Liquid-propellant rocket engine

FIELD: aircraft industry; rocketry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of liquid-propellant rocket engines. Proposed liquid-propellant rocket engine without afterburning of generator gas contains regenerative cooling chamber 1, turbopump set 2 with gas generator 3 to drive turbine 4, two flow rate controls and two nozzles 9, 10 installed in pressure main lines 11, 12 of pumps of turbopump set 2. Sensing elements of spools 5, 6 of controls communicate through pipelines with inputs of nozzles 9, 10 and their minimum sections. According to invention servo-actuate restrictor 14 of control, playing the part of thrust control, installed in feed main line 12 of one of propellant components into gas generator 3. Restricting element of servo-actuated restrictor 14 communicates through pipeline 21 with pressure main line 12 of pump of said component after nozzle 10, and pipeline 22 delivering second component into gas generator 3 is connected with pressure main line 11 of pump of said component after servo-actuated restrictor 13 of control playing the part of propellant components flow rate ratio control.

EFFECT: improved energy-mass ratios of engine, provision of constant propellant components flow rate through engine and thrust irrespective of ratio of components passing through engine.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the design of liquid-propellant rocket engines (LPRE) and can be used in the rocket engine.

The engines of the upper stages of rockets relatively small thrust of order 2÷4 TC are often conducted with turbopump feed system for an open energy scheme (without afterburning gas generator).

In these engines the combustion chamber is made usually with the path (paths) regenerative cooling one or both fuel components.

However, due to the large height of the nozzle chamber (large cooling surface) under cooling with comparatively small expenditure of fuel components in the camera may receive significant heating fuel component in the cooling channel.

Currently, the world's leading engine company began research on the possibility of creating LRE for clean pair of fuel: liquid oxygen, liquefied natural gas (LNG) (methane). Design-analytical study showed, and the results of model experiments confirmed one aspect of the behavior of LNG in the path of the regenerative cooling of the camera - the presence of a phase transition of liquefied natural gas from liquid to vapor, which in principle will lead to changes in the hydraulic resistance of the tract in the process of working the s engine. Considering the fact that the location of the phase transition may vary along the length of the cooling channel, depending on thermal condition of the structural elements of the camera at different times inclusions engine and pauses between transmissions, the value of the hydraulic resistance of the cooling channel can vary from inclusion to inclusion. Under the existing regulatory systems LRE based on the use of pressure regulators (the constant-pressure fuel components at the entrance to the camera), this will change in the flow rate of one of the fuel components with a corresponding change in the values of thrust and costs of the components of fuel through the engine.

Nevertheless, the basic engine performance (thrust, specific impulse, the cost of fuel components) and magnitude of their deviation from the nominal values affect the performance of the whole rocket as a whole and considered in the design of tanks, missiles and their refueling propellant (Vincelli, Dauphin and other Pneumatic-hydraulic system propulsion systems, liquid rocket engines. M., engineering, 1978, Chapter 4.2).

It is also known that in the construction of rocket engines for various purposes are widely used flow regulators. The principle of operation of the flow regulator based on maintaining the constancy of the value of supplies is Yes liquid (fuel component) in any line. As the command signal for the Executive body (servopress) controller can be used in the differential pressure sensitive (throttling) the element that is installed in the fuel line. To conserve the flow rates of the tract as a sensitive element can be used tapering (confused) plot nozzle nozzle, made for example as a Venturi tube (Gun and other Construction and design of liquid propellant rocket engines. M., engineering, 1989, rise).

Known also taken for the prototype, liquid rocket engine containing chamber regenerative cooling, turbopump Assembly with the gas generator turbine drive unit, two flow regulator and two nozzle nozzle installed in the discharge lines of the pump turbopump Assembly, with the sensitive elements spools regulators reported by pipelines with the entrances to the nozzles and their smallest cross-sections (Gao and other Construction and design of liquid propellant rocket engines. M., engineering, 1989, RES, a).

Specified engine has a lower energy-and-mass characteristics due to increased hydraulic resistance of the path of feed of one of the components of the fuel in the chamber, which has serotonal one of the regulators supplies is Yes. In addition, the control system of the engine of the prototype maintains the high accuracy of the magnitude of the thrust chamber and the ratio of the expenditure components of fuel through the chamber, with a range of values of engine thrust and costs of components through the engine increases when the change in the value of the total consumption of fuel components through the gas generator turbine drive unit.

To address these shortcomings in the proposed motor serotonal controller that performs the function of traction control, installed in the line of feed of one of the components of the fuel in the gas generator, and a throttling element servopress reported by the pipeline on the discharge line of the pump of this component nozzle after the nozzle, and a supply line of the second component in the gas generator in communication with the pressure line of the pump of this component after servopress controller that performs a control function of the ratio of the expenditure components of fuel through the engine.

