a variant of the embodiment shown in figure 1, the tread bracelet 6 made thus has an outer radius surface 6A, designed for rolling contact with the ground, and also has a tread pattern comprising a plurality of longitudinal grooves 11 for removal of dirt or water from contacting with the ground surface of the pneumatic tire 1.

Longitudinal grooves 11 formed many parts of the sacrificial bracelet 6 in the form of ribs and/or blocks, schematically indicated by the reference position 15 in figure 1.

Each longitudinal groove 11 in turn has a pair of opposite axis side walls 11a, 11b, preferably tapering along the inner radius direction.

Preferably the side walls 11a, 11b of the longitudinal grooves 11 are essentially straight.

In accordance with a variant of the embodiment shown in figure 1, the longitudinal grooves 11 formed on part 9 of the tread bracelet 6 is essentially composed of a second elastomer material.

In choosing the accordance with many distinctive features of the invention the ratio between the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100° With the second elastomeric material and the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°From the first elastomeric material is not less than approximately 1,30; whereas a relationship between the degree of rubber hardness on the international scale at 100°With the second elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, and the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°From the first elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is less than approximately 1,10.

Thus, it is possible to give rigidity to the side walls 11a, 11b of the grooves 11 specific and localized manner, allowing them and the parts 15 sacrificial bracelet 6 formed between successive grooves to deform essentially smaller due to transverse stresses, which parts 15 are exposed, when the pneumatic tire 1 is shifted, however, such voltage is shown schematically by the arrow f in figure 1 and 2.

Part 9 comprising a second elastomeric material and surrounding the side walls 11a, 11b of the grooves 11, which are mechanically more solid, you can actually effectively prevent deforming influence of the shear stresses, which part 15 of elastomeric material formed between successive grooves (in the form of ribs and/or blocks) along the axis of the first direction, are turning. This leads to a preferential increase traction and improve handling characteristics of the pneumatic tire 1.

In accordance with a variant of the embodiment shown in figure 1, referred to part 9, essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material, carry out thus to form a coating 13, surrounding the longitudinal grooves 11.

Preferably the coating 13 has a thickness, comprising from 1 to 10 mm

It should be noted that in this preferred variant embodiment of the pneumatic tire 1 to part 15 of the tread bracelet 6 formed between the longitudinal grooves 11 are parts of the composite type, i.e. they include two different elastomeric material, which together form the outer radius surface 6A sacrificial bracelet 6 intended to enter into contact with the ground.

Preferably the ratio between the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°With the second elastomeric material and the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°From the first elastomeric material is from about of 1.30 to about 1.50 in.

To achieve the above-mentioned ratio of moduli of elasticity when heated, the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°From the first elastomeric material preferably is from when listello 4 to about 8 MPa, while the modulus of elasticity E' under compression at 100°With the second elastomeric material is preferably from about 6 to about 12 MPa.

Preferably the ratio between the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°With the second elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, and the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°From the first elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is from approximately 1 to approximately 1,05.

Thus, it is possible preferably to achieve the aforementioned improved grip pneumatic tires 1 essentially without sacrificing performance wear protective bracelet 6.

To achieve the above-mentioned ratios of hardness when heated, the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°With the first and the second elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is preferably from about 50 to about 70.

Preferably the ratio between the Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°With the second unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, and a Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°From the first unvulcanized elastomeric material change in the military in accordance with ASTM D5289, ranges from approximately 1 to approximately 1,10.

Thus, the potential co-extrusion of two elastomeric materials, which constitute the tread bracelet 6 without any rheological problems.

To achieve the above-mentioned ratios of viscosity when heated, the Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°With the first and second unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, is from about 50 to about 60.

Preferably, the second elastomeric material that makes up the floor 13 of the grooves 11, includes at least one diene elastomeric polymer, reinforced, at least one reinforcing material selected from the layered inorganic materials, short fibrillated fibers of polyamide materials and mixtures thereof, dispersed in the diene elastomeric polymer.

In a particularly preferred variant embodiment of the first and second elastomeric materials include diene elastomeric polymers having essentially the same mechanical characteristics, and more preferable are the same diene elastomeric polymers.

