Waveguide-slot antenna array and its power splitter

FIELD: microwave radio engineering; radars.

SUBSTANCE: proposed antenna array incorporating power splitters and array of waveguide-slot stripline radiators (strips) has its power splitter made in the form of two boards; it has slow-wave structure in the form of E-plane folded serpentine waveguide and members providing coupling with strips. Coupling members are essentially coupling windows and matching projections. Coupling windows are made in waveguide narrow wall of one power splitter plate and matching projections, against coupling members on other waveguide narrow wall of other power splitter plate. Power splitter longitudinal axes incorporating even- and odd-numbered strip coupling members are spaced apart through integer number of quarter-wavelengths in power splitter waveguide. Each strip is essentially rectangular waveguide whose narrow wall has alternately inclined slots. Even-numbered strips have their slots inclined in specular direction relative to that of odd-numbered strip slots and difference in lengths of even- and odd-numbered strips equals amount of displacement of power splitter longitudinal axes.

EFFECT: reduced side-lobe level and standing-wave voltage ratio at normal-frequency power splitter input, amplifier gain, directive gain, and antenna sheet utilization factor.

6 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to radio ultra high frequency (UHF), namely to design antenna arrays with frequency scanning used in radar stations (hereinafter RLS) and intended for review of aerial, ground and sea space.

Widely known and used in radar antenna with frequency scan are flat grate of the waveguide-slot line emitters (next line)connected to the power splitter, made in the form of the kite waveguide, collapsed in the E-plane and containing the elements of the communication lines. Describe the construction and principle of operation of such antennas is found in many sources, in particular in the "Scanning antenna systems microwave" Vol.3, Ed. by Getmanova and Apply, ed. "Soviet radio", M, 1971, and "Antennas and microwave devices", edited by Digestmessage, ed. "Soviet radio", M, 1972, Analogs of the invention also include an antenna frequency scan radar, AN/SPS-48 company ITT Gilfillan, United States ("Foreign military review, No. 5, 1980, "Aviation Wee" No. 24, 1984, THEIR t, No. 2), the antenna used in the three-coordinate radar (patent number: EN 35688, EN 2254593, EN 51754), and antenna patent No. SU 1597986 and GB 2051486. A significant disadvantage of this antenna is that the standing wave ratio voltage (hereinafter VSWR) in the ode divider power at the frequency of normal increases dramatically in the in-phase summation of a large number of reflections from the curves of taps, the kite waveguide power splitter, what has received in the literature the name "the effect of normals. Frequency normals is the frequency of the signal corresponding to the formation pattern with a maximum in the direction normal to the longitudinal axis of the line, the kite waveguide power splitter (see "Antennas and microwave devices", edited by Digestmessage, ed. "Soviet radio", M, 1972, p.41, 42). The effect normals makes it impossible for the radar operation at frequencies affected by resonance, as worse all the parameters of the beam and generates surge in the transmitting tract, which can lead to electrical breakdown.

As a prototype in terms of design and General principle of operation of the waveguide-slot antenna array can be accepted by the antenna frequency scanning by patent number RU 2284079 made in the form of a flat grating waveguide-slot line emitters connected through link elements with a power splitter. Power splitter made in the form of the kite waveguide, collapsed in the E-plane. The connection elements of the power divider lines, divided into two groups of even and odd by explode in space the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements of communication relative to each other by a distance equal to odd integer number of quarter wavelengths in the waveguide Delhi the El power at a frequency of normals. A significant disadvantage of the prototype is that the power splitter between the adjacent elements of communication performed with one 180-degree bend (see Figure 2 patent No. EN 2284079). Such design of the power divider has a large size and increases the overall weight of the antenna due to the large mass of metal in between the bends of the waveguide. In addition, the system is not achieved phase coordination even and odd outputs of the power splitter in the case of inequality of the size of the broad walls of the waveguide lines and power splitter. The achievement of this requirement is possible only at the expense of straight-line configuration of lines, which significantly complicates the manufacturability and design of the entire antenna.

