Construction extrusion-compensatory block, block production line and method for porous material production for block filling
FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings.
SUBSTANCE: construction block comprises shell of solid sand concrete and core made of porous cement-based material. Block is produced by extrusion-compensatory method with shell cavity division into three sections by means of transversal stiffening diaphragms. The sections are shaped as triangular prisms. Solid sand concrete includes sand having gradation factor of at least 1.88. To provide cement-sand concrete plasticity during block forming tall oil pitch taken in amount of 0.3-1.5% of Portland cement mass is additionally used. Raw mix for porous material preparation includes (per 1m3 of ready mix) Portland cement - 159-300 kg, tall oil pitch - 0.9 l and aqueous protein solution with 0.75-0.9% concentration - 3.2-6.0 l. Shell and stiffening diaphragms of construction block have the same thicknesses. Shell production method and method for porous material production for shell filling are also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased quality and productivity.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the production of building materials and can be used in the manufacture of building blocks for fencing as load-bearing elements with heat-shielding properties, bearing typesetting floor elements, coatings for reinforced concrete beams t-shaped profile.
Known wall construction element represents a concrete block with holes or recesses filled with foamed urea-formaldehyde resin before and after curing concrete (patent GB No. 1525238, CL IS 1/06, publ. 20.09.1978).
The disadvantage of this unit is the complexity of its manufacture from various materials division operations, destruction of filler materials, with time - loss heat-shielding properties, selection during the operational period into the environment of hazardous substances by decomposition.
The closest in technical essence is a building element comprising a shell of dense core of porous material (patent RU №2030527, CL ES 3/30, publ. 10.03.1995). One of the longitudinal walls of the shell on the upper plane is made with grooves for the passage of the connecting straps. The composition of the shell consists of cement, sand and water, the core is made of cement, sand, water, foaming additive OP-3. Or wrapper made of sand, concrete, CE is Davina made of porous sand concrete with the use of foaming additive OP-3". In this invention to prevent the formation of cold bridges offer during the construction of masonry completely exclude the installation of the "header" element for dressing the walls (for the ligation of two adjacent rows are U-shaped brackets of the rebar).
The lack of this element in the construction of enclosing walls in a two-layer structure is the presence of a weak link in the ligation of the angle of the walls, since not observed uniform distribution of the occurring stresses and effort from the upper level of the building floor slab structures, coatings, etc.
Obviously, for forming a load bearing part of the wall construction in General, it is advisable the use of heavy concrete in the hollow element and the installation of the reinforcement cage in the corner mate. Because of the different unwanting loading of the transmission load of the building element must have a different thickness longitudinal and transverse walls. This will lead to different thermal resistances for heat protection.
In industry building blocks produce mainly surround-making, casting molding and Stripping forms (patent RU №2157875, CL ES 1/00, publ. 20.10.2000, A.S. No. 509429, CL VV 1/50, publ. 04.05.1976. BI 13), the main disadvantage of which is the lack of plastic strength, VI is the radio partially destroys the crystalline structure of the mineral binder.
It is known that in the sandy concrete (compressive strength of B7-B15), especially when using hard mixes, cement grout is never enough to fill with excess melkozernistogo expanses of sand. Such concretes are classified as macroporous ("skinny") of concrete by reducing the homogeneity of the material and their use as load-bearing structures is not recommended.
The formation of the shell block of hard cement-sand mixtures is only surround-making, while at other ways of making building elements, in particular extrusion, due to the abrasiveness of the material cannot be used. After forming the shell is subjected to immediate removal and in her heart poured propuscheny concrete with a weight not less than 350 kg/m3based on traditional technology (patent RU №2030527, CL ES 3/30, publ. 10.03.1995).
The method of preparation of porous concrete includes dosing, mixing of the components and their Polisario (patent RU №2010021, CL SW 38/10, publ. 30.03.1994). Paritala through the gas in the process of preparation of the mixture creates conditions lightly managed reactions and the production of a material with unpredictable properties.
