Frequency-scanned antenna arrangement

FIELD: microwave radio engineering, route surveillance radars.

SUBSTANCE: proposed antenna arrangement incorporating power splitters and array of waveguide-slot stripline radiators (strips) has its power splitter disposed in plane parallel to that incorporating strips; it is made in the form of E-plane folded serpentine waveguide that has coupling members with strips. Power splitter longitudinal axes incorporating even- and odd-numbered coupling members with strips are spaced apart through integer odd number of quarter-wavelength in power splitter waveguide. Power splitter waveguide line section between adjacent coupling members is twice bent through 180 deg. and its length is chosen to be a multiple of integer odd number of half-waves in power splitter waveguide. Even- and odd-numbered strips are different in length. Half-wave phasing section affording phase shift required for matching even- and odd-numbered outputs of power splitter is inserted in input section of each strip by changing size of strip waveguide wide wall.

EFFECT: reduced level of side lobes, standing-wave voltage ratio at normal-frequency power splitter input, enhanced amplifier gain, directive gain, and antenna sheet surface utilization factor.

4 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to radio ultra high frequency (UHF), namely to design antenna arrays with frequency scanning used in radar systems, for example in the review route radars, and intended for review of aerial, ground and sea space.

Widely known and used in radar antenna with frequency scan are flat grate of the waveguide-slot line emitters (next line)connected to the power splitter, containing slow-wave structure in the form of the kite waveguide, collapsed in the E-plane, and the elements of communication lines. Describe the construction and principle of operation of such antennas is found in many sources, in particular in the "Scanning antenna systems microwave", Vol.3, Ed. by Getmanova and Apply, ed. "Soviet radio", M, 1971, and "Antennas and microwave devices" Ed. by Digestmessage, ed. "Soviet radio", M, 1972, in Addition, analogs of the present invention is the antenna frequency scan radar, AN/SPS-48 company ITT Gilfillan, United States ("Foreign military review, No. 5, 1980, "Aviation Wee" No. 24, 1984, THEIR t, No. 2) and the antenna used in the three-coordinate radar (patent number RU 35688, EN 2254593, EN 51754, SU 1597986 and GB 2051486). A significant disadvantage of this antenna is that the standing wave ratio voltage (the alley VSWR) at the input of the power splitter at the frequency of normal (signal frequency, corresponding to the formation pattern with a maximum in the direction normal to the longitudinal axis of the line, the kite waveguide power splitter) sharply increases in the in-phase summation of a large number of reflections from the curves, the kite waveguide power splitter and taps (elements of communication divider power lines). This phenomenon in the literature it is customary to call "effect normals (see "Antennas and microwave devices", edited by Digestmessage, ed. "Soviet radio", M, 1972, p.41, 42). Coordination at the input of the power splitter at the frequency of the normal deteriorates, and therefore impair its performance not only an antenna device and radar in General.

As a prototype of the proposed technical solutions can be adopted antenna frequency scanning by patent number RU 2284079 made in the form of a flat grating waveguide-slot line emitters connected through link elements with a power splitter. Power splitter made in the form of the kite waveguide, collapsed in the E-plane. The length of the line, the kite waveguide power splitter between the adjacent connection elements of the power splitter is selected to provide a given sector of the scanning beam in the plane perpendicular to the horizontally placed Lee is acam. The connection elements of the power divider lines, divided into two groups, odd and even. The separation of the connection elements of the power splitter into two groups carried out the separation in space of the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements of communication relative to each other by a distance equal to odd integer number of quarter wavelengths in the waveguide power splitter frequency normals. This solution along with the advantages, also has significant disadvantages. The design of the prototype contains a power divider with one 180-degree bend in the interval between the adjacent elements of communication (see Figure 2 patent No. EN 2284079). Such design of the power divider has a large size and increases the overall weight of the antenna due to the large mass of metal in between the bends of the waveguide. In addition, the disadvantage of the prototype with the lines made on the waveguides with rectangular cross-section, is that when the inequality of the size of the broad walls of the waveguide lines and waveguide power splitter achievement negotiation phases of even and odd outputs of the power splitter is difficult and is only possible due to the curvature of the lines, which significantly complicates the design of the antenna and its manufacturing technology.

The challenge which seeks PR is grahaeme the invention, is the creation of an antenna device with frequency scanning (hereinafter antenna)operating in a given frequency range and low level of side lobes for a given width of the main lobe of the radiation pattern.

