Device for transforming electromagnetic wave polarization

FIELD: antenna engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has radio-transparent insulating layer and helical components forming lattice structure which are equally spaced apart therein. Axes of all helical components are positioned unidirectionally and lie in insulating layer plane; axis and ends of each helical component form plane perpendicular to direction of reflected wave propagation. Each helical component has following characteristics: Nt turns and helix pitch angle α found from formula where α is angle of helix pitch angle; Nt is turn number of helical component. Length of conductor forming helical component equals half the length of electromagnetic wave.

EFFECT: ability of transforming linearly polarized electromagnetic wave into circularly polarized wave irrespective of plane position of incident linearly polarized electromagnetic wave at desired direction of incident wave propagation.

3 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to antenna technology, is designed specifically to convert linearly-polarized electromagnetic wave in the electromagnetic wave with circular polarization, and can be used, for example, for transmitting signals with circular polarization in the microwave range in space communication systems.

Modern art is characterized by a number of devices that can solve this problem in various areas of wavelengths.

Of optics known classical device for waves polarized in a circle, made in the form of a crystal plate cut parallel to the optical axis, the thickness of the plate is such that the optical path difference of the two rays that have passed through the plate, the oscillation length of the vector which are in mutually perpendicular directions, is a quarter of the wavelength of the incident radiation [1].

Thus the amplitude of oscillation perpendicular waves must be equal. The equality of the amplitudes is achieved by the fall of the linearly-polarized electromagnetic wave plate and a quarter wavelength so that the direction of oscillations of the light vector made an angle of 45° with the direction of the optical axis of the plate.

This device operates mainly in the optical range, only works when the festival of the Denia waves through the device and only works with a certain direction of oscillation of the light vector.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed is a device for converting the polarization elektromagnitnoi wave containing dielectric layer lattice structure, made of the same conductive elements [2].

This dielectric layer is a charge on one side which made the lattice structure of the same conductive elements representing meander lines that are spaced at an angle of 45° to the plane of the linear polarization of electromagnetic waves and parallel to each other.

In addition, the lattice structure has the settings for changing the phase of the two vector components of the electric field strength of an electromagnetic wave passing through the antenna polarizer.

The principle of operation of the known device based on the orientation of the plane of linear polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave, which significantly narrows the scope of its application. The known device provides reception of waves with circular polarization only with the passage of electromagnetic waves through the device, making it impossible to use in reflecting systems.

In addition, the manufacturing process of lattice structure and chemical, in accordance with the technology of the production of printed circuit boards, which is quite trudem them.

The technical problem solved by the claimed invention is to create a device for converting the polarization of an electromagnetic wave from linear to circular, regardless of the orientation of the plane of linear polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave for a given direction of propagation of the incident wave.

Technical result achieved during the implementation of the claimed invention:

- formation of a circularly polarized wave is due to the radiation of the interconnected electric dipole moment and the magnetic moment of each spiral element, which gives equal in magnitude to the contributions to the reflected wave;

- simplification of the manufacturing process of lattice structure.

The technical result is achieved in that the device for converting the polarization of an electromagnetic wave containing dielectric layer lattice structure, made of the same conductive elements, the conductive elements are in the form of spiral elements placed in the dielectric layer, so that the axis of the spiral elements are oriented in the same direction and lie in the plane of the dielectric layer, and the axis and the ends of each spiral element form a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the reflected wave, the distance between the second helical element is the number of N inturns and angle α lifting of coils, which is determined by the formula

where α - elevation of turns of spiral element,

Nin- the number of turns of the spiral element.

In addition, the length of the conductor, made of spiral element equal to half of the wavelength of electromagnetic waves.

In addition, the dielectric layer is radiotransparent.

The invention consists in the following.

In accordance with theory of the electromagnetic interaction of the fields described in [3], when the radiation of a circularly polarized electromagnetic waves of the fundamental role played by the components of the electric dipole moment (p) and magnetic moment (m)is directed along the axis of the spiral element. The parameters of the spiral elements, namely the number of Ninturns of the spiral element, angle α lifting of coils of the spiral element, the length L of the conductor, made of spiral element is designed so that the formation of a circularly polarized wave occurred only due to the radiation of these components. When components of moments, orthogonal to the axes of the spiral elements can have only a distorting effect on the radiation of a circularly polarized wave, and their influence should be minimized. For this plane, the festival is Asa through the axis and the ends of each spiral element, oriented at an angle of 90° to the direction of propagation of the reflected wave, as in this configuration, due to the symmetry of the current distribution along the spiral element, the components of the electric dipole and magnetic moments perpendicular to the axis of the spiral element and the direction of propagation of the reflected wave, is equal to zero and can not have a distorting effect on the radiation of a circularly polarized wave. The components of the electric dipole and magnetic moments parallel to the direction of propagation of the reflected waves do not contribute to the reflected wave and not distort its circular polarization.