Famous line for the production of lightweight foamed concrete. The source components are mixed with foam in sacrametno the mixer periodic action (Patent RU №2136490, CL VV 15/00, publ. 10.09.1999). Most artificially created bubbles when mixing breaks down, the pores are open and, as a consequence, the foam will have a low Polisario, the deterioration in the characteristics vazduhoplovstvo and hardiness.
The author has set the goal of obtaining a building extrusion compensation block from the sandy concrete extrusion is a continuous process with high quality and performance. Postanovlenie task is solved in that the construction of the extrusion-compensation block (Eee-parts) contains a shell of dense sand concrete, separated by transverse diaphragms stiffness for three sections in the form of triangular prisms that are filled with a porous material is highly porous structural composition (VSC), which serves as thermodiamine. The shell unit and stiffening diaphragms have the same thickness. To exclude the abrasiveness of the slurry and increase the plasticity, protection from failure of the equipment to improve the homogeneity of the "skinny" sandy concrete mixtures, from which the molded shell (Eee-parts), was used air-entraining admixture - peck taly. Introduction this Supplement enables you to convert caused by a shortage of cement grout randomly located macropores to micropores uniformly raspredelenie the e volume of the product. The flow rate of the additive does not exceed 0.3 to 1.5% per cubic meter of sand concrete from cement mass. Along the way, the following activities were implemented:
- replaced the mixer with vertical shaft on the mixer with horizontal shafts and mixing in opposing flows; thereby compensated absence of coarse aggregate that when mixing the concrete mix involves neighboring layers, promoting mixing in microvolumes;
in the concrete mixer is applied in a circular water injection, which further improved the quality and reduced mixing time.
This system measures and a more thorough organization of work with sand-filler provided the required quality of products from the sandy concrete.
Picked up the sandy composition of the concrete for the production of the entire range of designs for possible application in low-rise construction.
Instead of the traditionally used fine sand (Mto=1,4) applied in the production of large forest (Mto=1,88); this allowed almost no increase in cement consumption.
The basis of extrusion of the compensation unit is a shell of high-strength sand concrete, which immediately after molding is filled with a highly porous structural composition (VSC) - based cement, water with the addition of 0.9 l/m3peck and water solution Proteus is and with a concentration of 0.75 to 0.9 wt.% in the amount of 3.2-6 l/m 3. Bulk VSC 150 kg/m3and above. Thus, in a single technological process is made a block with a bearing capacity sufficient for high-rise construction, and the appropriate regional requirements for thermal protection in accordance with SNiP P-3-79 "Construction firing". Parts warehouse-blocks can be produced with color, bump, chipped and cannelures outer face.
On the construction equipment market has a wide range of both domestic and imported technology for the production of sand concrete.
The proposed device for manufacturing parts warehouse
The proposed line for the production of extrusion-compensation block (Eee-parts) consists of the installation of preliminary preparation of the cement-sand mixture in accordance with the existing formula, including: bunker sand, cement bin, distribution water tank, mixing node, skip hoist, weigh batcher, cement, sand, water. More located in the technological sequence of the vacuum belt press QMS-28 (extruder), the cutting Assembly, stacker, generator, mixer cycloidal type, screw pump, the metering device.
The content of the present invention in the claimed technical solution is implemented as follows.
The proposed technology is practical possible to increase the strength of extrusion of the hollow beam (representing the load-bearing sand and concrete shell of the block parts warehouse).
Due to the developing high pressure in the cylinder of the extruder belt vacuum press QMS-28, the smooth surface of the nozzles in the production of hollow beams, thanks to the addition of sand in the cement-sand mixture, which forms on the entire surface of the product film that protects the timber from dehydration in the period of consolidation of cement-sand concrete, the conditions tormoznogo keeping products in cameras of heat treatment and natural drying.
The pressure belt vacuum pressure QMS-28 (extruder), reaches in the formation 28-29 kg/cm2. Eliminates dust in the production process, expanding the boundary of the raw materials used by the chemical and physical composition, reduced construction and operating costs, and with it the cost of finished products.