Technical results obtained during the implementation of the claimed invention are, in particular, a low level of side lobes (from minus 40 to minus 30 dB); reducing the VSWR at the input of the power splitter frequency normal; improving coordination; increase the gain; the increase in the ratio of directed action; increase the utilization of the antenna surface of the canvas; the simplicity and manufacturability and maintenance of antennas; a reduction in weight and size characteristics of the antenna.

The essence of the invention lies in the following factors influencing the achievement of the claimed technical result in the realization of this technical solution. The antenna system with frequency scan contains a power splitter and a flat grating waveguide-slot line emitters (lines), each of which is a rectangular waveguide, in the narrow wall of which is made alternately inclined cracks. Power splitter made in the form of the kite waveguide, wrapped in E-plosko and, and is located in a plane parallel to the plane containing the line. Each output of the power splitter is connected via a coupling element with an inlet pipe of the corresponding ruler. Line kite waveguide power splitter between adjacent link elements has two 180-degree bend, and its length is selected integer multiple of an odd number of half-waves in the waveguide power splitter. The connection elements of the power splitter is divided into two groups in such a way that the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing all the even elements, displaced relative to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator, containing all the odd elements of communication, on the whole odd number of quarter wavelengths in the waveguide power splitter. The difference of the lengths of the even and odd lines is equal to the amount by which the offset to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements of communication. At the all slots with the same sequence number (counting from the output of the attenuator in the line) of each line are located on the same vertical axis. The direction of inclination of the slots even-numbered lines made mirror with respect to the direction of inclination of the slots odd-numbered lines. In the input section of each line, having a greater length enter the environment section, providing the change in size of the wide side of the line that is within the length of the environment section was performed phase shift, required for matching phases of the even and odd outputs of the power splitter to the middle frequency of the operating frequency range of the antenna, and the length of the environment section is chosen equal to half the wavelength in the waveguide line with the size of the wide side, changed considering introducing environment section.

Figure 1 shows the scheme for the construction of an antenna device with a frequency scan.

Figure 2 shows the structure of an antenna device with frequency scan (front view).

Figure 3-a shows a frontal section of the odd line that is connected via the coupling element to the power splitter, and figure 3 b-B - front cut an even line containing environment section and is connected via a coupling element to the power splitter.

As shown in figures 1, 2, the antenna system with frequency scan contains a power splitter 1 and the planar waveguide-slot antenna grid of horizontal lines, divided into two groups: the even-numbered line 2 and odd line 3. Each line 2, 3 is a rectangular waveguide, in the narrow wall of which is made alternately slanted slit 5.

Power splitter 1 provides a scanning beam in a vertical plane and contains slow-wave structure in the form of the kite waveguide, collapsed in the E-plane, and ele the coefficients of the 4th. The longitudinal axis a of the power splitter 1, containing elements of the 4th with all the even lines 2, shifted in space relative to the longitudinal axis b of the power splitter 1, containing elements of the 4th with all the odd lines 3, at a distance of Δequal odd number of quarter wavelengths in the waveguide power splitter frequency normals. Offset longitudinal axes a and b of the power splitter 1 to length Δ provides coordination, that is, low VSWR at the input 6 of the attenuator 1 at the frequency of the normal and reciprocal compensation reflections arriving at the input 6 of the attenuator through the connection elements 4 from the even lines 2 and odd lines 3 and strongly out of phase with respect to each other.

The kite waveguide power splitter 1 contains a 180-degree curves, straight sections with connection elements 4 and the straight sections without elements of communication 4 (idle channel). While the straight sections of the attenuator 1, containing the elements of the connection 4 and the dummy channels in the waveguide power splitter 1 are through one. In the interval between the adjacent connection elements 4, the waveguide power splitter 1 contains two 180-degree bend, and the length of the line, the kite waveguide power splitter 1 on this interval is selected integer multiple of an odd number of half-waves in the waveguide divider m is snasti 1 at a frequency of normals. At the end of the power splitter 1 includes an agreed load 7.