So was the formation of a circularly polarized reflected wave, angle α lifting of coils of the spiral element is determined by theoretically calculated the formula:

where α - elevation of turns of spiral element,

Nin- the number of turns of the spiral element.

This formula is obtained by applying the dipole approximation when considering the radiation of spiral element provided in the main resonance frequency, and assuming that the electric dipole moment and magnetic moment of the spiral element gives equal in absolute value the contributions to the reflected wave, as a result, this wave is realitaet circular polarization.

The length of the conductor, made of spiral elements, calculated from the condition of the main resonance frequency, from which it follows that the current in the conductor reaches the highest values in case of equal length of the conductor L is half the length of the electromagnetic wave, that is,

where L is the length of the conductor,

λ - wavelength of the operating range in a vacuum.

The calculated angle α rise of turns of spiral element uniquely identifies the radius r of revolution of the spiral element and the step h of the spiral element depending on the number of Ninof turns of spiral element:

where r is the radius of the coils of the spiral element,

h - step spiral element,

L is the length of the conductor,

α - elevation of turns of spiral element,

Nin- the number of turns of the spiral element.

Comparative analysis of the proposed solutions with the prototype shows that the proposed device is different from the known geometry of conductive elements, the relationship of the parameters and their location in the dielectric layer, namely, regardless of the orientation of the plane of linear polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave.

Thus, the claimed device for converting the polarization of an electromagnetic wave is new.

Analysis of scientific-technical and patent literature modern level of technology in this area has found a wide use of the sign "of the spiral element, namely a cylindrical spiral into a cylindrical spiral antennas axial radiation (see Antennas and microwave devices. Calculation and design of antenna arrays and radiating elements. Under the editorship of Professor Digestmessage. M: Soviet radio, 1972, s, A.S. USSR №1246196, CL 01Q 11/88, publ. 23.07.86 year, AS the USSR №1626294, CL 01Q 3/24, publ. 7.02.92 year).

Known cylindrical helical antenna containing a reflective screen, and above it a single conductive cylindrical spiral (or helix)that is connected with the supply feeder, differ only by the design parameters of active coils and their relative position with respect to each other and the General location relative to the reflecting screen. In known devices implemented axial mode radiation from elliptical polarization of radiation. In the inventive device, the spiral element is passive, in contrast to the known, and ensures the achievement of a technical result, namely, the formation of a circularly polarized wave in the direction perpendicular to the axial due to radiation equal in absolute value and connected component system the ski dipole and magnetic moments.

Also revealed the presence of using sign - antenna array of cylindrical helices (see the patent of the Republic of Belarus No. 4062, CL H01Q 21/24, publ. 2001.09.30).

Known antenna array contains the active cylindrical spirals with opposite winding turns of the conductor and the same winding angle not less than 14 degrees, the number of coils equal to at least three, and flat reflective screen, and the active helix is located above the reflective screen and perpendicular to it with their axes, and each of the active helix is the input power side of the screen.

The known device is intended to generate linearly-polarized radiation. In the inventive device, the lattice structure made of the same conductive elements in the form of a passive, in contrast to the known helical elements and provides in conjunction with other signs of achieving a technical result, namely, the formation of a circularly polarized wave.

Analysis of scientific-technical and patent information is not revealed in the known technical solutions claimed the essential features and the invention is not obvious from the prior art, which allows to conclude that the claimed device for converting the polarization of an electromagnetic wave has an inventive step.

Savla is my device for converting the polarization is industrially applicable because if it is possible to realize the specified area of the destination.

1 schematically shows the inventive device for polarization conversion.

Figure 2 - spiral element.

Figure 3 - spiral element in expanded form.

The inventive device for converting the polarization of an electromagnetic wave contains a radiation transparent dielectric layer 1 (see figure 1), and spiral elements 2, forming a lattice structure. In the manufacture of devices of the spiral elements 2 have each other, so that the axis 3 of all spiral elements 2 are oriented in the same direction and lying in the plane of the dielectric layer 1, and the axis 3 and the ends of each spiral element 2 was formed by the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the reflected wave. Spiral elements 2 fill the radio waves by a dielectric material and allowed to harden, or inserted into the parallel grooves in the solid radiation transparent dielectric layer 1. Each helical element (see figure 2) is executed with the following parameters: the number of Nincoils, angle α lifting of coils, the radius r of the coil body, step h and the length L of the conductor (see figure 3).

