Vehicle self-locking differential

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in differential drives of wheeled vehicles made for automatic locking of wheels. Proposed self-locking differential of vehicle contains drive case 1 accommodating axle shaft-members 4, 5 arranged coaxially to each other and coupled with axle-shafts 2, 3. Said axle-shaft members are provided with helical grooves 6, 7 on outer surface with opposite hand of helix, solids of revolution in form of balls 8 filling in line at least one closed channel 10 made in drive case. Part of said channel is opened to dip segments of balls into helical grooves. Closed channel 10 is made rectangular in longitudinal section, with rounded off outer angles 12. Cross section of legs of rectangular closed channel is equal to diameter of balls 8. Number of balls in channel is odd.

EFFECT: simplified design of differential, reduced overall dimensions, increased manufacturability, strength and efficiency at self-locking.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the automotive industry and can be used in differential-drive vehicles made with automatic wheel lock.

Known self-locking differential of the vehicle selected by the applicant as a prototype containing the drive housing, which coaxially to each other posted by related axes half-shaft elements having on the outer surface of the helical grooves of the opposite direction of the spiral, rolling elements in the form of balls, filling chain is made in the drive housing, at least one closed channel. A part of the closed channel, forming a working branch, opened for dipping segments of the balls in the helical grooves of half-shaft elements. Working branch is connected with a return longitudinal branch canal side mountain-like sections of the channel. In addition, the recurrent branch of the canal also made veroobrazno with a width greater than one and less than two diameters of the ball (see the description of the invention SU # 1507603, from 17.11.87, publ. 15.09.89, UK 17/20, Century-Oaglsi).

The disadvantages of the prototype should include the design complexity associated with mountain-like execution of the channel. In the working branch canal balls placed in one row. Return branch channel having a cross section substantially larger size /width large the one, but less than two diameters of the ball/ to accommodate the balls in a checkerboard pattern, in combination with a mountain-like performance, complicates the manufacturing of all of the closed toroidal channel and significantly increases the size differential.

Moreover, the shape of a closed channel having a smooth toroidal performance, eliminates effective braking chains of balls required for complete blocking of the automatic differential slipping of the vehicle. Under braking refers to the force opposing the movement of the chain of balls in the closed channel. In the channel having a smooth, gorbalenya bends, the force for braking the chain of balls is very weak. Therefore, to increase the strength of the locking chains of balls in the process of their movement, the author of the prototype is forced to increase the diameter of the return channel. In this channel, the diameter of which is greater than one, but less than two diameters of the ball, rolling elements arranged in a checkerboard pattern. When the movement of the chain of balls, they respirate /rasklinivanie/ in hand and the friction force them on the walls of the channel increases. This performance differential is characterized by low efficiency of smallacombe devices and limited his actions at low speeds, because smolokurovka is mainly when accelerating transport environments is TBA. In the prototype (inventions SU # 1507603, the last paragraph of the description) says "...the forces transmitted by the balls from the one polovoy gear (half-shaft element to another, reduced by the area of the infinite channel with structurally select the curvature and width of the channel, depending on the desired coefficient block, and when engine braking and moving back smolokurovka less and depends almost from the power transmission efficiency from the one polovoy gear to the balls and the power transmission efficiency from the balls to polovoy gear.". In addition, the rebuild /move/ balls during movement of the vehicle from a chess order in one row requires high precision manufacturing all closed channel, increases the number of balls and the dimensions of the device and reduces its strength.

The technical objective of the proposed solutions is to simplify the design, size reduction, improved manufacturability, durability and efficiency smallacombe.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the known limited slip differential of the vehicle containing the drive housing, which coaxially to each other posted by related axes half-shaft elements having on the outer surface of the helical grooves of the opposite direction of the spiral, the rolling body in view of the balls, fill chain, made in the drive housing, at least one closed channel, part of which opened for dipping segments of the balls in the helical grooves, according to the invention, a closed channel in a longitudinal cross-sectional rectangular with rounded outside corners, the cross section of the branches of the rectangular closed channel is equal to the diameter of the balls, and the number of balls in the odd channel.