Waveguide-slot antenna array an antenna device with frequency scan line containing 2 and 3, forms a directional pattern in the horizontal and vertical planes. Each line 2, 3 is made on the basis of a rectangular waveguide section c×d, in one of the narrow walls d which are cut alternately inclined slots 5, which number is odd and even lines is the same (Fig.1-3). The even-numbered line 2 and odd line 3 are different lengths. The difference of the lengths of the even and odd lines is equal to the value of Δthat is offset to the longitudinal axis a and b of the power splitter 1, containing even and odd elements of the 4th. At the all slots 5 with the same sequence number (counting from the output of the attenuator in the line) for each line of 2, 3 are located on the same vertical axis. The number of vertical axes, which are the centers of slots equal to the number of slits in each line 2, 3. The relationship of the inclined slit 5 with field inside the waveguide line 2, 3 is characterized by a value of the normalized conductance, equal to the ratio of the radiated slot power power held for this crack:

where

g - normalized conductivity slit;

P[Izl]- power, and is received by a slot;

Punder- power connected to the cross-section with a slit;

Pthe past- power, past the crack.

To obtain a linear phase distribution of the inclination of the slots 5 alternates, the direction of inclination of the slots even-numbered lines 2 is mirrored with respect to the direction of inclination of the slots odd-numbered lines 3. Setting in response to the high regard in a specified operating frequency range is governed by the depth of cutting of the slit 5 in the broad wall of the waveguide lines 2, 3. The distance between the slits is selected to prevent the occurrence of side of the main peaks in the rocking beam in the working frequency range and prevent the effect of the normals in the lines. Thus, the step of slots is approximately equal to half the wavelength in the waveguide lines 2, 3. For sealing cracks on each of the lines is set overlay PTFE.

The input of each of the lines 2, 3 are made in the form of a waveguide H-plane 90 degree corner with a 45 degree bevel, which is designed to connect to the corresponding output of the power splitter via the coupling element 4. At the end of each line 2 and 3 includes an agreed load 8.

To ensure the necessary sector scan and position it relative to the normal to the antenna device with frequency scanning size of the broad wall k of the waveguide divider power is STI 1 is made smaller, than the size of the broad wall of the waveguide lines 2, 3 (Fig 3 a-a, b-B). The size of the narrow wall m of the waveguide power splitter 1 in straight with elements of communication 4 coincides with the size of the narrow wall d of the waveguide lines 2 and 3 (figure 2). The size of the narrow wall n of the waveguide power splitter 1 in straight without connection elements 4 is made smaller than the size d and smaller than m. Because of the unequal sizes of the wide walls k and the input sections of the ruler 2 is formed a stepped phase error, resulting in an increased level of side lobes and, consequently, deterioration of the pattern.

The compensation specified phase error is implemented by introducing into the input section of each line 2 environment section 9, a corrective phase, i.e. increases or decreases the electrical length of the inlet pipe line 2 by an amount equal arisen phase error (Fig 1, Fig 3 (B-B). Environment section is a device, the use of which is implemented constructive change in the size of the wide side from a line 2 to a size of the wide side withFSline 2 (Figure 3 (B-B). Conditions calculate the size of the environment section 9 is that the size of the wide side withFSwaveguide line 2 should be such as to ensure the phase shift required to align the phases of the even and odd outputs of the power splitter to the middle frequency of the operating frequency range of the antenna. Length LFSenvironment section 9 is chosen equal to half the wavelength in the waveguide line 2 with the size of the wide side withFSon average the frequency of the operating frequency range of the antenna.

The required width of the beam in the horizontal and vertical planes in the specified operating frequency range depends on the antenna size of the canvas and utilization. On the basis of technological reasons and conditions of transportation and storage, each line 2, 3 is assembled from several segments of the waveguide, the United waveguide flanges 10, each of which is placed instead of one of the slits 5 (2, 3). However, in order to avoid unacceptable increase in the level of side lobes of the flanges 10 on the antenna canvas columns are in decline in the amplitude-phase distribution of the field at the aperture of the antenna, i.e. the edges of the antenna paintings, which reduces their impact on the radiation pattern.

The proposed construction of an antenna device with a frequency scan was tested experimentally. The antenna device operates in the frequency range 2710-2850 MHz. The antenna size of the canvas was 4×7 m Antenna array consists of 54 waveguide-slot lines, each of which is made on the basis of a rectangular waveguide section 72×34 mm, in one of the narrow walls of which are slotted 87 alternately of nuklon the x slits increments, equal to 73 mm each line is assembled from three sections of the waveguide, the length of the middle of which is equal to 5 m, and United the two waveguide flanges. Waveguide flanges are columns instead of 10 and 77 of the slits in each line, therefore, each line contains 85 emitting slits. The longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements, displaced relative to each other on ¼ wavelength in the waveguide power splitter frequency normals. The length of the line, the kite waveguide power splitter between adjacent link elements is made equal to 2.5 wavelength at the frequency of normals. The size of the wide side k of the waveguide power splitter was 62,4 mm, the size of the narrow wall m of the waveguide power splitter in straight with links to 34 mm, and the size of the narrow wall n idle channel is 24 mm. Environment section, which is a metal plate that is installed in the input area at the narrow side d of the waveguide of each even-numbered line has a length of 93 mm, the Level of side lobes was minus 34 dB, VSWR at the input of the power splitter in the working frequency range has a value not more than 1.5.