In this case, only one diene elastomeric polymer can preferably be used for the manufacture of two elastomeric Mat is rials, which constitute the tread bracelet 6, differentiating desirable way their mechanical properties due to the content of the second elastomeric material specified reinforcing material selected from the layered inorganic materials, short fibrillated fibers of polyamide materials and mixtures thereof.

If used, at least one layered inorganic material as a reinforcing material, preferred and preference is the fact that this material has the thickness of individual layers constituting from 0.01 nm to 30 nm, and that the material contained in the second elastomeric material in an amount of from about 1 to about 80 wesc, preferably from about 5 to about 40 parts per 100 parts of diene elastomeric polymer.

When using short fibrillated fibers of polyamide materials as a reinforcing material, preferred and preference is the fact that this material is contained in the second elastomeric material in an amount of from about 1 to about 80 parts per 100 parts of diene elastomeric polymer, preferably from about 5 to about 40 parts per 100 parts of diene elastomeric polymer.

The second elastomeric material is the same to include, at least one additional reinforcing filler commonly used in rubber mixtures for pneumatic tires, such as diesel particulate filler and/or silica filler in amounts of generally from 5 to 80 parts, preferably from 10 to 50 parts

Figure 3-6A shows two additional preferred variant embodiment of the pneumatic tire 1.

In the following description and in these drawings, the elements of the pneumatic tire 1, which construction or are functionally equivalent to elements previously illustrated with reference to a variant of the embodiment from Fig 1 and 2 are denoted by the same reference positions and are not further described.

In a variant embodiment, illustrated in figure 3-6A, part 9 sacrificial bracelet 6, which is essentially made of a second elastomeric material, described above, form a set of first sectors, separated from each other along the axis and passing through the radius tread bracelet.

In this variant embodiment the tread bracelet 6 also includes many second sectors 10, spaced from each other along the axis and also passing along the radius from the opposite axis of the parties of the first sectors 9. The second sector 10 essentially consists of the above-described first elastomeric material.

In this preferred variant embodiment ka is where it is refuelled 11 are longitudinal grooves, formed on the first sectors 9 essentially over the entire peripheral length of the tread bracelet 6.

Preferably the first and second sector 9, 10 tread bracelet 6 pass through the radius essentially over the entire thickness of the sacrificial bracelet, also in this case, reaching essentially the same General technical effects of the pneumatic tire 1 illustrated in figure 1 and 2.

Preferably, the longitudinal grooves 11 are located on both sides of the median plane m of the first sectors 9.

Preferably the difference between the width of the first radial sectors 9 and the width of the longitudinal grooves 11 is from 4 to 10 mm, in order to be on both sides of the groove 11 a greater amount of the second elastomeric material than the number corresponding to in order to avoid undesirable deformation of the side walls 11a, 11b of the longitudinal grooves 11 in contact with the ground surface of the pneumatic tire 1 when the tread bracelet 6 is subjected to shear stresses.

Thus, the first and second connecting axis sector 9, 10 tread bracelet 6 mainly allow due to their different mechanical characteristics to minimize the strain along the transverse direction of the parts 15 sacrificial bracelet 6 (in the form of ribs and/or blocks)that are formed between the longitudinal Kahn is ukami 11, when the tread bracelet 6 creates tension along the transverse direction, in accordance with the arrow f along the curve or mixed paths.

Mainly this feature provides improved grip and handling, the pneumatic tire 1 at offset with respect to characteristics that can be achieved in the case of a pneumatic tire with tread bracelet known type.

For the purposes of the invention form the first and second sectors 9, 10 tread bracelet 6 is not critical and can be advantageously selected by the specialist in accordance with the requirements of a particular application. Thus, such a sector, for example, may have an essentially rectangular or, as a variant, essentially trapezoidal cross section.

Equally not critical for the purposes of the present invention is to form the opposite axis side walls 9a, 9b and 10A, 10b of the first and second sectors 9, 10 tread bracelet 6. Such walls may be, for example, essentially rectilinear or, alternatively, may have at least one essentially curved part.

Also among these various possible configurations specialist can easily choose the most appropriate or the most advantageous configuration in the accordance with the methods of obtaining, accept for the production of sacrificial bracelet 6.

Alternatively, the first and second sector 9, 10 are also distributed along the axis in accordance with the requirements of the longitudinal grooves 11 with a pitch p, which you can change or leave constant along the transverse length of the tread bracelet 6.