The technical result achieved by the invention consists in obtaining the set of unified thermally protected products, house-building systems, primarily for low-rise construction and precast-monolithic construction, using a single extrusion sizes-compensation blocks for a wide range of climatic conditions, improved quality due to precision Assembly. While the complexity of masonry walls fast the erected wall blocks (Eee-parts) 6-10 times lower compared with the brickwork. Due to the high strength and frost resistance eliminates the need for plastering or subsequent costly lining.
Thermodiamine built so that a significant portion of its perimeter (up to 80%) goes and hides in the plane of the suture pair, thereby providing thermal insulation of the parts warehouse, and all seams mates around the perimeter, eliminating difficult-to-remove heat loss (thermal bridges) in the spans of walling above window and door openings.
The technical result in the claimed device can be achieved by setting the detective in the mouthpiece of the extruder QMS-28, opens wide the possibility of obtaining various items (Eee-parts), because the extruder can be produced (along with hollow beam) solid front, ordinary, with a cutout for door and window openings, longitudinal, front halves of the cover concrete lintels and zones of floor slabs transverse halves, ensuring the mobility of the production itself. Thermodiamine in the parts warehouse is made in the form of three hollow formations, which are filled with highly porous structural composition (VSC) based on cement weight > 150 kg/m3in the dry state. Filling is performed after cutting the hollow extrusion beam on the sample sizes of blocks.
Clutches of such e is of the elements is carried out in two rows. The ligation is carried out by installing a "bonder" block. To eliminate potential cold bridges masonry is carried out on cement glue and has a minimum thickness of 1.5-2 mm. Perception loads walling walls of its own weight and other loads in the block is carried out by shell and diaphragm. Achieving high performance thermal insulation properties of the block is provided with thermodiamine of the high structure of the composition due to the large artificially developed porous structure formed during supplementation: protein and taly while in the cement slurry.
A barrier to penetration and accumulation in the process of operation of condensate moisture is the membrane separating diaphragm stiffness and thermodiamine, eliminating completely the air convection inside the block.
Grade of concrete loadbearing concrete shell parts warehouse depending on project specifications can be M15-M 400. Not changing technology, you can produce units of ordinary and front facing (color, cannelure and chopped, for natural stone). Wall material with such characteristics replaces the three-layer wall. It is suitable for the construction of buildings up to five floors and, of course, to fill the intermediate spaces of frame houses as the building envelope and not requiring the x additional protection (plaster and decorative finishes.
The main advantages of the walls of the proposed units: low cost, calibrated sizes of the block and the usual technology of masonry, not different from the normal erection of the brick walls. In block virtually no cold bridges, if the clutch is on the cement glue.
A wall made of blocks of thickness 38-40 cm, has a reduced thermal resistance R0=3.0 to 3.6 m2°S/W. By modern technological standards this is sufficient for most Russian regions.
The technology of extrusion of the compensation unit (Eee-parts) - wall stone GOST 6133-84.
The invention relates to technology Eee-parts of sand and concrete with the required indicators of the strength, thermal resistance for different conditions of operation, the quality of prefabricated elements when the device protecting and supporting structures of buildings, the use of a single standard sizes, lower construction costs, reduced consumption of materials and labor.
The proposed solution includes the introduction of an additive in the cement-sand mixture, with appropriate indicators of water-cement ratio, to ensure the plasticity of the cement dough, forming a hollow beam produced by the extruder; introducing the cement mixture as an additive highly oristic compositions regulation of the rheological properties of the mixture.
The preparation of the molding composition of the cement-sand mixture is mechano-chemical method in the mixer and belt vacuum press QMS-28 (extruder).
Mechano-chemical method can be classified as new, in which the molding mixture in the first stage acquires plasticity by introducing air entraining additives under stirring.
Established that the equivalent source data ratio of cement, water, sand in the mixture, determining process parameters that affect the process of plasticity, mobility mass is additive taly pitch according to GOST 29289 - product-chemical processing according to GOST 28670-90. According to the classification GOST 12.1.007-76 taly peck belongs to class IV - low hazard chemical products.