1. The antenna system with frequency scan containing a power splitter and a flat grating waveguide-slot line emitters, each of which PR is dstanley a rectangular waveguide, in the narrow wall of which is made alternately inclined slots, and a power splitter made in the form of the kite waveguide, collapsed in the E-plane, and is located in a plane parallel to the plane containing the waveguide-slot line emitters, each output of the power splitter is connected via a coupling element with an inlet pipe of the corresponding waveguide-slot line emitter, with the connection elements of the power splitter is divided into two groups in such a way that the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing all the even elements, displaced relative to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator, containing all the odd elements of communication, on the whole odd number of quarters the wavelength in the waveguide power divider, characterized in that the line, the kite waveguide power splitter between adjacent link elements has two 180-degree bend, and its length is selected integer multiple of an odd number of half-waves in the waveguide power splitter; the difference of the lengths of the even and odd waveguide-slot line emitters is equal to the amount by which the offset to the longitudinal axis of the attenuator containing even and odd elements of communication, at the all slots with the same sequence number (counting from the output of the attenuator in the waveguide-slot-linear emitter) of each of volnovod the-slotted linear emitter are located on the same vertical axis, the direction of inclination of the slots even-numbered waveguide-slot line emitters made mirror with respect to the direction of inclination of the slots odd-numbered waveguide-slot line emitters; in the input section of each waveguide-slot line emitter, having a greater length enter the environment section, providing the change in size of the broad wall of the waveguide waveguide-slot line emitter to within the length of the environment section was performed phase shift required to align the phases of the even and odd outputs of the divider in the middle frequency of the operating frequency range of an antenna device with a frequency scan, the length environment section is chosen equal to half the wavelength in the waveguide waveguide-slotted linear oscillator with size of the wide side, changed considering introducing environment section.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the waveguide-slot line emitters consist of several parts connected by waveguide flanges, which are placed instead of the slits with the same sequence number (counting from the output of the attenuator in the waveguide-slot-linear emitter) of each waveguide-slot line emitter in the region of decay of the amplitude-phase distribution of the field at the aperture of an antenna device with the hour is now scanning.

3. The device according to claim 1, wherein each waveguide-slot linear emitter installed sealing plate of a material having hydrophobic properties such as Teflon.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the input of each waveguide-slot linear oscillator, which is designed to connect to the corresponding output of the power splitter, made in the form of H-plane 90 degree corner with a 45 degree bevel.



 

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FIELD: microwave radio engineering; radars.

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6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to antenna engineering and can be used for production, at manufacturing plants, of dipole, phased or digital arrays (A) for signal reception/transfer within VHF range with various polarisation within wide single-beam scanning sector, that is in production period and cost, less by a factor of ten than production of conventional large-dimensioned arrays. The invention consists in that design of ready-to-operate array includes carrying submodule trusses whereon are fixed and galvanic ally coupled in either square or orthogonal curtain the identical prefabricated antenna modules representing vibrator arrays of coherent parameters, with orthogonal arms (cross-vibrators) inclined at an angle 45° to screen plane of single standard dimension-type, with arm length of horizontally polarised vibrator Lhor=0.463λo and vertically polarised vibrator Lvert. = 0.452λo, their height being equal h=0.226λo over conducting screen. Cross-vibrators are placed in array curtain along triangular mesh in the form of isosceles triangles with angularly placed vibrators, coordinate distances between their columns being dx=0.45λo and between their lines dy=0.32λo. Array is calibrated by experiment-calculated method with scattering matrix evaluation and VSWR calculation within its small fragment from 37 cross-vibrators of adjustable dimensions for fine adjustment until optimum dimension-type of required VSWR is attained. To provide ready-to-assembly array in-site in short terms, fit-up and adjustment of array curtain is carried out at a manufacturing plant.

EFFECT: extended scanning sector with matching of completely built-up array within whole scan sector up to ±60° at considerably reduced of time of array calibration and its setting into operation.

5 cl, 4 dwg

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