Method of support of navigation of captive air platforms of wireless information transmission systems and captive air platform for realization of this method (versions)

FIELD: means for support of navigation of air platforms used for forming wireless information transmission systems within line-of-sight range in preset geographic region.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes creation of lifting force of flying vehicle for keeping the platform at preset altitude and holding the flying vehicle and air platform in preset point of surface with the aid of flexible rod which is used as channel for feeding the supply energy for forming the thrust vector of flying vehicle lifting force. According to invention, gaseous medium is used as energy carrier for forming the supply energy. Working medium is charged under pressure to energy supply channel of flexible rod and at outlet of this channel energy of gaseous working medium is converted into energy creating the lifting force of flying vehicle. For creating the lifting force, energy of gaseous working medium in form of combustible or natural gas may be converted into electric power or reactive thrust at output of energy supply channel. According to first version, instrument bay of air platform is provided with at least one fuel element for conversion of combustible or natural gas energy into electrical energy and flexible rod is provided with hollow channel whose lower end is brought into communication with combustible or natural gas source; upper end of flexible rod is provided with at least one fuel element whose electrical output is connected with input of electric motor of tractor propeller. According to second version, flexible rod is provided with hollow channel whose lower end is brought into communication with combustible or natural gas source or compressed air source and upper end is connected with rotating engine of tractor propeller made in form of jet engine or in form of ramjet engine provided with ignition element for ignition of combustible or natural gas or in form of converter for conversion of compressed air pressure into rotary motion of tractor propeller.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of navigation of air platforms due to enhanced lightning protection and climatic stability of power supply to tractor propeller engine and air platform instruments.

7 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention relate to the means of providing air navigation platforms used for forming a wireless data transmission through the line of sight in a given geographic area.

Wireless broadband networks are virtually no competition on the speed of deployment for geographic areas in which a large area combined with a low population density, broadband wireless solutions are of particular importance, as they allow cost-effectively and quickly build telecommunications infrastructure in the wider landscape.

The use of aerial platforms provides telecommunication coverage of large geographic regions. Simultaneously with the establishment of a regional data networks, voice and video high-altitude platforms can be used for the purposes of surveillance within 70-80 km (e.g. in border areas or monitoring of traffic flows), forest fire detection, environmental monitoring using sensor networks, geological and geophysical investigations, radiological control, etc.

The duration of navigation when using high altitude platforms regional networks at altitudes up to 1 km in the natural environment on public p is stranstvo determines the priority tasks of ensuring the reliability of the operation and management of air platforms, including the availability and cheapness of energy resources supply their propulsion systems and instrumentation systems. With this you should also consider the necessity of their grossissement and climate resilience.

One of the most important tasks in ensuring navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles when used on an industrial scale is to optimize the number of steps of converting the available energy resources in the vertical component of the thrust of the aircraft.

The use of jet engines mounted on the ends of helicopter propellers, it is known, for example, in unmanned helicopter of the German Dornier DO-32K "Kibitz", in which two turbocharged engine "cold cycle" work on the rotor blade. However, turbojet engines run on liquid fuel (kerosene, gasoline), which is under high pressure is fed up and ensures functionality of the system within a relatively short time of operation. Due to the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid hose becomes thick and therefore heavy (especially with liquid)that does not apply in the case of long-term use of the aircraft for navigation aerial platforms wireless communication systems.

There is a method of creating a reactive force to rotate react the main propeller of the helicopter, based on the application of the reactive force to the ends of the blades created by converting chemical energy of fuel into kinetic energy of the jet flowing from the nozzle air-jet engine, so that sequentially convert the chemical energy of the first fuel into electrical energy by means of an onboard electric generator, then thermal energy of superheated steam in the heater and, finally, the kinetic energy of the vapor stream flowing from the nozzle air-jet engine (patent RF №2107643, 1998.03.27). This sequence of energy conversion implements helicopter power unit jet drive rotor containing an air-jet engines mounted on the ends of the rotor blade, and placed inside the cavities of the blades, means for supplying working fluid and energy to air-breathing engines from sources of working fluid and energy located inside the fuselage, characterized in that each air-jet engine is equipped with two coaxial screws, turboforcetm block and ejector nozzle placed around the exhaust nozzle, each means for supplying working fluid and energy to each of the air-jet engine made in the form of electromagnetic camera connected electric is the wires from the generator inside the fuselage, the inlet of the heater is made with possibility of connection to the water tank inside the fuselage, and the outlet is configured to connect with turboforcetm unit air-jet engine.