Although the pneumatic tire 1 of this preferred variant embodiment is illustrated with only one layer that includes first and second connecting axis sector 9, 10, this does not exclude the fact that the tread bracelet 6 may include two or more overlapping along the radius of the layer to meet the specific requirements of the application.

In addition, the number and size of the transverse length of the first and second sectors 9, 10 tread bracelet 6 may differ from those shown for the illustrative and not the limited purpose of figure 3 and 4, and can easily be determined by a specialist in accordance with the specific requirements of the application of the pneumatic tire 1.

In a preferred variant of the embodiment shown in figure 5, 6 and 6A, the first sector 9 sacrificial bracelet 6 pass through the radius along the outer direction, starting from the layer 12 placed between the tread bracelet 6 and braceros design 5.

Preferably, layer 12 has a thickness of, for example the total from 1 to 5 mm

More preferably, the layer 12 essentially consists of a second elastomeric material, and the first sector 9 runs completely from such layer along the outside along the radius direction. Thus, mainly the layer 12 does support the impact of the first sectors 9, further increasing characteristics of rigidity and resistance to deformation.

Also in this case essentially produces the same total technical effects of the pneumatic tire 1 and tire with 1-4.

Although the grooves 11, illustrated in the preferred embodiments embodiment with 1 to 6 are longitudinal grooves, the pneumatic tire 1 according to the invention can equally provide one or more transverse grooves that are formed on the respective parts of the sacrificial bracelet 6 is essentially composed of a second elastomer material.

In this case, the pneumatic tire 1 also achieves improved performance grip and reduced destruction of the elastomeric material constituting the tread bracelet 6, even during acceleration and braking, i.e. when the voltage transmitted tread bracelet, directed essentially along the peripheral direction.

In the following examples are provided solely for descriptive and non-limiting purposes, will now be shown some is that the composition of the preferred elastomeric materials, which can be used for the manufacture of sacrificial bracelet 6 pneumatic tire in accordance with the invention.

EXAMPLE 1

Got an elastomeric material, indicated by letters a and b in the following table 1, which can be used for manufacturing the first and the second elastomeric material of the tread bracelet 6 respectively. In table 1 all quantities are expressed in parts

Table 1
IngredientsMaterial A (the first elastomeric material)Material (second elastomeric material)
S-SBR100100
Carbon black N2344545
SiO22525
The agent linking the SiO222
Reinforcing material-10
Aromatic oil99
Microcrystalline wax11
Stearic acid1,51,5
ZnO22
Antioxidant2,52,5
TBBS 2,42,4
Soluble sulfur11

Used the ingredients were as follows:

- S-SBR = oil-filled copolymer of butadiene and styrene, obtained in solution available on the market under the trade name of JSR;

- carbon black N234 = product available on the market under the trade name VULCAN®7H (CABOT CORPORATION);

- SiO2= silica filler available on the market under the trade name ULTRASIL® VN3 (DEGUSSA);

agent linking SiO2= solid composition, comprising 50% of carbon black (N330), 50% bis(3-triethoxysilyl-propyl)tetrasulfide available on the market under the trade name X50S® (DEGUSSA);

- reinforcing material = montmorillonite modified with ammonium salts available on the market under the trade name Dellite® 67G (Laviosa Chimica Mineraria S.p.A.);

- microcrystalline wax;

aromatic oil=product available on the market under the trade name MOBILOIL®90 (MOBIL);

- stearic acid = product available on the market under the trade name STEARINA®TP8 (MIRACHEM);

- ZnO = product available on the market under the trade name ZINKOXYD AKTIV® (BAYER);

- antioxidant = diphenylguanidine or DPG, commercially available under the trade name VULKACIT®D (BAYER);

- TBBS = N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide available on the market under the trade name VULACIT® NZ (BAYER);

- soluble sulfur = product available on the market under the trade name RUBERSUL®400 (REPSOL DERIVADOS).