The implementation of the closed channel in the longitudinal cross section is rectangular and of the same diameter with balls provides a simplification of the structure of the differential, making it easier to manufacture, since it is proposed to connect the working and return branch channel of rectilinear segments of the same diameter at right angles, scrugli only the outer corners of the formed rectangle. The proposed solution allows to approximate a straight return and the working branch channel to each other. Replacement wide branch channel with chess placing balls and connecting goreobsessed parts with varying cross-section perpendicular to the straight sections makes a closed rectangular channel is more compact and allows to significantly reduce the number of balls in the chain. The dimensions of the proposed conventional prefilled auto-disable device does not exceed the size standard classic di is ferential, currently used. This solves the problem of installing differential in the vehicle by simply replacing the standard blokirovka differential automatic locking device.

Rectangular channel allows for more effective braking chains of balls due to the movement of the balls through the angles of a closed channel. This allows you to make automatic differential with maximum efficiency block (close to 100%) and a maximum efficiency of differentiation, since there is no changing load /wedging/ balls on the side walls of the branches of the channel, which increases the overall system efficiency. Coefficient block in adverse road conditions become optimal as when moving forwards and backwards. Differential automatically works at all vehicle speeds. Moreover, the processes blocking and differentiation devices do not interfere with each other, as better feedback device with a road on which the vehicle is moving. This manageability, and security improve. This makes the car stable and is achievable on any difficult roads. When braking the same engine smolokurovka device increases the efficiency of the safe braking of the vehicle.

The differential has a large strength is due to the maximum efficiency of the block, not allowing the balls in any slipping of the vehicle to move along the channel, which eliminates intense heating and wear of the mechanism.

Conducted patent studies have not found a similar technical solutions that allows to draw a conclusion about the novelty and inventive step of the claimed technical solution.

The domestic industry has all the resources (materials, equipment and technology)required to manufacture the inventive differential and its widespread application in vehicles.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where

figure 1 - self-locking differential in longitudinal section;

figure 2 - is a closed chain of an odd number of balls placed in a rectangular closed channel differential;

figure 3 is a fragment of a chain of balls at the location of the vertex of the angle rectangular channel between two adjacent balls;

figure 4 is a fragment of a chain of balls at the location of one of the ball into the top corner of the rectangular channel.

A limited-slip differential vehicle includes: a drive housing 1 coaxially to each other placed associated with axes 2 and 3 half-shaft elements 4 and 5, having on the outer surface of the helical grooves 6 and 7 opposite direction of the spiral, body image quality is of the form of balls 8, fill the chain 9, at least one closed channel 10, is made in the drive housing 1. A part of the closed channel 10 (working branch 11) opened for diving (joining) segments of the balls 8 chain 9 in the helical grooves 6 and 7 half-shafts elements 4 and 5.

Closed channel 10 made in longitudinal section, rectangular with rounded outside corners 12. Working 11 and return line 13 branches of the channel 10 is connected straight line segments (branches) 14 and 15 at right angles, scrugli only the outer corners 12 of the formed rectangle. The cross-section of all branches closed channel 10 is equal to the diameter of the balls 8, and the number of balls 8 in the channel 10 is odd. Closed channel 10 is located in the tangential (refer to A.S. No. 1507603, figure 2) or a radial cross-section of the drive housing 1. Rectangular closed channel 10 in the housing 1 of the device may be more than one. Working 11 and return branches 13 of the channel 10 can be closely contiguous to each other. The cross-section of the branches of the channel 10 may be of any geometric profile to fit into it by the diameter of the ball 8: circle, polygon, square, triangle, etc. Helical grooves 6 and 7 on the surface of the half-shafts elements 4 and 5 can also be of any geometric profile to fit him with a segment of the ball: circle, polygon, square, triangle, and so what. Chains of balls in the closed channel 10 can be independent (not associated) with each other, or combined into a single, common, closed circuit for any number of rectangular channels (as in the patent of the Russian Federation on PM No. 38871, 3, 4). With an even number of rectangular channels 10 in the drive housing 1 with an odd number of balls 8 in each channel 10 makes the total number of balls in the differential is even.