As a result of complex research developed prescription-technological parameters of production Peschanoye, which is the basic structural shell (hollow bar) extrusion compensation products parts warehouse (building stones) table 1.
|№ №||Status indicators||Example 1||Example 2||Example 3||Example 4 (comparative is first)|
|1||Cement HRC 400, D-20 kg||350||350||350||350|
|2||Sand (Mto1,88), kg||1400||1400||1400||1400|
|4||Taly peck, g||1050||5250||3500||-|
|5||Taly peck, 6% from the masses. cement||0,3||1,5||1,0||-|
|8||Sediment cone, cm||10||9||8||3,5|
The appearance of the building block parts warehouse shown in the drawing.
The shell is manufactured as follows. As a mineral binder use cement as the siliceous component of the used sand with fineness modulus Mtonot less of 1.88. From accumulating the bunkers through the dispensers sand and cement is delivered into the mixer cycloidal type with two horizontal necroposting shafts, rotating in opposite threads. There through the metering device serves taly peck and water. In the mixer is mixing of all components. Then the mixture on the conveyor enters the aggregate belt vacuum press (extruder), for example, QMS brand-28, in which the extrusion molding of hollow beams at pre-set potatobased elements in the mouthpiece. The pressure belt vacuum pressure QMS-28, reaches in the formation of the beams 28 and 29 kg/cm2. The generated beam of size 400×188×200 mm, with the thickness of the shell and the diaphragm 19 mm, comes in many-cutter, which cuts at the same time it 10 blocks. After separation units arrive on site filling highly porous structural composition (VSC). Packing of finished units produced by the manipulator in cassettes, which are then sent to an area of natural or forced drying.
The method of preparation (VSC) highly porous structural composition
Porous material (VSC) to fill the building block parts warehouse is prepared as follows. In sealed containers under pressure while mixing cement, water and taly peck prepare cement-water slurry. Separately in other closed containers prepared under excessive the pressure and while stirring the liquid foam from the air and an aqueous solution of protein. The obtained cement-water slurry under pressure serves into the suction cavity of the centrifugal pump (ejector). Simultaneously with the cement slurry into the suction cavity of the centrifugal pump (ejector) through the dispenser serves liquid foam comprising an aqueous solution of protein and air, which is a regulator and compressed air. When the output of the pump (ejector) air bubbles "straightened" because of a reverse pressure differential. Ready porous mixture has closed pores, which significantly improves performance on water absorption and frost resistance. The use of additives in the VSC allows you to get fairly stable poluotvorenog weight within 5-10 minutes with evenly distributed air pore diameter of 0.1-1 mm, occupying 20-90% of the volume of the material. This reduction is achieved technological humidity not exceeding by weight of 10%, and that is especially important for porous material, reduction of 1.5-2 times of shrinkage deformation. The proposed technology can be obtained VSC with any given density from 150 to 1050 kg/m3by changing the water / cement ratio (W/C) in the range 0.6 to 0.9.
Table 2 provides information on the composition and properties of VSC.
|№ №||1 m 3indicators||Example 1||Example 2||Example 3|
|1||Cement PC-100, D-20 kg||159||300||120|
|3||Peck taly, l/m3||0,9||0,9||0,9|
|5||The concentration of the aqueous solution of protein, wt.%||0,9||0,75||0,75|
The word "compensation" determines the possibility of using a building block in the enclosing and supporting building structures (walls, elements of artificial overlap and cover by Tauris beams) to compensate due to the homogeneous structure of the membrane unit and the diaphragm resulting voltage from perceived stress, the presence of a block thermodiamine (placeholder VSC) allows to compensate the vector is of radiant (0° With isotherms) alternating temperatures, keep it almost (taking into account thermal resistance) in the outer and middle parts of the building block, excluding fully frost delamination and peeling. In addition, at the stage of preparation of cement-sand mixture taking into account the input of the additive - pitch in the mixer with two horizontal necroposting shafts opposite rotation is compensated in hard mixes the lack of cement grout excluding cost overruns main binder of cement.