However, to ensure navigation aerial platforms wireless networks specified technical solution is unacceptable, as all systems of energy conversion and energy sources are airborne and can not provide the necessary resource.

The closest analogues are the way of the formation of regional wireless transmission of information that is implemented in telecommunication aerial platform (patent RF №52296 for a utility model publ. 10.03.06,). The feature of the method of formation of the regional wireless transmission of information, including accommodation air switching platforms at predetermined heights by creating a lifting force for retention in specific points of the regional network geographic region and stabilize the position of the platforms at these points, is that the lift force for each platform create with remote and/or Autonomous manned aircraft due to the vertical component of its thrust vector, and the retention of this aircraft and platforms specified in the point regional network geographic region carry, linking them with a given surface point geographic region flexible shaft, which is used as the channel of the power supply to ensure the creation of the thrust vector of the aircraft. Stabilization of the position of the platform provide due to the inertial navigation of the aircraft at a given point regional network geographic region.

Telecommunication aerial platform is characterized by the fact that the node forming the lifting force is made in the form of the fuselage with the instrument compartment associated with screw propulsion in the form of at least one gondola, which includes an electric motor with gearbox and traction screw, while the fuselage is connected through a biaxial gimbals with cable-rope, the other end of which is fixed with the possibility of changing the length of the cable at a given point of the surface of geographic region and associated with a source of electrical energy at this point.

The disadvantages of these technical solutions is that not all geographical regions have sufficient power resources to ensure reliable and continuous navigation aerial platforms, as well as low grossissement and climatic stability of electric power circuits.

The technical result of the proposed invented the second is to expand the functionality of a method of providing navigation and improve the reliability of the navigation aerial platforms telecommunication network by increasing grossissement climate resilience channel power supply to power the traction motors, screws and instruments aerial platforms.

This technical result is achieved in the method of providing navigation aerial platforms for wireless networks transmitting information, including the creation of the lifting force of the aircraft to accommodate the associated platform at a predetermined height and the hold of the aircraft and platforms at a given point of the surface of a flexible shaft is used as channel power supply to generate a thrust vector lifting force of the aircraft, so that as the fuel to create energy supply using gaseous working fluid which is under pressure is injected into the feed channel energy supply flexible rod, and the output of this channel convert energy gaseous working fluid in the energy creating lift force aircraft.

In addition, to create a lifting force aircraft can the energy of the gaseous working medium in the form of fuel or natural gas at the outlet of the feed channel power supply to convert to electric power.

In addition, to create a lifting force aircraft can the energy of the gaseous working medium in the form of fuel gas or natural gas or compressed air transformed razvivat in jet thrust.

This technical result for the first variant tethered aerial platform for wireless networks transmitting information containing the stations transmit and receive signals in the predetermined geographic region associated with the node forming the lifting force in the form of the instrument compartment, an electric motor with gearbox and traction screw, and the node is connected to a flexible shaft, the second end of which is fixed with the possibility of changing the length of thrust at a given point of the surface of the geographical region, is achieved by the fact that in the instrument compartment of the aerial platform has at least one fuel cell energy conversion of fuel or natural gas into electrical energy, and a flexible traction made with a hollow channel, the lower end of which is communicated with a source of fuel or natural gas, and the top - at least one fuel cell, the electrical output of which is connected to the input of the electric motor of the traction screw.

For the second option tethered aerial platform for wireless networks transmitting information containing the stations transmit and receive signals in the predetermined geographic region associated with the node forming the lifting force in the form of a traction screw with the engine rotation and the instrument compartment, and the node is connected to a flexible shaft, the other end of which is exurban with the possibility of changing the length of the thrust at a given point of the surface of the geographical region, this technical result is achieved by the fact that the flexible rod is made with a hollow channel, the lower end of which is communicated with a source of fuel or natural gas or compressed air, and the top with the engine rotational traction screw, made in the form of jet propulsion.

In addition, in this embodiment, the aerial platform jet propulsion can be made in the form of direct-flow jet engine to ignition of fuel or natural gas.