The differential operates as follows. In straight-line motion of the vehicle on a good road the rotation from the leading of the housing 1 through the balls 8 in contact with the helical grooves 6 and 7 half-shafts elements 4 and 5, is transmitted to the shafts 2 and 3 of the car and then to the wheels, providing them with the same angular velocity. Turning the car or hit one of the leading wheels of the vehicle on the rough road (pit or mound) wheels, and hence the shafts 2 and 3 with pausetime elements 4 and 5 tend to rotate at different angular velocities. While the 8 balls begin to move in a rectangular channel 10 without interfering with the turning of the vehicle. When you hit any of the drive wheel on a slippery stretch of road there is a sharp reduction in its grip. The balls 8 in the device rasklinivanie pausetime elements 4 and 5, the differential blokiruet and automatically transfers power to the wheel, which grip is better. The car continues to move without slipping.

Chain 9 from 8 balls, placed in a rectangular closed channel 10, in terms of the operation of the differential must maintain the minimum clearances between themselves and the walls of the channel 10. This chain 9 balls 8 will have the maximum braking by moving the balls 8 in the process of operation of the device through angles 16 of the channel 10.

An odd number of balls 8 in a rectangular closed channel 10 ensures free movement of the chain of balls 8 with unchanging, minimum clearance between the balls 8. The movement of the balls 8 in the rectangular channel 9 leads to a cyclical change in the length of a closed chain 9. When entering the 8 ball at the corner 16 of the channel 10, the length of this part of the closed chain 9 balls 8 starts gradually decreases, and the other part of the chain 9 continuously, synchronously to increase, because the top of the other corner 16 of the channel 10 is at this point between the balls 8. On the fragment chain 9 from three balls 8 (figure 3 and figure 4) shows how changing the length of the chord at the points of contact between the balls 8 with each other. The sum of the lengths of the chords of the balls 8 /is shown by the dashed line in figure 3 is larger and 4 smaller at 12-14%. When you approach the following 8 balls to the corners of the rectangular channel 10, the cycle will repeat. Therefore, when the movement closed the th chain with an odd number of balls 8 through the corners 16 of the rectangular channel 10 of the chain 9, passing two any angle, channel 10, is extended, and the other part of the chain 9, passing other two angles is reduced. This happens synchronously. In this case, the total length of the closed chain, and consequently, the minimum clearances between the balls 8 are stored.

Even when the same number of balls in a rectangular, closed channel is not part of, and the whole chain is lengthened or shortened in motion simultaneously on all four corners, getting jammed balls, or greatly increasing the gap between them. When such instability chain length differential becomes unusable.

For four years the applicant has been developed, manufactured and tested twelve variants differentials for different types of vehicles. In bench trials and trials in different climatic conditions on cars all the differentials showed good results.

When the vehicle both forward and backward, the device works perfectly as an ordinary differential classical scheme, does not interfere with the operation of the vehicle. Improved patency in off-road and reliability when driving in bad weather. Increased stability driving in icy conditions, especially on the turns. In the process of testing cars ruled the drivers of different skill from beginners to experienced athletes and is tohomiko. All noted the improved handling characteristics of cars.

A limited-slip differential vehicle containing the drive housing, which coaxially to each other posted by related axes half-shaft elements having on the outer surface of the helical grooves of the opposite direction of the spiral, rolling elements in the form of balls, filling chain is made in the drive housing, at least one closed channel, part of which opened for dipping segments of the balls in the helical grooves, characterized in that a closed channel in a longitudinal cross-sectional rectangular with rounded outside corners, the cross section of the branches of the rectangular closed channel is equal to the diameter of the balls, and the number of balls in the odd channel.



 

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