The prototype in the structure of the power splitter to antenna arrays with frequency scanning is a multichannel power divider (patent # EN 2250540), which contains slow-wave structure in the form of waveguide snake, coiled in the E-plane, and the periodic system of directional couplers (elements of communication divider power lines). As part of the periodic directional couplers applied flat U-shaped conductor, which is placed in a waveguide power splitter near the narrow wall and at an angle to a wide degree the Cam waveguide. The ends of the conductor are connected with coaxial output and a strip load installed on the narrow wall of the waveguide. Coaxial outputs of the power splitter are located on the same longitudinal axis of the attenuator and displaced to one side of the channel, the kite waveguide and to one side of the attenuator. Line kite waveguide power splitter between adjacent taps has two 180-degree bend, and the length of this line is selected is a multiple of an odd number of half-waves in the waveguide power splitter on the average frequency of the operating frequency range of the antenna array. Use as elements of communication divider power lines, directional couplers, representing a number of small parts and containing a coaxial conclusions, significantly reduces the reliability and complicates the production and maintenance of the power splitter and the entire antenna. In addition, the location of the connection elements on the same longitudinal axis of the attenuator (though offset from its axis of symmetry) does not provide such reduced VSWR at the input of the power splitter, which would completely eliminate the effect of the normal deterioration of directivity of the antenna array.

The task to be solved by the invention is the creation of a waveguide-slot antenna array with often the major scanning operating in a given frequency range, and low level of side lobes for a given width of the main lobe of the radiation pattern.

Technical results obtained during the implementation of the claimed invention are, in particular, a low level of side lobes (from minus 40 to minus 30 dB); reducing the VSWR at the input of the power splitter at the frequency of normals; the increase in gain; the increase in the ratio of directed action; increase the utilization of the antenna surface of the canvas; the simplicity and manufacturability and service; the ability to parse the waveguide-slot antenna array into two parts in the field of power splitter for easy transportation and storage; reduction in weight and size characteristics of waveguide-slot antenna array radar in General.

The essence of the invention lies in the following factors influencing the achievement of the claimed technical results during its implementation.

Waveguide-slot antenna array (hereinafter USAR) contains a power splitter and a flat grating waveguide-slot line emitters (lines). The power splitter is located in a plane parallel to the plane containing the line. Each output of the power splitter is connected via a coupling element with an entrance from testwuide line. Power divider contains slow-wave structure in the form of the kite waveguide, collapsed in the E-plane, and the periodic system of the elements of communication lines. Line kite waveguide power splitter between adjacent link elements has two 180-degree bend, and its length is selected integer multiple of an odd number of half-waves in the waveguide power splitter on the average frequency of the operating range UMAR. Power divider consists of two mechanically joined boards, each of which is made hollow, with the kite configuration, the width of which is equal to the size of the narrow walls of the waveguide power splitter, and a height equal to half the size of the broad wall of the waveguide power splitter. The longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing all the even elements, displaced relative to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator, containing all the odd elements of communication, on the whole odd number of quarter wavelengths in the waveguide power splitter. The connection elements of the power splitter are open communication and matching tabs. When this window is made in the narrow wall of the waveguide one plate of the power splitter and matching projections made in front of the window due to the other narrow wall of the waveguide of the second plate of the power splitter. The width of the window of communication and height corresponding matching in which Stepov is selected from the conditions of formation of the required amplitude and phase of the field distribution on the aperture UMAR. Each line represents a rectangular waveguide narrow wall of which is made alternately-inclined slit, while the even-numbered line are mirror tilt direction of the slits with respect to the direction of inclination of the slots odd-numbered lines. The difference of the lengths of the even and odd lines is equal to the amount by which the offset to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements of communication. At the all slots with the same sequence number (counting from the output of the attenuator in the line) of each line are located on the same vertical axis.

Figure 1 presents a fragment of the design USAR.

Figure 2 presents one of the plates of the power splitter.

Figure 3 presents a scheme for constructing USAR.

In accordance with Figures 1, 3 WWER consists of a power splitter 1 and horizontal even lines 2 and odd lines 3.

Power splitter 1 provides for the formation and scanning of the beam in the vertical plane and contains slow-wave structure in the form of the kite waveguide, collapsed in the E-plane, and the elements of communication 5 power splitter with lines 2, 3 (figure 2, 3). The kite waveguide power splitter 1 contains a 180-degree curves, straight sections with connection elements 5 and the straight sections without elements of communication 5 (hereinafter idle channels). Between Sosa is their connection elements 5 line kite waveguide power splitter 1 contains two 180-degree bend (Figure 2, 3), and its length is selected integer multiple of an odd number of half-waves in the waveguide power splitter 1 to the average frequency of the operating range UMAR. The straight sections containing the elements of the connection 5 and the dummy channels in the waveguide power splitter 1 are through one. The longitudinal axis of the power splitter, containing all the odd and even elements of communication 5 power splitter with lines 2, 3, are spaced from each other at a distance of Δequal odd number of quarter wavelengths in the waveguide power splitter 1 (2, 3). The offset of the longitudinal axis of the attenuator 1 with odd and even elements due to the distance Δ provides coordination, that is, low VSWR at the input of the power splitter at the frequency of the normal and reciprocal compensation reflections arriving at the input of the power splitter from the odd and even elements of communication and they are out of phase with respect to each other.