The word "cycloalkyl horizontal mixer determines the ability of equipment to operate in a cyclic mode, depending on the parameters of plasticity of the mixture with different physical characteristics.
1. Building block comprising a shell of dense sand and concrete core of porous material based on cement, characterized in that it is made of extrusion-compensation method with the cavity of the shell, separated by transverse diaphragms stiffness for three sections in the form of triangular prisms, in the raw material mixture to produce a dense sand concrete used sand with fineness modulus of not less than 1,88 and to ensure the ductility of cement-sand concrete during molding is also used taly peck in the amount of 0.3 to 1.5% by weight of Portland cement and raw CME is ü to obtain a porous material contains, per 1 m3mix: Portland - 159-300 kg, taly peck - 0,9 l and an aqueous solution of the protein concentration of 0.75 to 0.9 wt.%, in the amount of from 3.2 to 6.0 liters, with this building block has the same thickness of the shell unit and diaphragm stiffness.
2. A method of manufacturing a membrane unit (Eee-parts) according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture of the starting components produced in the mixer cycloidal type with two horizontal necroposting shafts opposite rotation, which is applied in a circular water injection and molding of the shell block is produced by extrusion for vacuum belt press.
3. The preparation method of porous material for filling the casing unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the cement slurry mixed with talovym peck and served under positive pressure into the suction cavity of the centrifugal pump (ejector) simultaneously with cooked under pressure in a mixture consisting of air and an aqueous solution of protein.
FIELD: construction, particularly two-layer facing panels used for decorative civil and industrial building facing.
SUBSTANCE: facing building member comprises concrete monolithic body having facing layer of regular or irregular shape. Both layers are formed of semi-dry materials. Fine filler used for constructional layer is quartz sand and keramzite sand with gradation factor of 1.1-2.8. Coarse filler is milled keramzite gravel having particle dimensions of 5-10 mm. Facing layer includes Portland cement M500. said components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): constructional layer in semidry state: Portland cement 20-35, keramzite sand 5-37, quartz sand - 0-37, milled keramzite gravel - 5-45, remainder is water; facing layer in semidry state: Portland cement 15-30, sand 60-75, remainder is water. The second building member variant is also disclosed.
EFFECT: improved constructional and decorative properties, extended range of building members application due to creation of two building member variants, increased quality and service characteristics.
4 cl, 11 ex
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacturing reinforced polystyrene-concrete mix contains, kg/m3: Portland cement 160-170, foamed granulated polystyrene 15-17, basalt fiber 0.50-0.70, saponified wood tar, plasticizing supplement 0.4-0.5, polyacrylamide 0.40-0.60, lignopan B-2 0.35-0.50, and water 50-55. Reinforced polystyrene-concrete mix consists in mixing components of mix so that foamed polystyrene, basalt fiber, and additives introduced together with part of tempering water are mixed preliminarily, after which Portland cement is added at stirring, stirring is continued for 5-15 sec and, after addition of water, mix is stirred for further 25-40 sec. Articles are manufactured from polystyrene-concrete mix using volume vibration compaction to degree of compression 8-15 kg/cm2.
EFFECT: simplified mix preparation procedure, increased strength of articles, improved heat-insulation properties and frost resistance thereof, and reduced their vapor permeability and water absorption.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to product reinforced concrete articles, for instance floor slabs or framing structure panels for industrial and civil buildings, preferably for high-story ones.
SUBSTANCE: method for article production by serial layer pouring in retained form involves pouring the first fine concrete layer; leveling the mix in horizontal plane to provide the first layer surface flushing with the first bead of retained form; laying the first layer longitudinal reinforcement bars on the first bead; pouring heat-insulation layer of light-weight concrete in plane parallel to that of the first layer; leveling heat-insulation layer in horizontal plane so that heat-insulation layer surface is flush with the second retained form bead; laying the second layer longitudinal reinforcement bars on the second bead; pouring the second fine concrete layer on heat-insulation layer; leveling the mix in horizontal plane so that it is flush with retained form edge; performing simultaneous vibroforming of all layers and leaving the layers as they are for mix setting. During mix pouring retained form is put in rigid surface casing. To provide total concrete body air-tightness after mix leveling in horizontal plane and to provide mix flushing with upper retained form edge terminal retained form layer is laid in retained form. Form joints are sealed, for instance by welding, adhering, edge turning or any another well-known method.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation properties, increased article service life and reliability.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to product reinforced concrete articles, for instance floor slabs or framing structure panels for industrial, civil and other building erection.