We fabricated a device for converting incident linearly-polarized electromagnetic wave in the electromagnetic wave from the circles of the second polarization. As a radiation transparent dielectric layer used foam. The lattice parameters of the structure were calculated for a frequency of 3 GHz. The lattice structure made of the same copper spiral elements with the number of Nin=2 turns; angle α=7,1° lifting of coils; length L=0.05 m conductor; radius r=3,95×10-3m loop; step h=3.1×10-3m

For measuring polarization characteristics of the applied method is based on the use of the receiving antenna with linear polarization field (horn antenna).

Horn antenna emits linearly-polarized electromagnetic wave. Reflected by the device radiation is investigated in a direction perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis and the ends of each spiral element.

The results are given in the graph (figure 4), illustrating the dependence of the ellipticity coefficient of frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave. In the field of resonant frequency of 3 GHz, the device provides reception of an electromagnetic wave with circular polarization, with the ellipticity coefficient close to unity (around 0.98).

Sources of information

1. Gstandard. Optics. M.: Nauka, 1976. 928 S.

2. AS the USSR №1821853 A1, 01Q 15/00, publ. 1993 (prototype).

3. Landau L.D., Lifshitz E.M.. Field theory. M.: Nauka, 1973. Vol.2. 504 S.

1. Device for conversions is of polarization of an electromagnetic wave, containing dielectric layer lattice structure, made of the same conductive elements, wherein the conductive elements are in the form of spirals placed in the dielectric layer so that the axis of the spiral elements are oriented in the same direction and lie in the plane of the dielectric layer, and the axis and the ends of each spiral element form a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the reflected wave, with each spiral element has Ninturns and elevation angle αthat is determined by the formula

where α - the angle of ascent of the spiral element,

Nin- the number of turns of the spiral element.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the length of the conductor, made of spiral element equal to half of the wavelength of electromagnetic waves.

3. The device according to claim 1, wherein the dielectric layer is radiotransparent.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: short-range radio communication and radar systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes storage of electric field potential by means of storage capacitor, avalanche discharge of storage capacitor, reception and radiation of electromagnetic wave by means of receiving-radiating element, concurrent generation, transmission, and radiation of pulsed signals. Electric field potential is stored by storage capacitor simultaneously with its storage at receiver input from current waves formed by pulses of receiving electromagnetic wave across two separated conductors of transceiving element; avalanche discharge of storage capacitor is conducted simultaneously with generation of current waves in same conductors producing radiated electromagnetic wave pulse. Device implementing proposed method has sawtooth current pulse generator connected to storage capacitor, avalanche diode, receiving-radiating element, and receiver. Receiving-radiating element is made in the form of two separated conductors shorted out on one end; they are series-connected with avalanche diode and storage capacitor at input and parallel-connected with receiver input through controlled limiter.

EFFECT: enhanced antenna efficiency and gain, as well as noise immunity, reduced power loss.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering; radio direction finding and radio communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed highly directive annular phased antenna array has N identical nondirectional antennas, N-channel controlled phase shifter, and adder. Array antennas are equidistantly disposed over circumference with radius R0 affording short admissible width of synthesized directivity pattern main lobe at maximal operating-band wavelength and at equal angular pitch relative to array center. Number of antennas is chosen from formula N = 4l + 2, where l =1, 2, 3, ... are integer numbers other than zero. Distances chosen between array center and phase centers of antennas compared with radius R for array antennas bearing odd sequence numbers are enhanced and for array antennas bearing even sequence numbers, reduced.

EFFECT: reduced level of synthesized directivity pattern side lobes, in average twice as broad operating band of antenna array.

1 cl, 30 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of radio technique namely to antenna technique.

SUBSTANCE: it may be used at designing antenna arrays for communication systems, location and electronic warfare. The technical result is in increasing the coefficient of efficiency of an antenna, range of action and efficiency of a radio system due to providing possibility of excitation of electromagnetic field in the shape of a bi -polar ultra short impulse signal that increases directivity of an antenna array. According to the proposed technical solutions an informative signal is transformed into an electromagnetic field in transmission lines and received electromagnetic field is divided along n horn oscillators with a tone-modulated electro magnetic wave antenna array. After division of the electromagnetic field along horn oscillators one part of the unipolar monoimpulse electromagnetic field is delayed in time for the half of the duration of the informative signal, the phase of this part of the electromagnetic field is transformed on the opposite and is interfered with the other part of the electromagnetic field. The wide-band antenna array for execution of the mentioned mode has an excitation system on n outputs and connected with it a radiating aperture fulfilled out of n horn oscillators with tone-modulated electromagnetic wave.