Such embodiment allows the engine to solve the following tasks:

1. Improve energy-and-mass characteristics of the engine by reducing the hydraulic resistance of the pressure line of one of the propellant components and a corresponding increase in the specific impulse of the engine by reducing p the losses drive the turbine of the turbopump Assembly (TNA).

2. Ensure consistency of values of the cost components of fuel through the engine and not through the camera, i.e. the constancy of engine thrust and costs of the components of fuel through the engine.

3. Is independent of the values of engine thrust and costs of components through him from possible changes in values of hydraulic resistance paths regenerative cooling chamber and costs of components in the gas generator turbine drive unit TNA.

On the accompanying drawing shows the design of the inventive liquid-propellant rocket engine.

The engine includes a camera 1 of regenerative cooling, turbopump unit 2 generator 3 drive turbine 4, two flow regulator with spools 5, 6, using as a command signal, the differential pressure tapering sections 7, 8 nozzle nasdaw 9, 10, installed in the pressure lines 11, 12 pump turbopump Assembly, and servomaster 13 regulator's costs of fuel components in the engine is installed in the main line 11 filing of one of the fuel components (oxidant) nozzle after the nozzle, serotonal 14 draft regulator installed in the line 12 of the second component feed fuel into the gas generator, moreover, the selection of this component in serotonal done what is the pipe 21 from the discharge side of the pump nozzle after the nozzle, and the selection of the first component of the fuel in the gasifier - line 22 after servopress 13 regulator's costs of fuel components in the engine.

When the engine is at steady state pocketcache the intake valves 16, 17 are open. The components of the fuel from the tanks of the rocket comes in a pump turbopump Assembly 2. Pressure components increases and they come through the floating highways 11, 12 in the engine parts: chamber 1 and the gas generator 3 drive turbine 4 turbopump Assembly 2. Pocketcache valves 15, 19 of the camera 1 are open. The components of the fuel pass through the paths of regenerative cooling chamber 1, where it is cooled firing chamber wall and through the open valves 18, 19 are received in the cavity of the nozzle of the camera head 1.

Almost all expense components of the fuel flowing into the engine, passes through the flow-through portion of the nozzle nasdaw 9, 10: oxidizer through nozzle 9, the fuel through nozzle 10. In the flowing part of nozzle nasdaw components fuel tapering (confused) sections 7, 8 are dispersed (the static pressure decreases), and expanding (diffuser) sites are inhibited (the static pressure increases).

Spools 5, 6 use the magnitude of the pressure differential components are generated on the tapering sections 7, 8 nozzle nasdaw 9, 10 as a command signal is Ala Executive bodies (serotonina 13, 14) dampers and cost ratio of components in the engine. In the manufacture of spools are configured for a certain differential pressure on his sensitive element (piston, diaphragm or bellows), so if the engine is the value of the differential pressure on the tapering sections of the nozzle, the nozzle is changed, the valve issue the command to move the movable elements of servopress in the right direction.

For example, if the flow through the fuel pump due to the increased hydraulic resistance of the path of the cooling chamber 1 is decreased, decreasing the value of the differential pressure of fuel on the tapering section 8 nozzle nozzle 10. The spool 6 senses this change and reduces the fuel consumption in the control cavity servopress 14. The fuel pressure in the control cavity servopress 14 decreases. The moving parts of servopress 14 is moved to open or increase the flow area). The flow of fuel through serotonal 14 in the gas generator 3 is increased. The gas flow from the gas generator 3 to the turbine 4 is increased. The number of revolutions of the rotor, pressure pumps and expenditure components through the pump turbopump unit 2 increase.

With increased flow of oxidant through a tapering section 7 nozzle nozzle 9, the pressure drop across the section 7 is increased. The spool 5 increased the AET flow rate of the oxidizer in the control cavity servopress 13. The movable elements of servopress 13 is moved to reduce the flow area. The flow of oxidizer into the chamber 1 is reduced.

After all transient mode of the engine, where the cost of fuel components, and hence its pull and cost components correspond to the specified values.

During all these changes, the pressure regulator 20 provides for the maintenance of the ratio between expenditure components in the gas generator 3.

As through the nozzles 9, 10 goes all the components flow of fuel into the engine, then change the values of the cost components in the gas generator 3 in the regulation of traction and ratio of components does not affect current values of engine thrust and costs of components through the engine.

Liquid propellant rocket engine without afterburning gas generator containing chamber regenerative cooling, turbopump Assembly with the gas generator turbine drive unit, two flow regulator and two nozzle nozzle installed in the discharge lines of the pump turbopump Assembly, with the sensitive elements spools regulators reported by pipelines with the entrances to the nozzles and their minimal sections, characterized in that serotonal controller that performs f is ncciu of traction control, installed in the line of feed of one of the components of the fuel in the gas generator, and a throttling element servopress reported by piping the discharge line of the pump of this component nozzle after the nozzle, and a supply line of the second component in the gas generator is connected with the pressure line of the pump of this component after servopress controller that performs a control function of the ratio of the expenditure components of fuel through the engine.



 

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