In accordance with conventional technologies known in the art, the above-mentioned elastomeric materials were subjected to vulcanization and then a series of tests aimed at measuring some typical parameters of the materials before and after vulcanization. The parameters that were considered were the following:

E' 100°C = modulus of elasticity in compression, measured at 100°in accordance with the above-described methods;

tan Delta 100°C = the ratio between the loss modulus E" and the elastic modulus E'measured at 100°in accordance with the above-described methods;

the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale = degree of rubber hardness measured at 100°in accordance with standard ISO 48;

ML (1+4) = a Mooney viscosity of unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured at 100°in accordance with ASTM D5289.

The results of the tests are shown in table 2.

Table 2
Material A (the first elastomeric material)Material (second elastomeric material)
The degree of hardness of rubber on Mezhdunarodnoye 6061
E' 100°C [MPa]5,57,4
Tan Delta 100°0,140,15
ML (1+4)5555,4

Example 2

(The behavior on the road)

Using elastomeric materials obtained in accordance with the preceding example 1, made of a series of sacrificial bracelets with the hood on conventional known devices, and then tread bracelets were used for the production of pneumatic tyre size 225/40 ZR18 and 265/35 ZR18 formed in accordance with the shown in figure 1 and 2.

Pneumatic tyres, thus obtained, was then subjected to a series of standard tests to evaluate their behavior on the road on the test track, located in Imola, when installing the pneumatic tires on a Porsche 911.

In tests of the characteristics of a pneumatic tire obtained from a mixture of the preceding example 1, were compared with the characteristics shown the usual comparative pneumatic tires of the same size and have the same tread pattern.

Pneumatic tyres were tested by a pair of independent drivers on a given number of laps traversed as quickly as possible. During the test each driver on anival the maximum number of circles, completed without perceptual degradation of grip and handling.

The results, expressed as the average of the values obtained in the five tests, evaluations, expressed in two different drivers, and normalizing index 100 number of laps completed without perceptual degradation of the grip in the case of a conventional pneumatic tire shown in table 3.

Table 3
Comparative pneumatic tyrePneumatic tire in accordance with the invention
Manageability100200

The results of the tests of the pneumatic tire according to the invention achieved through a higher thermo-mechanical stability of his sacrificial bracelet characteristics, twice as large than the comparative characteristics of pneumatic tires (uncoated grooves).

Thus, the pneumatic tire according to the invention allows to achieve the following preferential technical effects:

1) the reduction state of deformation of the tread pattern;

2) thermal and mechanical stability of elastomeric materials, which constitute the tread bracelet;

3) improved the s the handling characteristics of pneumatic tires, in particular, when shifting, accelerating or braking in accordance with the location of the grooves (longitudinal instead of transverse); and

4) operational stability of the above-mentioned characteristics.

1. A pneumatic tire (1), containing frame structure (2)having at least one layer (2A) of the frame and at least one annular reinforcing structure (3)that is connected to the layer (2A) of the frame, a pair of opposite axis of the side walls (7, 8) on the frame structure (2), Bracero design (5)located radially outside relative to the frame structure (2), and tread bracelet (6)that is located radially outside relative to braceros design (5) and mainly consisting of a first elastomeric material, comprising at least one part (9), essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material, while the tread bracelet (6) contains at least one groove (11)formed in at least one part (9), essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material, the ratio between the modulus of elasticity (E') under compression at 100°With the second elastomeric material and elastic modulus (E') under compression at 100°From the first elastomeric material is not less than approximately 1,30, and the relationship between the degree of rubber hardness on the international scale at 100#x000B0; With the second elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, and the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°From the first elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is less than approximately 1,10.

2. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the ratio between the modulus of elasticity (E') under compression at 100°With the second elastomeric material and elastic modulus (E') under compression at 100°From the first elastomeric material is from about of 1.30 to about 1.50 in.

3. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the modulus of elasticity (E') under compression at 100°From the first elastomeric material is from about 4 to about 8 MPa.

4. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the modulus of elasticity (E') under compression at 100°With the second elastomeric material is from about 6 to about 12 MPa.

5. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the ratio between the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°With the second elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, and the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°From the first elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is from approximately 1 to approximately 1,05.

6. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale the ri 100° From the first elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is from about 50 to about 70.

7. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the degree of hardness of rubber on the international scale at 100°With the second elastomeric material, measured in accordance with standard ISO 48, is from about 50 to about 70.

8. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the ratio between the Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°With the second unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, and a Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°From the first unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, ranges from approximately 1 to approximately 1,10.

9. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°From the first unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, is from about 50 to about 60.

10. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the Mooney viscosity ML (1+4) at 100°With the second unvulcanized elastomeric material, measured in accordance with ASTM D5289, is from about 50 to about 60.

11. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the second elastomeric material comprises at least one diene elastomeric polymer, reinforced by men is our least one reinforcing material selected from the group consisting of layered inorganic materials, short fibrillated fibers of polyamide materials and mixtures thereof, and at least one reinforcing material is dispersed in the diene elastomeric polymer.

12. Tyre (1) according to claim 11, in which the first and the second elastomeric material includes corresponding diene elastomeric polymers having essentially the same mechanical properties.

13. Tyre (1) according to claim 11 or 12, in which at least one layered inorganic material has a thickness of individual layers constituting from 0.01 nm to 30 nm.

14. Tyre (1) according to claim 11, in which the second elastomeric material comprises from 1 to 80 parts of at least one layered inorganic material per 100 parts of diene elastomeric polymer.

15. Bus (1) through 14, in which the second elastomeric material comprises from 5 to 40 parts of at least one layered inorganic material per 100 parts of diene elastomeric polymer.

16. Tyre (1) according to claim 11, in which the second elastomeric material comprises from 1 to 80 parts short fibrillated fibers per 100 parts of diene elastomeric polymer.

17. Tyre (1) according to clause 16, in which the second elastomeric material comprises from 5 to 40 parts short fibrillated what's fibers per 100 parts diene elastomeric polymer.

18. Tyre (1) according to claim 11, in which the second elastomeric material comprises at least one additional reinforcing filler in amounts comprising from about 5 to about 80 parts

19. Bus (1) p in which additional reinforcing filler is present in an amount constituting from about 10 to about 50 parts

20. Bus (1) p in which additional reinforcing filler is a particulate filler.

21. Bus (1) p in which additional reinforcing filler is a silica filler.

22. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the tread bracelet (6) has a number of transverse and/or longitudinal grooves (11)formed on the respective parts (9) sacrificial bracelet (6), essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material.

23. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which at least one part (9) sacrificial bracelet (6), essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material, is designed to form a coating (13)surrounding at least one groove (11).

24. Tyre (1) according to item 23, in which the coating (13) has a thickness, comprising from 1 to 10 mm

25. Tyre (1) according to claim 1, in which the tread bracelet (6) contains at least one first sector (9)passing through the radius is, essentially consisting of a second elastomeric material, and a lot of second sectors (10)passing through the radius and placed on the opposite axis, at least one sector (9), and the second sector (10)essentially consist of a first elastomeric material, with at least one groove (11) formed on at least one first sector (9).

26. Tyre (1) according to claim 1 or 25, in which at least one groove (11) is a longitudinal groove (11), passing essentially over the entire peripheral length of the tread bracelet (6).

27. Bus (1) p, in which the tread bracelet (6) has a plurality of longitudinal grooves (11)and groove (11) formed on the respective first sectors (9) sacrificial bracelet (6)passing through the radius and spaced from each other along the axis.

28. Bus (1) A.25, in which at least one first sector (9) passes through the radius, essentially through the entire thickness of the tread bracelet (6).

29. Tyre (1) according to claim 1 or 25, in which the additional layer (12) of elastomeric material is located between the tread bracelet (6) and braceros design (5).

30. Tyre (1) according to clause 29, in which the layer (12)essentially consists of a second elastomeric material.

31. Tyre (1) according to clause 29, in which the layer (12) has a thickness, comprising from 1 to 5 mm

32. Bus (1) A.25, W is width, at least one first sector (9) is at least equal to the width of the at least one groove (11).

33. Bus (1) p, in which the width of the at least one first sector (9) is at least equal to the width of the at least one groove (11).

34. Bus (1) p, in which the difference between the width of at least one first sector (9) and a width of at least one groove (11) is from 4 to 10 mm

35. Bus (1) A.25, in which at least one groove (11) is located on both sides of the median plane (m), at least one first sector (9).

36. Bus (1) p, in which at least one groove (11) is located on both sides of the median plane (m), at least one first sector (9).



 

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