EFFECT: increases coefficient of efficiency.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: antenna engineering, possible usage as receiving antennas in radio broadcasting, radio communications and radio direction finding.

SUBSTANCE: antennas consist of working electrode, connected to input of antenna amplifier, isolated compensating electrode, connected to additional output of amplifier and positioned between working electrode and counterweight. On compensating electrode, signal transfer coefficient close to one in terms of voltage is provided for relatively to working electrode. Various elements of surface shape may be used as working electrode. Antenna array consists of N≥1 pairs, working electrodes of which are connected to inputs of amplifiers, and compensating electrodes - in crisscross manner and mutually are connected to additional outputs of amplifiers of pair. On these outputs, signal transfer coefficient by voltage relatively to working electrode close to one is enforced.

EFFECT: high frequency receipt mode, high efficiency of antenna array.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: microwave radio engineering; radar frequency-controlled antennas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed antenna is made in the form of flat array of linear radiators connected to power splitter in the form of sine-wave configured line. Components coupling power splitter with linear radiators are divided at antenna input into two groups so that longitudinal axis incorporating all even-numbered coupling members is offset relative to axis incorporating all odd-numbered coupling members by integer odd number of quarter-wavelengths in sine-wave line of power splitter. Phase mismatch occurring in this case is compensated for by respective difference in input section lengths of even- and odd-numbered linear radiators.

EFFECT: reduced space requirement, improved matching and performance characteristics of antenna and radar as a whole.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: microband microwave arrays for use in radars, microwave imagers, medical apparatuses, information receiving and transmitting systems.

SUBSTANCE: the radiators are positioned in the points of the hexagonal grid with a horizontal pitch determined by the required band of absence of the combination lobes in the directivity pattern, antiphase exciting elements of orthogonal linear polarizations are connected to the plate in antiphase on the orthogonal diagonals of the square.

EFFECT: reduced level cross-polarized components of the signal induced at polarizationally orthogonal outputs of the array for the band of electronic scanning exceeding +-45 deg.

3 dwg

The invention relates to monopulse antenna units (AU) from the total differential signal processing in radar systems accurate automatic tracking and review monopulse radar systems

The invention relates to the field of radio engineering, in particular to antenna technique and can be used when designing antenna arrays (AR) for communication systems, locations and electronic warfare meter wavelength range

The invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used as a receiving and/or transmitting underground phased antenna array (PPAR)

Testreflection // 2201022
The invention relates to the field of radar, and in particular to antenna technology, and represents testreflection (reflector rotated polarization)

The invention relates to microwave equipment and can be used as an element antennas with elliptical polarization in space communication systems

The invention relates to the field of radio communications and, in addition, can be used in radar and ECM (electronic counter

FIELD: antenna engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has radio-transparent insulating layer and helical components forming lattice structure which are equally spaced apart therein. Axes of all helical components are positioned unidirectionally and lie in insulating layer plane; axis and ends of each helical component form plane perpendicular to direction of reflected wave propagation. Each helical component has following characteristics: Nt turns and helix pitch angle α found from formula where α is angle of helix pitch angle; Nt is turn number of helical component. Length of conductor forming helical component equals half the length of electromagnetic wave.

EFFECT: ability of transforming linearly polarized electromagnetic wave into circularly polarized wave irrespective of plane position of incident linearly polarized electromagnetic wave at desired direction of incident wave propagation.

3 cl, 4 dwg

Transreflector // 2439757

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: transreflector comprises a system of parallel metal conductors with a period of conductors arrangement where λ - wave length in free space, forming a semi-transparent net arranged on the dielectric surface. The semi-transparent net is arranged on the flat dielectric surface with thickness of where λd - wave length in the dielectric, on the opposite side of the flat dielectric surface there is a system of serially alternating semitransparent circular zones and radiolucent circular zones. At the same time the semi-transparent circular zones are made of metal conductors, which form semi-transparent nets, besides, at the outer side of the semi-transparent net there is a dielectric layer of material with thickness equal to where n=1, 3, 5…, λd - wave length in the dielectric.

EFFECT: simplified design of the transreflector, increased manufacturability of production and reduced volume occupied by the transreflector with preservation of reflecting and transmitting properties.

5 dwg

FIELD: microband microwave arrays for use in radars, microwave imagers, medical apparatuses, information receiving and transmitting systems.