The waveguide power splitter 1 is a structure made of two plates 6 and 7, each of which is cut a recess, the kite configuration. The width of the recesses is equal to the size of the narrow walls of the waveguide power splitter, and a height equal to half the size of the broad wall of the waveguide power splitter. Plates 6 and 7 of the power splitter 1 are mechanically connected, and formed when connecting the joints sealed anaerobic sealant. Elements of communication 5 power splitter represent connections window 8 and matching protrusions 9. Window 8 is made in the plate 6 in the narrow wall d, the kite waveguide power splitter 1. Matching protrusions 9 are made in the plate 7 on the other narrow side d of the waveguide power splitter 1 in front of Windows 8. The width of each Windows 8 and the height of the corresponding protrusion 9 is selected from the conditions of formation of the desired amplitude and phase distribution of the field along the vertical aperture UMAR and depend on the power level of the microwave needed to branch to the appropriate line 2, 3.

UMAR forms the directivity in the vertical and horizontal planes. Each of the lines UMAR made on the basis of the rectangular waveguide cross-section a×b, in the narrow side b which are cut alternately-inclined slots 10. Even and odd arrays have the same number of slits 10. To obtain a linear phase field distribution on the aperture VMAR the distance between the slits 10 is approximately equal to half of the wavelength in the waveguide line 2, 3, and the inclination of the slits 10 alternates. The direction of inclination of the slots even-numbered lines 2 is mirrored with respect to the direction of inclination of the slots odd-numbered lines 3. Setting in response to the maximum communication in a predetermined frequency range is governed by the depth of cutting of the slit 10 in the wide side alonaki 2, 3. Slit each of the lines sealed with a tape made of PTFE. In addition, the even-numbered line 2 and odd line 3 are different lengths. The difference of the lengths of the even and odd lines is equal to the value of Δthat exploded longitudinal axis of the attenuator 1, containing even and odd elements of communication 5 (Figure 3). The input of each of the lines 2 or 3 made in the form of waveguide H-plane area having a 45-degree slant designed to connect to the appropriate output of the power splitter. At the end of each line 2, 3 includes an agreed load 11.

To ensure the necessary sector scan and position it relative to the normal to UMAR size of the broad wall of the waveguide power splitter 1 is made smaller than the wide side and waveguide lines 2, 3. The size of the narrow wall d of the waveguide power splitter 1 in straight with the connection elements 5 are made equal to the size of the narrow wall b of the waveguide lines 2, 3, and the size of the narrow walls of the d1waveguide power splitter 1 in the idle channel is made smaller than that of the narrow walls b and d. Due to the difference of the sizes of the wide walls and in the input sections of equal size Δ, lines 2 are formed a stepped phase error, resulting in an increased level of side lobes and, consequently, deterioration of the pattern UMAR. Kompensirovannoi phase error is implemented by introducing into the input sections of lines 2 environment section 12, corrective phase due to a change (increase or decrease) the electrical length of the inlet pipe lines 2 by an amount equal arisen phase error (1, 3). Environment section 12 is a device that is structurally change the size of the wide side and line 2 so that within the length of this environment section 12 was carried out phase shift required to align the phases of the even and odd outputs of the power splitter 1 to the middle frequency of the operating frequency range UMAR. The length of the environment section 12 is equal to half a wavelength in the range 2 size of the wide side, modified with regard to the introduction of the it environment section 12.

Based on the operational requirements of the antenna canvas UMAR is movable in two parts, and disassembly is performed by dismemberment of the power splitter 1 into two sections, each of which contains connected via connecting elements 5 waveguide-slot line emitters 2, 3 (Figure 3). The connection of the two sections of the attenuator 1 is curved 180-degree segment of the waveguide 13, the length of which ensures the continuity of the phase characteristics of the power splitter. In this regard, the following after the intersection (measured from the input of the power splitter in the path of power distribution SHF) plot the kite waveguide power splitter 1, the soda is containing the coupling element 5, wave, came to this element of communication is changing the Board's direction by 180 degrees. Therefore, the phase of a wave, a leaf this item due in even-numbered line 2, also changed 180 degrees. To compensate for the specified phase jump link elements 5 divider power lines directly before and after a 180-degree waveguide are located on the same longitudinal axis of the attenuator. While line 2 connected to the coupling element 5 power splitter, located directly after the 180-degree waveguide (counting from the input of the power splitter), is of shorter length and with changed 180 degrees to the direction of inclination of the slits, that is similar to the odd line 3.