SUBSTANCE: method for article production mainly of rigid cement mixes and including at least one heat-insulation layer of light-weight concrete and at least two fine concrete layers involves pouring the first fine concrete layer in the first form part; leveling the mix in horizontal plane to provide the first layer surface flushing with form edge; covering the first layer surface with glass tissue layer; adding the second form part in upward form direction; pouring light-weight concrete layer so that light-weight concrete layer is parallel to the first one; covering light-weight concrete layer surface with glass tissue layer; adding the third form part in upward direction; performing simultaneous vibroforming of all layers and leaving the layers as they are for mix setting; stripping the form from ready panel.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation properties, increased uniformity of article thickness along with increased article strength necessary to erect high buildings or buildings having different number of stories without the use of additional structural members.
FIELD: construction, particularly all-purpose buildings, namely structures to prevent fire and combustion product spread from burning room or fire site compartment to other rooms.
SUBSTANCE: fire building block comprises outer layers of fine concrete and heat-insulation core layer of light-weight porous concrete. Outer layers define closed shell enclosing the core layer. Pipes with three-way valves are inserted through outer layer to communicate core layer with vacuum-compression and water pipelines. Temperature sensor is installed on outer surface of outer layer. The temperature sensor sends signals to each three-way valve to lock one pipe and to communicate core layer with vacuum-compression pipeline through another pipe to evacuate air therefrom to increase heat transfer resistance. As fire occurs pipe is brought into communication with water pipeline to fill core layer with water for building block cooling. After fire liquidation pipe is communicated with vacuum-compression pipeline for core layer drying. Method for fire building block production and fire-proofing wall structure erection are also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased fire protection.
4 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of building walls having necessary thermal resistance for different usage environment.
SUBSTANCE: building member is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped provided with slots made in building member faces. Each building member face surface has relief projections forming parallel ridges with slots to be filled with mortar. Each ridge is joined with other ridges formed on surfaces of adjacent faces along ridge edges so that united ridge is created around building member perimeter. The united ridge has longitudinal section parallel to one vertical face. Each face surface has at least two parallel ridges spaced equal distances from face edges. Wall erection method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: provision of uniform strength, improved manufacturability, increased heat-shielding properties of wall to be erected along with increased technological efficiency of the masonry, decreased wall thickness and decreased mortar usage.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly multilayered building blocks and composite stones used for building and building structure wall erection.
SUBSTANCE: building block comprises outer gas-tight layer and porous core. Outer main surface of the block has drainage means, temperature sensor, namely bimetal plate, and solar battery. Vacuum pump actuated by solar battery and water accumulation vessel is installed between outer and inner surfaces of the block. Pump has pipes. One pipe connects the pump with porous core, another one connects pump with orifice made in outer block surface. Water accumulation vessel comprises pipes. One pipe communicates the vessel with water drainage means, another one connects the vessel with porous block core and is provided with valve controlled by bimetal plate. If ambient temperature is less than room temperature bimetal plate provides valve installation closed position. If ambient temperature is greater than room temperature bimetal plate provides valve installation opened position.
EFFECT: increased operational capabilities.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly means to protect building against radon and other ground gases, for instance multilayered building blocks used for radon-protective foundation base and wall panel production.
SUBSTANCE: vented building block comprises box member and porous filler arranged on box member bottom. The filler has air-discharge orifices. The box is monolithic and is formed of concrete material mainly based on rigid cement mixes. Box interior is filled with porous filler. Two one-way valve assemblies are built in main box face layer so that the valve assemblies permit air passage inside the box provided with porous filler. One one-way valve assembly opens valves in the case of increased ambient air pressure, another one opens valves in the case of decreased ambient air pressure. Radon-protective system is also disclosed.