In addition, in this embodiment, the aerial platform jet propulsion can be made in the form of a pressure transducer compressed air into rotational movement of the traction screw.

The invention illustrated by the drawings.

Figure 1 shows a structural diagram illustrating the first embodiment of the platform;

figure 2 presents a constructive diagram illustrating the second embodiment of the platform.

Aerial platform 1 for wireless transmission of information includes a node forming the lifting force (aircraft) 2 associated with the host station 3 receiving and transmitting signals in a given geographic region. Site formation lifting force 2 made with the instrument compartment 11 and is connected with a screw propeller 4, driven in rotation by the electric motor 12 with the gear 10 and the traction screw 5. Usedfurniture lifting force is connected through a biaxial gimbals 6 with a flexible shaft 7, the second end of which is fixed with the possibility of changing the length of the flexible rod, for example, the coil 8 at a given point of the surface of the geographical region and connected with a source of gas or compressed air (not shown).

Station 3 receiving and transmitting signals in the predetermined geographic region is made in the form of a base station of wireless broadband access systems and placed in the instrument compartment, which may also include (not shown) battery, voltage converters, secondary power supplies, video surveillance.

Flexible rod 7 is made with a hollow channel 9, in which injected fuel or natural gas, or compressed air.

In the first embodiment, the fixed cover 11 is placed, at least one or more of the fuel elements 13, which are electrically connected with the motor 12 to the rotation of the traction screw 5.

In the second embodiment, a hollow channel 9 passes through to the height of the jet propulsion engine 14 of rotation of the traction screw 5. In the case of injection into the hollow channel 9 fuel or natural gas, jet propulsion device made in the form of direct-flow jet engine 14a) with the ignition element 15. In the case of injection into the hollow channel 9 compressed air jet propulsion device made in the form of a pressure transducer concisely what about the air 14b) into rotational movement of the traction screw. In the simplest case, this may be a pipe with a blank wall with one hand and the nozzle with the other hand. Can also be used a known pneumatic circuit converting the pressure of the compressed air into rotational motion (centrifugal, axial, and so on). The node 2 and the instrument compartment 11 are sealing gaskets rotation.

The telecommunication aerial platform is as follows.

The lift force is generated air traction screw 5, the rotation of which is provided by the energy converters of the gaseous working fluid in the hollow channel 9. To create a horizontal component of thrust of the propeller motor mounted in a cardan suspension, leans in the right direction with the help of the control system and stabilization (not shown).

In addition, these platforms can provide the functions of surveillance and a number of other functions that were previously described.

The energy Converter in the first embodiment is an electric drive with the flow of energy in the form of fuel natural gas with subsequent conversion to electrical energy using fuel cells.

Energy on the platform, hanging at a height of 200-400 m is transmitted by means of an insulating plastic tube. The chemical energy in natural gas is converted to the right near St is only to electrical power by means of so-called fuel cells [E. justi, Vinsel. The fuel elements. - M.: Mir, 1964. - 480 S. Fuel cells. The kinetics of hydrogen processes. - M.: Nauka, 1968. - 373 S.]. The overall efficiency of such elements consists of 2 parts: electric and heat (see table 1).

Table 1

Types of fuel cells
Item typeWorking temperature °The efficiency of the output electric energy %The total efficiency, %
Fuel cells60-16030-3550-70
proton exchange membrane (PEMFC)
Fuel cells on the basis of orthophosphoric acid (phosphoric) acid (PAFC)150-2003570-80
Fuel cells based on molten carbonate (MCFC)600-70045-5070-80
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)700-100050-6070-80

As can be seen from the table, the efficiency of the output electric power ranges from 30% to 60% (average ˜45%). To use additional heat energy, which is only 20% and it is likely to diffuse heat, it is possible to additional heating at low temp is the temperature of operation.

Energy conversion options for carrying out the invention differ as follows:

In the first embodiment, the double conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy is converted with an efficiency of ˜45%, then the electric energy is converted into mechanical efficiency ˜80%, i.e. the total efficiency ˜36%. And there are 2 Converter to a certain weight.

- The second one-time conversion of chemical energy of the gas or the potential energy of compressed air is converted into mechanical using flow jet engine or Converter pressure compressed air 14b) into rotational movement of the traction screw.