The proposed construction UMAR was tested experimentally. UMAR operates in the frequency range 2710-2850 MHz and consists of 54 waveguide-slot line emitters, each of which is made on the basis of a rectangular waveguide section 72×34 mm, in one of the narrow walls of which are slotted 85 alternately-inclined radiating slots in increments of 73 mm, the Longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements of communication lines, are spaced from each other by a distance equal to1/4the wavelength in the waveguide with zipper divider power at a frequency of normals. The length of the line C is ecologo waveguide power splitter between adjacent link elements is made equal to 3.5 wavelength in the waveguide power splitter on the average frequency of the operating range UMAR. The size of the broad wall of the waveguide power splitter - 67 mm, the size of the narrow wall d of the waveguide power splitter on the straight parts with links to 34 mm, and the size of the narrow walls of the d1waveguide power splitter in the idle channel is 24 mm. Environment the partition is set in the input section of each even-numbered line and has a length equal to 45,3 mm Level of side lobes was minus 34 dB, the value of VSWR at the input of the power splitter in the working frequency range is less than 1.5.

1. Power splitter waveguide-slot antenna array, containing slow-wave structure in the form of the kite waveguide, collapsed in the E-plane, and the periodic system of the elements of communication with the waveguide-slot line drivers and line kite waveguide power splitter between adjacent link elements has two 180-degree bend, and its length is selected integer multiple of an odd number of half-waves in the waveguide power splitter on the average frequency of the operating band waveguide-slot antenna array, characterized in that it consists of two mechanically joined boards, each of which is made hollow, with the kite configuration, width which is equal to the size of the narrow walls of the waveguide power splitter, and a height equal to half the size of the broad wall of the waveguide divider powerfully the tee; the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing all the even elements, displaced relative to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator, containing all the odd elements of communication, on the whole odd number of quarter wavelengths in the waveguide power splitter; the connection elements of the power splitter are open communication and matching protrusions, while open communication is made in the narrow wall of the waveguide one plate of the power splitter and matching projections made in front of the window due to the other narrow wall of the waveguide of the second plate of the power splitter, the width of the window of communication and height corresponding matching protrusions are selected from the conditions of formation of the required amplitude and phase of the field distribution on the aperture waveguide-slot antenna array.

2. The divider according to claim 1, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of separation in the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements in communication with the waveguide-slot line emitters into two sections, connecting 180-degree waveguide, the length of which is selected as the continuous phase characteristics of the power splitter, and the connection elements of the power splitter with waveguide-slot line emitters directly before and after a 180-degree waveguide, located on the Noi to the longitudinal axis of the divider output.

3. The divider according to claim 2, characterized in that the joints of plates, of which it is made, filled with anaerobic sealant.

4. Waveguide-slot antenna array, characterized in that it contains a power divider according to claim 1 and a flat grating waveguide-slot line emitters; a power splitter is located in a plane parallel to the plane containing the waveguide-slot line emitters, and each output of the power splitter is connected via a coupling element to the input of the corresponding waveguide-slot line emitter; each waveguide-slot line driver comprises a rectangular waveguide narrow wall of which is made alternately-inclined slit, while the even-numbered waveguide-slot linear radiators have mirrored the direction of inclination of the slits with respect to the direction of inclination of the slits odd waveguide-slot line emitters, the difference of the lengths of the even and odd waveguide-slot line emitters is equal to the amount by which the offset to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements of communication, and the centers of all slots with the same sequence number (counting from the output of the attenuator in the waveguide-slot-linear emitter) of each waveguide-slot line emitter located on the same vertical axis.

5. Antenna solutions the spacecraft according to claim 4, characterized in that in the input section of each waveguide-slot line emitter, having a greater length enter the environment section, providing the change in size of the broad wall of the waveguide waveguide-slot line emitter to within the length of the environment section was performed phase shift required to align the phases of the even and odd outputs of the power splitter to the middle frequency of the operating frequency range of the antenna array, and the length of the environment section is chosen equal to half the wavelength in the waveguide waveguide-slot line emitter with the size of the wide side, changed considering introducing environment section.

6. Antenna array according to claim 5, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of separation in the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements in communication with the waveguide-slot line emitters into two sections, connecting 180-degree waveguide, the length of which is selected as the continuous phase characteristics of the power splitter, and the connection elements of the power splitter with waveguide-slot line emitters directly before and after a 180-degree waveguide are located on the same longitudinal axis of the power splitter and waveguide school is eve linear emitter, connected to the coupling element of the power splitter and located directly after the 180-degree waveguide (counting from the input of the power splitter), is the same waveguide-delavau linear emitter having a smaller length.



 

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