EFFECT: provision of load-bearing capabilities and ground gas discharge from basement into atmosphere.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly heat-insulation materials used for all-purpose building frame filling structure erection.
SUBSTANCE: heat-insulated modular structure comprises multilayered shell defining inner cavity and made as plastered reinforced net. Filler is placed in the cavity. The shell is made as rectangular parallelepiped with height h equal to b or 2b, where b is parallelepiped width. Parallelepiped length is equal to b, 2b or 4b. The shell is covered with air-tight heat-shrinkable film. Modular structure comprises stiffening members made as ribs extending along diagonal lines connecting cavity corners and crossing each other. The ribs are provided with slots formed in rib centers to insert the ribs one into another to connect the ribs in cross structure.
EFFECT: facilitation of structure sides mating, increased efficiency of heated building and building structure space filling, improved rigidity and manufacturability, as well as storage and transportation ability.
3 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: air conditioning, particularly laminated building blocks used for building wall erection and having properties facilitating dust removal from ambient air passing into building.
SUBSTANCE: filtering building block for load-bearing wall enclosure erection comprises outer concrete layers formed of material mainly based on rigid cement mixes and porous layer arranged in-between. Porous layer is located in sealed cavity defined by outer concrete layer. Inlet and outlet orifices are made in opposite cavity sides. The inlet and outlet orifices are communicated with two chambers located near porous layer. The first chamber is provided with one-way valve assembly so that if ambient air pressure increases the valves are brought into opened state. The second chamber has one-way valve assembly and opens the valves if ambient air pressure decreases.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation and sound-proofing properties of filtering building block used in load-bearing building structure.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building members, particularly building stones.
SUBSTANCE: building stone includes membrane walls with heat-reflecting screen and microscopic venting orifices and member sealing air slot along perimeter. Building stone is composed of regularly alternating caps connected one to another with cement mortar. Each cap is made as membrane wall with single-sided framing member extending along periphery thereof. Framing member is stamped as a single whole with membrane wall. Joining surface of framing member end is parallel to membrane wall plane. Building stone end with opened slot is closed with membrane wall formed without framing member. Membrane wall is of 10-30 mm thickness, framing member width is 12-30 mm.
EFFECT: reduced manufacturing costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the gypsum composition made of hardened gypsum and to a method for its preparing. The composition made of hardened gypsum comprises the bound matrix unbroken phase made of hardened gypsum having the enhanced volume of empty spaces from water, and/or the indicated composition is prepared from a mixture showing the enhanced ratio of water to calcined gypsum at least 3:1. Also, invention describes an article comprising composition made of hardened gypsum. Invention provides preparing nonshrinking composition of hardened gypsum with reduced density, improved insulating and/or acoustic properties.
EFFECT: improved preparing method and properties of composition.
21 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly retainer form to erect walls of cast-in-place frame residential or industrial building.
SUBSTANCE: retained form set comprises outer and inner blocks formed of thermoplastic composite material and plate-like bridges to connect outer and inner blocks one to another. Each outer and inner block has vertical dovetail extension formed on one end surface and mating dovetail groove created in another end surface thereof. Facing surfaces of outer and inner blocks are provided with vertical rows of dovetail grooves and extensions extending for the full block height. Inner surface of each inner and outer block has cavities opened from tops thereof and defined by inner and outer side walls correspondingly. Cavities have depths equal to at least plate-like bridge thickness. The plate-like bridges have orifices for receiving vertical extension created from cavity side. Extension height exceeds cavity depth. Opposite, lower, surface of each block is provided with blind holes coaxial to above orifices. Blind holes have depths exceeding extension heights. Longitudinal facets are formed on outer block faces arranged in upper block parts. Longitudinal extension is created in lower block parts and adapted to enclose joint plane by another, lower, block. Building wall erection method with the use of above retained form set is also disclosed.
EFFECT: possibility to erect wall of any texture, color and finishing.