The efficiency of direct-flow jet engine depends on the compression ratio (see below)

When K=1,35

Table 2

5710
ηt0,430,490,55

Uniflow engine is simple and reliable, as it has no moving parts. There are no valves and turbine. But it may not work at zero speed of the oncoming flow. In our case, this is not decisive, because the engines are located at the ends of helicopter blades, which proves what on Earth can you promote extraneous engine up to speed, sufficient for stable operation of a ramjet engine.

Remains only the question of whether the quality of the fuel is natural gas (or mixture of propane and butane, used in everyday life in liquefied form at a pressure 11-16 ATM in cylinders) and what compression level you can tolerate.

Liquefied gases are used even in diesel engines with a compression ratio ε=12-20. There problems are not with the octane and cetane, which affects the ignition in diesel engines.

This problem with the ignition may occur and in this case, but it should be solved once and still on Earth (i.e. up to the height).

The second problem uniflow engine is burning in the combustion chamber. It can be solved, for example, by applying ceramics.

For the calculation of the hose there are two formulas

for laminar motion

- for a whirl

where- the flow of liquid or gas,

d - diameter of the pipe,

ν - kinematic viscosity,

ρ - the density of the liquid (gas).

The caloric value of the gas[Handbook of industrial engineer. In three volumes. Volume 1. Ed. Acad. E. Chudakov. M, GENTY "engineering", 1951, 1036 S.]. Here 1 [nm3] - attack called normal cubic meter (i.e. at 1 ATM and normal temperature). Weight of 1 [nm] 0.8 kg. Here

To transmit power P=1 [kW] (without cap) must be pumped through the hose 1 with the following amount of gas:

Because: 1 cal=4,2 j; 1 kcal=4,2·103[J]; 1 j=1 W·1,

Finally we have:

Chemical energy of the gas can be converted to mechanical using a conventional internal combustion engine (ice) (cap ˜25%) or using air-breathing ramjet engine (WFD), the efficiency of which (43-55)% (see table 2). Thus, we must increase the rate of fuel consumption at least 2 times. For preliminary calculations we will increase by 3.3 times, i.e. with stock. Thus, we have:

q1≅0.1 l/C.

In view of the apparent non-linearity characteristics of the dynamics of flow depending on the diameter (d) of the hose calculation here for the power of 10 kW (i.e. q=10, q1=1 l/s) and the diameter will accept obviously less

d=1 cm=10-2[cm].

In addition:

First, check the character movement, by calculating the number of Re

where Ucpfind outi.e.

From here:

Since crit is the resource value of the Reynolds number Re kr=2300, Re>Rekri.e. the turbulent motion, and use the formula for turbulent flow

As:and 1 [m2]=104[cm2]

then, by converting the dimensions are:

Hydrostatic gas pressure at height H=200 m will be:

where γ specific weight of the gas.

Thus, to raise the gas to a height H=200 m will be required overpressure: (ΔR)Σ=ΔPT+ΔPG.S.=0,1446 ATM.

The weight of the hose will depend on the ratio of the density (ρ) and strength [σ] the material of the hose. These parameters are shown below for the different materials from which to fabricate hoses.

Table 5

td align="center"> 3,5
No. p./p.materialOperating temperature, With°
1Polyethylene (PE)0,931-2,4-60-+100
2Fluoroplastic-42,22,5-60 to+250
3Teflon-32,1-195-+100
4Polyamide-681,15-6-60 to+120
5Polyester (nylon)1,4111-12-
6Fiberglass laminate1,816-33-60 to+130

For approximate calculations will take the easiest in the table material - polyethylene:;;.

The calculation showed that at 20 fold the stock, the wall thickness of the hose is equal to δ=0,2 mm

Hence the mass of 1 m of hose will be:

The entire weight of the hose when N=200 m will be:

It is possible to estimate the so-called height samovytaskivaniya hose made of this material are:

m=ρSH, and the weight P=γSH;

Where:

Thus, the height H=200 m, this material uses only a fifth of its strength. The strength calculations from other types of loads you have to maintain on the basis of the remaining 4/5-part, i.e. from 0.8 to [σ].