SUBSTANCE: the radiators are positioned in the points of the hexagonal grid with a horizontal pitch determined by the required band of absence of the combination lobes in the directivity pattern, antiphase exciting elements of orthogonal linear polarizations are connected to the plate in antiphase on the orthogonal diagonals of the square.

EFFECT: reduced level cross-polarized components of the signal induced at polarizationally orthogonal outputs of the array for the band of electronic scanning exceeding +-45 deg.

3 dwg

FIELD: microwave radio engineering; radar frequency-controlled antennas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed antenna is made in the form of flat array of linear radiators connected to power splitter in the form of sine-wave configured line. Components coupling power splitter with linear radiators are divided at antenna input into two groups so that longitudinal axis incorporating all even-numbered coupling members is offset relative to axis incorporating all odd-numbered coupling members by integer odd number of quarter-wavelengths in sine-wave line of power splitter. Phase mismatch occurring in this case is compensated for by respective difference in input section lengths of even- and odd-numbered linear radiators.

EFFECT: reduced space requirement, improved matching and performance characteristics of antenna and radar as a whole.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: antenna engineering, possible usage as receiving antennas in radio broadcasting, radio communications and radio direction finding.

SUBSTANCE: antennas consist of working electrode, connected to input of antenna amplifier, isolated compensating electrode, connected to additional output of amplifier and positioned between working electrode and counterweight. On compensating electrode, signal transfer coefficient close to one in terms of voltage is provided for relatively to working electrode. Various elements of surface shape may be used as working electrode. Antenna array consists of N≥1 pairs, working electrodes of which are connected to inputs of amplifiers, and compensating electrodes - in crisscross manner and mutually are connected to additional outputs of amplifiers of pair. On these outputs, signal transfer coefficient by voltage relatively to working electrode close to one is enforced.

EFFECT: high frequency receipt mode, high efficiency of antenna array.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of radio technique namely to antenna technique.

SUBSTANCE: it may be used at designing antenna arrays for communication systems, location and electronic warfare. The technical result is in increasing the coefficient of efficiency of an antenna, range of action and efficiency of a radio system due to providing possibility of excitation of electromagnetic field in the shape of a bi -polar ultra short impulse signal that increases directivity of an antenna array. According to the proposed technical solutions an informative signal is transformed into an electromagnetic field in transmission lines and received electromagnetic field is divided along n horn oscillators with a tone-modulated electro magnetic wave antenna array. After division of the electromagnetic field along horn oscillators one part of the unipolar monoimpulse electromagnetic field is delayed in time for the half of the duration of the informative signal, the phase of this part of the electromagnetic field is transformed on the opposite and is interfered with the other part of the electromagnetic field. The wide-band antenna array for execution of the mentioned mode has an excitation system on n outputs and connected with it a radiating aperture fulfilled out of n horn oscillators with tone-modulated electromagnetic wave.

EFFECT: increases coefficient of efficiency.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering; radio direction finding and radio communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed highly directive annular phased antenna array has N identical nondirectional antennas, N-channel controlled phase shifter, and adder. Array antennas are equidistantly disposed over circumference with radius R0 affording short admissible width of synthesized directivity pattern main lobe at maximal operating-band wavelength and at equal angular pitch relative to array center. Number of antennas is chosen from formula N = 4l + 2, where l =1, 2, 3, ... are integer numbers other than zero. Distances chosen between array center and phase centers of antennas compared with radius R for array antennas bearing odd sequence numbers are enhanced and for array antennas bearing even sequence numbers, reduced.

EFFECT: reduced level of synthesized directivity pattern side lobes, in average twice as broad operating band of antenna array.

1 cl, 30 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: short-range radio communication and radar systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes storage of electric field potential by means of storage capacitor, avalanche discharge of storage capacitor, reception and radiation of electromagnetic wave by means of receiving-radiating element, concurrent generation, transmission, and radiation of pulsed signals. Electric field potential is stored by storage capacitor simultaneously with its storage at receiver input from current waves formed by pulses of receiving electromagnetic wave across two separated conductors of transceiving element; avalanche discharge of storage capacitor is conducted simultaneously with generation of current waves in same conductors producing radiated electromagnetic wave pulse. Device implementing proposed method has sawtooth current pulse generator connected to storage capacitor, avalanche diode, receiving-radiating element, and receiver. Receiving-radiating element is made in the form of two separated conductors shorted out on one end; they are series-connected with avalanche diode and storage capacitor at input and parallel-connected with receiver input through controlled limiter.

EFFECT: enhanced antenna efficiency and gain, as well as noise immunity, reduced power loss.

4 cl, 2 dwg

Up!