2 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for well wall erection with the use of retained form during residential and public building construction.
SUBSTANCE: concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Through orifice is made in bed. Orifice length in longitudinal stone direction exceeds double thickness of header wall. Opposite header faces are provided with through grooves or openings. In accordance with the second embodiment the concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Two or more through orifices are made in bed and transversal diaphragms are arranged in inner hole between the orifices. Opposite header faces and diaphragms are provided with through grooves or openings.
EFFECT: increased reliability, strength and integrality of bond between retained form and hardened concrete.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly building units used for building wall erection.
SUBSTANCE: building unit is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with length/width ratio of 1:2 and comprises stretcher, header and bed faces. Upper face is provided with rectangular extensions, lower face is provided with corresponding depressions. Lock connection members, namely dovetail extensions and dovetail depressions are formed on the faces. Mechanical solid concrete or polymeric concrete coating is created on front face. Dovetail depressions similar to that of the lock connection members are created on inner face. Some units have decorative coating formed on one face and on front face of each unit. Two steel L-shaped anchors are built in the unit.
EFFECT: increased assemblage simplicity and quality, reduced time of building envelope assemblage, reduced binding agent consumption, increased heat insulation properties of building envelope, increased building appearance and extended range of technological capabilities.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to fill cavities in articles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding article having at least one cavity by conveyer; providing filling station; positioning the article under vessel with filling material as viewed in vertical plane; filling the cavity with filling material along with simultaneously shaking the article; removing the article with filled cavity from the filling station by conveyer. Filling material is pumped under pressure created by rotor blades. The rotor is installed in the vessel. Filling material poured in the cavity is stirred and simultaneously compacted by pressure application during cavity filling or after filling operation termination. Filling station comprises vessel with filling material made as supply bunker, conveyer to move trays each having one article arranged in the tray, compacting means adapted to fill cavity with filling material under pressure. The compacting means has at least one rotor with guiding blades installed in vessel. The blades are secured to at least one cantilever holder and provide supply of filing material to at least one cavity of the article.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of hollow block filling.
15 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly building blocks adapted to erect walls of low buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: building block comprises engagement means and is made as monolithic body having cavity opened into block surface. The engagement body is made as tubular member. Central part of tubular member has length enough for tubular member grasping by user's hand or by engagement means of vehicle. The tubular member passes through above cavity and is parallel to block base. Remainder part of tubular member is built in block body, tubular member ends passes through one side surfaces of the block and are closed. Tubular member is made of transparent material and filled with liquid containing air bubble submersed in liquid. Tubular member may be filled with non-freezable liquid and surface thereof may be provided with marks. Tubular member ends passing through side surface may have nipples.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability along with simplified production.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building units to erect walls characterized by increased resistance to breaking.
SUBSTANCE: building member comprises rectangular concrete body and reinforcing frame. Concrete body is formed of class B60-B90 concrete. Reinforcing frame is composed of two reinforcing members having rectangular sections and of at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member. The reinforcing members having rectangular cross-sections are flush with inner side of building member and extend to edges thereof. The V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member ends are fixedly secured to one reinforcing member having rectangular section. Top thereof faces outer side of building member. In accordance to the second embodiment building member comprises one reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section and at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member having top fixedly secured to reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section.
EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking, reduced metal consumption and simplified structure.
17 cl, 15 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to erect wall frames and inner walls, door assemblies, suspended ceilings, grids, fences and so on.
SUBSTANCE: building block is formed of wood and is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with tie members made as projections and grooves. Projections and grooves are created in edges to be connected. Side edges of the block are provided with alternating ridges and valleys. Ridge height hr is 0.5-1.5 mm. Block width bb is greater than groove width bg by 0.3-1.7 mm. Ridges and valleys may be parallel to longitudinal block axis, transversal to longitudinal block axis or extend at an angle thereto. Ridge may have triangular or trapezoid cross-section.
EFFECT: possibility to compensate inaccuracies of modular wooden building block fabrication.
7 cl, 6 dwg