A similar feature for other materials is given below

Table 6

HcThe balance of strength
Soft copper Ml7,5˜121.610,5
Soft Al2,7˜72,66,46
Dacron1,41˜10.58,1511,2
Fiberglass laminate1,8˜2413,323,6

It should be noted that (ΔPT) is the result of friction of the gas on the walls of the hose, which is directed in the direction of gas flow, i.e. upwards. As a result, the weight of the hose is reduced by the value of:

In addition, the tube is filled with gas, the force of Archimedes and the weight of the hose is added to the weight of the gas. These two factors add to the weight hose size

Thus, the effective weight of the hose, strictly speaking, is:

(mg)eff=(mg)Z-(ΔPTSW+(Δm)g=1,26-0,082+0,016=1,194 kg

Check this result in a simpler, more laminar the formula:

In the case of use as the gaseous working medium compressed air can be real is to use the above margin of safety hose, what is needed to convert the energy of the static gas pressure in the hose into the energy of a jet of air at the outlet of the nozzle by analogy, in the simplest case, with Saharonim wheel in hydrodynamics.

Thus, the application of the proposed invention is achieved technical result consists in extending the functionality of the method of providing navigation and improve the reliability of the navigation aerial platforms telecommunication network by increasing grossissement and climate resilience channel power supply to power the traction motors, screws and instruments aerial platforms.

1. The method of providing navigation tethered aerial platforms for wireless networks transmitting information, including the creation of the lifting force of the aircraft to accommodate the associated platform at a predetermined height and the hold of the aircraft and platforms at a given point of the surface of a flexible shaft is used as channel power supply to generate a thrust vector lifting force of the aircraft, characterized in that the energy source to create energy supply using gaseous working fluid which is under pressure is injected into the feed channel energy supply flexible rod, and the output of this channel be the will formed the energy of the gaseous working fluid in the energy to create a lifting force flying machine.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to generate the lifting force aircraft energy of the gaseous working medium in the form of fuel or natural gas at the outlet of the feed channel energy power is converted into electric power.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to generate the lifting force aircraft energy of the gaseous working medium in the form of a combustible gas, or natural gas, or compressed air is converted into jet thrust.

4. Tethered aerial platform for wireless networks transmitting information containing the stations transmit and receive signals in the predetermined geographic region associated with the node forming the lifting force in the form of the instrument compartment, an electric motor with gearbox and traction screw, and the node is connected to a flexible shaft, the second end of which is fixed with the possibility of changing the length of thrust at a given point of the surface of the geographical region, characterized in that the instrument compartment of the aerial platform has at least one fuel cell energy conversion of fuel or natural gas into electrical energy, and a flexible traction made with a hollow channel, the lower end of which is communicated with a source of fuel or natural gas, and the top - at least one fuel cell, the electrical output of which is connected to the input of the electric motor of the traction screw, as well as voltage converters and secondary power sources in the apparatus section.

5. Tethered aerial platform for wireless networks transmitting information containing the stations transmit and receive signals in the predetermined geographic region associated with the node forming the lifting force in the form of a traction screw with the engine rotation and the instrument compartment, and the node is connected to a flexible shaft, the second end of which is fixed with the possibility of changing the length of thrust at a given point of the surface of a geographic region, wherein the flexible rod is made with a hollow channel, the lower end of which is communicated with a source of fuel or natural gas or compressed air, and the top - with the engine rotational traction screw, made in the form of reactive mover, and a hollow channel passes through along the thrust to the height of the jet propulsion engine of rotation of the traction screw.

6. Platform according to claim 5, characterized in that the jet propulsion device made in the form of direct-flow jet engine to ignition of fuel or natural gas.

7. Platform according to claim 5, characterized in that the jet propulsion device made in the form of a pressure transducer compressed air into rotational movement of the traction screw.



 

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The invention relates to aircraft, designed for continuous monitoring of the air for separate areas when addressing environmental, fire and military tasks

FIELD: transportation power systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes transport facilities, captive balloon, captive cable used for holding and guiding the transport facilities and wind-power electric stations mounted on captive balloon and used for motion of transport facilities. Captive cable is provided with two (or more) current conductors fastened with insulating layers made from high-strength material. Each current conductor is located in vertical longitudinal plane and is fastened to ends of captive cable through insulating layers and is connected with respective wind-power electric station. Outer surfaces of current conductors located in vertical longitudinal planes are provided with current-conducting wear-resistance coats.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability of system in upper layers of troposphere.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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